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1.
Morphologie ; 108(362): 100784, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696841

Resumo

Histology is part of the curricular base of all health courses, being the basis for understanding the composition of all tissues in the human body. Over the years, more and more technologies have entered the academic environment, with the aim of improving the teaching and learning process. Thus, the objective of this work was to conduct a systematic review on the use of digital technologies in teaching histology. The PICo strategy was used to develop the guiding question and the results were presented in a Prisma Flow. The following platforms were used to search for articles: PubMed, Embase. Web of Science, Science Direct, Medline, Scielo, Periódicos CAPES and LILACS, Open Gray and Google Scholar, with a time limit between 2012 and 2022. The results showed that this area is still little explored, with there not being a wide range of technologies being used and applied in teaching, with gamification and virtual microscopy being the most applied. However, it was realized that the use of these technologies can improve student performance and increase their interest in the subject. Therefore, these tools are great methods to reduce difficulties and encourage the development of a more receptive environment for the histology teaching and learning process.

2.
Climacteric ; 25(4): 407-412, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35440244

Resumo

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to verify the presence of polymorphism rs2165241 of the lysyl oxidase-like 1 (Loxl1) gene and its association with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) in Brazilian women and determine risk factors for POP development. METHODS: The study was previously approved by the local research and ethics board. Postmenopausal women were included and divided into POP (stages III and IV) and control (stages 0 and I) groups. Peripheral blood samples were collected, and the DNA sequence of interest was analyzed by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. We used logistic regression and considered a recessive model of inheritance for the analysis, with p < 0.05 for significance. RESULTS: A total of 836 women were assessed: 426 POP cases and 410 controls. The frequencies of CC, CT and TT genotypes were similar in both groups. Age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07; 1.14), number of vaginal births (OR = 17.06, 95% CI = 5.94; 48.97), family history (OR = 2.87, 95% CI = 1.57; 5.22) and weight of largest newborn (OR = 1.001, 95% CI = 1.0003; 1.001) were independent risk factors for POP, while multiple cesarean sections (two or more) was protective (OR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.07; 0.42). CONCLUSION: No association was detected between rs2165241 of the Loxl1 gene and POP.


Assuntos
Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico , Pós-Menopausa , Aminoácido Oxirredutases/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Pós-Menopausa/genética , Gravidez , Vagina
3.
Cryo Letters ; 43(6): 357-367, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629831

Resumo

BACKGROUND: Non-surgical artificial insemination techniques for sheep may benefit from larger numbers of sperm in the insemination dose because the ewe cervix is convoluted and often cannot be traversed with an insemination gun resulting in deposition of the sperm at the os cervix. OBJECTIVE: To compare a range of sperm concentrations when cryopreserving semen from Santa Ines rams and determine the effects of this on post-thaw quality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One ejaculate from each ram (n = 10) was diluted to four sperm concentrations to obtain the following groups: G-400, G-800, G-1200, and G-1600 x 106 sperm/mL. The semen samples were packaged in 0.25 mL straws, cooled to 5 degree C, cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen vapor, thawed in a water bath (40 degree C per 20 s), and were analyzed for computerized kinetics, capacitation and acrosome integrity, and plasma membrane integrity of sperm. RESULTS: The G-400 treatment resulted in samples with the highest linearity and progressive motion (P < 0.05) and had significantly greater plasma membrane integrity, and lower capacitation and acrosome reaction rates compared to G-1600 (P < 0.05). Overall, use of the G-400 treatment resulted in better kinetics, less plasma membrane damage and less early capacitation. However, despite reducing the ejaculate yield and increasing the costs of the semen freezing process, the G-800 and G-1200 treatments make a greater absolute number of sperm with good kinetics, plasma membrane integrity and capacitation status available. CONCLUSION: Ram sperm concentration impacts cryopreservation, and higher concentrations may be advantageous if a single artificial insemination protocol is desirable. doi.org/10.54680/fr22610110812.


Assuntos
Criopreservação , Preservação do Sêmen , Feminino , Masculino , Ovinos , Animais , Criopreservação/veterinária , Criopreservação/métodos , Sêmen , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Preservação do Sêmen/métodos , Motilidade dos Espermatozoides , Espermatozoides , Carneiro Doméstico
4.
Biodegradation ; 32(1): 17-36, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230597

Resumo

Anaerobic systems for domestic sewage treatment, like septic tanks and anaerobic filters, are used in developing countries due to favorable economic and functional features. The anaerobic filter is used for the treatment of the septic tank effluent, to improve the COD removal efficiency of the system. The microbial composition and diversity of the microbiome from two wastewater treatment systems (factory and rural school) were compared through 16S rRNA gene sequencing using MiSeq 2 × 250 bp Illumina sequencing platform. Additionally, 16S rRNA data were used to predict the functional profile of the microbial communities using PICRUSt2. Results indicated that hydrogenotrophic methanogens, like Methanobacterium, were found in higher abundance in both systems compared to acetotrophic methanogens belonging to Methanosaeta genus. Also, important syntrophic microorganisms (Smithella, Syntrophus, Syntrophobacter) were found in the factory and rural school wastewater treatment systems. Microbial communities were also compared between stages (septic tank and anaerobic filter) of each wastewater treatment stage, revealing that, in the case of the rural school, both microbial communities were quite similar most likely due to hydraulic short-circuit issues. Meanwhile, in the factory, microbial communities from the septic tank and anaerobic filter were different. The school system showed lower COD removal rates (2-30%), which were probably related to a higher abundance of Firmicutes members in addition to the hydraulic short-circuit and low abundance of Chloroflexi members. On the other hand, the fiberglass factory presented higher COD removal rates (60-83%), harboring phyla reported as the core microbiome of anaerobic digesters (Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Proteobacteria phyla). The knowledge of the structure and composition of wastewater treatment systems may provide support for the improvement of the pollutant removal in anaerobic process.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Biodegradação Ambiental , Reatores Biológicos , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
5.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(5): 4100-4108, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197850

Resumo

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main causative agents of food poisoning. This bacterium is an important component of cheese microbiota and plays an important role in foodborne diseases. Another important component of the microbiota is the lactic acid bacterium, which actively participates in processes that define the physicochemical, sensorial, and microbiological features of cheese. Of the various microbiological interactions in cheese, the interaction between lactic acid bacteria and Staph. aureus is most relevant. To this end, we evaluated the viability of Staph. aureus strains and the expression of their enterotoxins in cheeses produced experimentally, using Weissella paramesenteroides GIR16L4 or Lactobacillus rhamnosus D1 or both as starter cultures. Over 7 d, we observed that the presence of lactic acid bacteria did not impair Staph. aureus growth. However, via qPCR we observed a change in the gene expression of staphylococcal enterotoxins, suggesting that molecular communication exists between Staph. aureus strains and lactic acid bacteria in cheese.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Queijo/microbiologia , Enterotoxinas/metabolismo , Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Superantígenos/metabolismo , Weissella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Queijo/análise , Enterotoxinas/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus/metabolismo , Leite , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Superantígenos/genética , Transcriptoma , Weissella/metabolismo
6.
Bull Entomol Res ; 109(3): 325-332, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29973304

Resumo

Lipaphis erysimi (L.) Kaltenbach (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is one of the most important pests of brassica crops, mainly causing losses due to sap sucking, toxin injection and viral transmission. Knowledge about the main natural factors that regulate populations of this pest, as well as its critical mortality stage, is crucial for the development of integrated pest management of L. erysimi. Here, we determined the critical stage and key mortality factors for L. erysimi in cabbage using an ecological life table. Causes of mortality at each stage of L. erysimi development were monitored daily in the field for seven seasons. From the experimental data, we determined the key factor and critical stage of mortality through correlation and regression analyses. The nymphal stage, especially first instar nymphs, was critical for L. erysimi mortality. The key mortality factors were, in descending order of importance, physiological disturbances and predation by Syrphidae, Coccinellidae and Solenopsis ants. Therefore, control measures should target early stages of L. erysimi and the use of cabbage cultivars that have negative effects against L. erysimi may be a promising strategy for its management. Our results may be useful for plant geneticists who could develop new cabbage cultivars based on these findings. In addition, conservation measures of the main predators of L. erysimi may contribute to the natural control of this pest.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Brassica/parasitologia , Animais , Afídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Afídeos/parasitologia , Brasil , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Tábuas de Vida , Dinâmica Populacional , Comportamento Predatório
7.
Epidemiol Infect ; 145(7): 1392-1397, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28219454

Resumo

Pertussis is a worldwide acute respiratory disease caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Despite high vaccine coverage, the bacterium continues to circulate in populations and is still one of the most common vaccine-preventable diseases. In Brazil, pertussis incidence has presented a significant decrease since 1990 but since 2011 a sudden increase in incidence has been observed. Thus, the aim of this study was to perform a molecular epidemiological characterization of B. pertussis strains isolated in the Central-Western region (specifically in Distrito Federal) of Brazil from August 2012 to August 2014. During this period, 92 B. pertussis strains were isolated from the outbreaks. All strains were characterized by serotyping and XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles. From August to December 2012, the most prevalent serotype observed was 1,3 (13/17). During 2013 the prevalence of serotype 1,3 decreased (13/30) and from January 2014 to August 2014 the most prevalent serotype was 1,2 (33/45). Fourteen PFGE profiles were identified. Of these, BP-XbaI0039 prevalence increased from 3/17 in 2012 to 10/30 in 2013, and 35/45 in 2014. These results evidence the selection of a specific genetic profile during this period, suggesting the occurrence of a bacterial genomic profile with high circulation potential.


Assuntos
Bordetella pertussis/genética , Surtos de Doenças , Genótipo , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Prevalência , Sorogrupo , Sorotipagem , Coqueluche/microbiologia
8.
Genet Mol Res ; 16(2)2017 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28407190

Resumo

The aim of this study was to select morphoagronomic descriptors to characterize cassava accessions representative of Eastern Brazilian Amazonia. It was characterized 262 accessions using 21 qualitative descriptors. The multiple-correspondence analysis (MCA) technique was applied using the criteria: contribution of the descriptor in the last factorial axis of analysis in successive cycles (SMCA); reverse order of the descriptor's contribution in the last factorial axis of analysis with all descriptors ('O'´p') of Jolliffe's method; mean of the contribution orders of the descriptor in the first three factorial axes in the analysis with all descriptors ('Os') together with ('O'´p'); and order of contribution of weighted mean in the first three factorial axes in the analysis of all descriptors ('Oz'). The dissimilarity coefficient was measured by the method of multicategorical variables. The correlation among the matrix generated with all descriptors and matrices based on each criteria varied (r = 0.21, r = 0.97, r = 0.98, r = 0.13 for SMCA, 'Os', 'Oz' and 'O'´p', respectively). The least informative descriptors were discarded independently and according to both 'Os' and 'Oz' criteria. Thirteen descriptors were capable to discriminate the accessions and to represent the morphological variability of accessions sampled in Brazilian Eastern Amazonia: color of apical leaves, petiole color, color of stem exterior, external color of storage root, color of stem cortex, color of root pulp, texture of root epidermis, color of leaf vein, color of stem epidermis, color of end branches of adult plant, branching habit, root shape, and constriction of root.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Manihot/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Brasil , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Manihot/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Genéticos
9.
Biochim Biophys Acta ; 1850(6): 1150-7, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25512065

Resumo

BACKGROUND: Due to high optical absorption, triplet quantum yield and affinity to biological structures bichromophoric cyanine dyes (BCDs) can be considered promising sensitizers for application in photodynamic therapy (PDT). In this work, we report on the study of the BCD photocytotoxicity toward melanoma and normal cells in comparison with that of commercial photosensitizer Photogem®. METHODS: The cytotoxic and phototoxic effects were measured by standard tests of cell viability. The drug uptake was obtained by the flow cytometry and optical absorption techniques. The BCD intracellular distribution was obtained by the fluorescence image microscopy using specific organelle markers. RESULTS: Both drugs demonstrated increased cytotoxicity under irradiation, while in darkness their cytotoxic effect at concentrations lower than 20 µM after 24 h of incubation did not exceed 20%. For 5 h of incubation, BCD photocytotoxicity in relation to melanoma cells reached 100% already at concentrations below 5 µM, while for normal cells the effect did not exceed 70% even for the 20 µM concentration. It is shown that BCD penetrates into the cells and is located predominantly in perinuclear cytoplasmic structures. CONCLUSIONS: The BCD photosensitizing characteristics appear more adequate for application in PDT than that of the actually applied commercial photosensitizer Photogem®. Higher light absorption by BCD in the near IR region and its preferential localization in mitochondria can explain its high photocytotoxicity. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: BCD can be considered as a new promising photosensitizer class for cancer PDT.


Assuntos
Carbocianinas/farmacologia , Corantes Fluorescentes/farmacologia , Hematoporfirinas/farmacologia , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Animais , Carbocianinas/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Corantes Fluorescentes/metabolismo , Hematoporfirinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Melanoma Experimental/metabolismo , Camundongos , Permeabilidade , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Genet Mol Res ; 15(4)2016 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28081276

Resumo

Sorghum biomass is an interesting raw material for bioenergy production due to its versatility, potential of being a renewable energy source, and low-cost of production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability of biomass sorghum genotypes and to estimate genotypic, phenotypic, and environmental correlations, and direct and indirect effects of seven agronomic traits through path analysis. Thirty-four biomass sorghum genotypes and two forage sorghum genotypes were cultivated in a randomized block design with three replicates. The following morpho-agronomic traits were evaluated: flowering date, stem diameter, number of stems, plant height, number of leaves, green mass production, and dry matter production. There were significant differences at the 1% level for all traits. The highest genotypic correlation was found between the traits green mass production and dry matter production. The path analysis demonstrated that green mass production and number of leaves can assist in the selection of dry matter production.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Sorghum/genética , Meio Ambiente , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
11.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e265435, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36700592

Resumo

Sapindus saponaria L. (Sapindaceae) is a pioneer species used in programs to recover degraded areas. The trees also assist in the pest control of some insects due to the composition of saponins on their leaves. In addition, these chemical components are important to pharmaceutical product production. The objective was to evaluate the impact of spatial distribution, indices and ecological relationship of arthropods on S. saponaria leaves to preserve the balance of biodiversity. Aggregated distribution of arthropods was observed; the numbers of phytophagous arthropods were higher on the adaxial leaf face than on the abaxial part. Only Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera) had a higher presence on the abaxial leaf face of S. saponaria saplings. Abundance, diversity, and species richness of natural enemies correlated positively with phytophagous and pollinators insects. On the other hand, the number of Lyriomyza sp. mines correlated negatively with Pseudomyrmex termitarius (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). All this information can assist and guide integrated pest management programs.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Hemípteros , Sapindaceae , Sapindus , Saponaria , Animais , Insetos , Biodiversidade
12.
Neurochem Res ; 37(1): 23-30, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21842269

Resumo

Nucleotides and nucleosides play an important role in neurodevelopment acting through specific receptors. Ectonucleotidases are the major enzymes involved in controlling the availability of purinergic receptors ligands. ATP is co-released with several neurotransmitters and is the most important source of extracellular adenosine by catabolism exerted by ectonucleotidases. The main ectonucleotidases are named NTPDases (1-8) and 5'-nucleotidase. Adenosine is a powerful modulator of neurotransmitter release. Caffeine blocks adenosine receptor activity as well as adenosine-mediated neuromodulation. Considering the susceptibility of the immature brain to caffeine and the need for correct purinergic signaling during fetal development, we have analyzed the effects of caffeine exposure during gestational and lactational periods on nucleotide degradation and ectonucleotidase expression from the hippocampi of 7-, 14- and 21-days-old rats. Nucleotides hydrolysis was assessed by colorimetric determination of inorganic phosphate released. Ectonucleotidases expression was performed by RT-PCR. ATP and ADP hydrolysis displayed parallel age-dependent decreases in both control and caffeine-treated groups. AMP hydrolysis increased with caffeine treatment in 7-days-old rats (75%); although there was no significant difference in AMP hydrolysis between control (non caffeine-treated) rats and 14- or 21-days caffeine-treated rats. ADP hydrolysis was not affected by caffeine treatment. Caffeine treatment in 7- and 14-days-old rats decreased ATP hydrolysis when compared to the control group (19% and 60% decrease, respectively), but 21-days-treated rats showed an increase in ATP hydrolysis (39%). Expression levels of NTPDase 1 and 5 decreased in hippocampi of caffeine-treated rats. The expression of 5'-nucleotidase was not affected after caffeine exposure. The changes observed in nucleotide hydrolysis and ectonucleotidases expression could promote subtle effects on normal neural development considering the neuromodulatory role of adenosine.


Assuntos
Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Nucleotidases/metabolismo , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Sequência de Bases , Primers do DNA , Feminino , Hipocampo/enzimologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
13.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e254628, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35239787

Resumo

Insects' ethology is an important factor when it is desired to carry out pest management. This knowledge makes it possible to manipulate behavioral activities, repel, or attract insects according to needs and interests. The maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais (Mots., 1855) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), one of the main stored grain pests, has been the target of studies of behavioral changes studies through natural substances due to its resistance to different insecticidal classes. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of sublethal concentrations of neem extract and copaiba oil on the locomotor behavior of S. zeamais. The behavioral characteristic considered were walking activity, the frequency of contact of insects with the treated grain mass, and the time spent for this behavior. The walking activity of the S. zeamais increased with exposure to Neem extract and Copaiba oil. In general, the Neem extract and Copaiba oil-induced more contact with grain mass than the control, suggesting an attractive effect on the insect, however more significant for the Neem oil. The insect's behavior was altered, presenting a specific path due to Copaiba oil and Neem extract stimuli. These results indicate that Copaiba oil and Neem extract can be a potential alternative for controlling S. zeamais on stored products since changes in this pests' behavior can reduce qualitative and quantitative grain damage. Thus, the development of products based on Copaiba oil and Neem extract may be helpful for storage pest management.


Assuntos
Controle de Insetos , Inseticidas , Óleos Voláteis , Extratos Vegetais , Gorgulhos , Animais , Controle Comportamental , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Melia/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
14.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e253598, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35043835

Resumo

Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Malpighiales: Caryocaraceae) trees are widely distributed throughout the Cerrado ecosystem. The fruits of C. brasiliense trees are used by humans for food and as the main income source in many communities. C. brasiliense conservation is seriously threatened due to habitat loss caused by the land-use change. Sucking insects constitute an important ecological driver that potentially impact C. brasiliense survival in degraded environments. In addition, insects sampling methodologies for application in studies related to the conservation of C. brasiliense are poorly developed. In this study, sucking insects (Hemiptera) and their predators were recorded in three vertical strata of Caryocar brasiliense canopies. The distribution of sucking species showed vertical stratification along the canopy structure of C. brasiliense. The basal part of the canopy had the highest numbers of sucking insects Aphis gossypii (Glover 1877) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Bemisia tabaci (Genn. 1889) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), and their predators Chrysoperla sp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), spiders (Araneae), and Zelus armillatus (Lep. & Servi., 1825) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Predators' distribution follows the resource availability and preferred C. brasiliense tree parts with a higher abundance of prey.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Malpighiales , Animais , Ecossistema , Humanos , Insetos , Árvores
15.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e261227, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35976355

Resumo

The nutrient stress hypothesis predicts that galling insects prevail on host plants growing in habitats with soils of low nutritional quality. Caryocar brasiliense (Caryocaraceae) is host to four different leaf-galling insects. These insects have the potential to cause a reduction in the production of C. brasiliense fruits, an important source of income for many communities in Brazil. We studied the effects of soil physical and chemical characteristics on the abundance, species richness, and diversity of galling insects and their natural enemies on C. brasiliense trees growing under three different soil conditions. Our data corroborate the hypothesis that in nutritionally poor (e.g., lower phosphorus content) and worse physical textures (e.g., sandy) soils, host plants support higher species richness and diversity of galling insects. However, the abundance of Eurytoma sp. (the most common gall in C. brasiliense), was correlated with a higher phosphorus concentration in the soil (better nutritional condition). The percentage of galled leaflets and the area of leaflets occupied by Eurytoma sp galls were higher in the more fertile soil. In this soil, there was greater abundance, species richness, and diversity of parasitoids of Eurytoma sp. (e.g., Sycophila sp.) and predators (e.g., Zelus armillatus). Our data indicate the importance of habitat quality in the composition of the galling insect community and the impact of soil properties in mediating the distribution of these insects in C. brasiliense.


Assuntos
Malpighiales , Árvores , Animais , Biodiversidade , Insetos , Fósforo , Plantas , Solo
16.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e260721, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674588

Resumo

Forest restoration is mainly based on plant-soil relationships and plant species with economic potential, but those between insects and other arthropods are also important to this reestablishment. The objective was to evaluate, during 24 months, the relationships between tending ants, Hemiptera phytophagous, predators and their distribution pattern (aggregated, random or uniform). The arthropods were sampled, stored and identified and their relationships and distribution patterns calculated with the BioDiversity-Pro software. The number of tending ants and phytophagous Hemiptera, Brachymyrmex sp. and Aethalion reticulatum, Cephalotes and Aleyrodidae were positively correlated. Tending ants were negatively correlated with Sternorrhyncha predators on A. auriculiformis saplings. The distribution of arthropods was aggregated, except for Teudis sp. and Cephalocoema sp., with a random pattern. The herbivores Stereoma anchoralis, Aethalion reticulatum and Tetragonisca angustula and the predators Brachymyrmex sp. and Dolichopodidae were the most abundant arthropods. The relationships between the arthropods studied on A. auriculiformis indicate that this plant, even introduced, is suitable for programs to recover degraded areas in the savannah.


Assuntos
Acacia , Formigas , Artrópodes , Fabaceae , Hemípteros , Aranhas , Animais , Ecossistema , Insetos , Plantas
17.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e257975, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35588516

Resumo

Galling insects are abundant in nature, found in many ecosystems globally, with species attacking plants of economic importance. We studied the effects of free-feeding organisms on the abundance of galling insects on Caryocar brasiliense (Caryocaraceae) trees in the Brazilian Cerrado (Savanna). Percentage of defoliation and the number of phytophagous mites or number of phytophagous Hemiptera correlated negatively with percentage of galled leaves and the parasitoid Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) adults, respectively. Percentage of galled leaves and the numbers of Eurytoma sp. adults and phytophagous mites correlated positively with spiders. Numbers of mites and Hemiptera phytophagous correlated positively with those of lady beetles and Sycophila sp. (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), respectively. The number of Ablerus magistretti Blanchard (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) adults correlated negatively with Sycophila sp. The number of Agistemus sp. (Acari: Stigmaeidae) correlated, negatively and positively, with those of lady beetles and phytophagous mites, respectively. Free-feeding herbivores affected the presence of galling insects (Hymenoptera) on C. brasiliense trees, competing for food and space. The same was observed between two parasitoids of Eurytoma sp. galling insect, which can reduce the natural biological control of this pest.


Assuntos
Besouros , Hemípteros , Himenópteros , Malpighiales , Ácaros , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Pradaria , Humanos , Insetos , Plantas , Árvores
18.
Nitric Oxide ; 25(3): 331-7, 2011 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21704179

Resumo

Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent vasodilator and it can be generated by the ruthenium complex cis-[Ru(H-dcbpy(-))(2)(Cl)(NO(2)(-))] (DCBPY). The present study aimed to investigate the NO specie generated and to characterize the cellular mechanisms involved on the vasodilatation induced by DCBPY. It was found that at pH 7.4 and 9.4, the NO(+) coordinated to ruthenium (Ru-NO(+)) is converted to NO(2)(-) (Ru-NO(2)(-)), which remains stable. However, the configuration Ru-NO(+) is stable at pH 5.4. It was also verified that the DCBPY complex (Ru-NO(2)(-) configuration) induces vascular relaxation of contracted rat aortic rings in a concentration-dependent manner. Therefore, the potency (pD(2) values) and the maximum relaxant effect (ME) were compared. It was observed that relaxation is more pronounced to Ru-NO(+) configuration, compared with Ru-NO(2)(-), with no difference in ME. On the other hand, the potency of DCBPY (Ru-NO(2)(-)) is lower than that of SNP and higher than that of NITRITE, with no difference in ME for all the compounds. Further experiments were conducted using DCBPY in the Ru-NO(2)(-) configuration. It was noted that the relaxation induced by DCBPY is completely blocked by the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) enzyme inhibitor. The non-selective K(+) channel blocker (TEA) diminishes the potency of DCBPY, but it does not change the ME. Incubation with selective radicalar NO (NO()) and extracellular NO scavengers almost abolishes the relaxation induced by DCBPY. The use of a selective nitroxyl (NO(-)) scavenger decreases the potency of DCBPY, but it does not alter the ME. By using confocal microsopy, it was found that DCBPY, SNP, and NITRITE raise the cytosolic NO concentration and reduce the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration [Ca(2+)]c in rat aortic smooth muscle cells. These effects are not different when DCBPY and SNP are compared, but they are lower for NITRITE. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the compound DCBPY (Ru-NO(2)(-)) is an NO generator that promotes relaxation of rat aortic rings due to a reduction in [Ca(2+)]c. The vascular smooth muscle relaxation is dependent on sGC activation.


Assuntos
Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Compostos Organometálicos/farmacologia , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aorta/citologia , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Masculino , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/química , Compostos Organometálicos/síntese química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
19.
J Econ Entomol ; 104(6): 1909-17, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22299352

Resumo

The currently existing sample procedures available for decision-making regarding the control of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are time-consuming, expensive, and difficult to perform, compromising their adoption. In addition, the damage functions incorporated in such decision levels only consider the quantitative losses, while dismissing the qualitative losses. Traps containing ethanol, methanol, and benzaldehyde may allow cheap and easy decision-making. Our objective was to determine the economic injury level (EIL) for the adults of the coffee berry borer by using attractant-baited traps. We considered both qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the coffee borer in estimating the EILs. These EILs were determined for conventional and organic coffee under high and average plant yield. When the quantitative losses caused by H. hampei were considered alone, the EILs ranged from 7.9 to 23.7% of bored berries for high and average-yield conventional crops, respectively. For high and average-yield organic coffee the ELs varied from 24.4 to 47.6% of bored berries, respectively. When qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the pest were considered together, the EIL was 4.3% of bored berries for both conventional and organic coffee. The EILs for H. hampei associated to the coffee plants in the flowering, pinhead fruit, and ripening fruit stages were 426, 85, and 28 adults per attractive trap, respectively.


Assuntos
Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Feromônios/farmacologia , Animais , Ácido Benzoico/farmacologia , Brasil , Café , Etanol/farmacologia , Feminino , Controle de Insetos/economia , Metanol/farmacologia , Densidade Demográfica , Tamanho da Amostra , Estudos de Amostragem , Estações do Ano
20.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 45(6): 1331-7, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22241189

Resumo

The attitudes of nurses towards families determine the care process. With this study, we aimed to obtain an instrument that would allow us to learn about this variable. Hence, our purpose was to perform the cross-cultural adaptation and evaluate the psychometric features of the Portuguese version of the instrument Families' Importance in Nursing Care - Nurses Attitudes (FINC-NA), which aims to evaluate the attitudes of nurses towards the importance of involving the patient's family in the nursing care. The method recommended by the literature was followed. The sample consisted of 136 nurses working in primary health care. The results obtained in the reliability tests showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's Alpha=0.87). The psychometric study permits us to state that the Portuguese version of the FINC-NA, which in Portuguese is referred to as A importância das famílias nos cuidados de enfermagem - atitudes dos enfermeiros (IFCE-AE), is a reliable and valid tool.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Enfermagem Familiar , Relações Profissional-Família , Inquéritos e Questionários , Características Culturais , Humanos
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