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Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 75(4): 571-590, July-Aug. 2023. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1447355


The present study aimed to evaluate and compare the palmar and plantar digital arteries of 10 horses and 10 mules through B-mode and spectral Doppler ultrasound. Likewise, compare the plantar arteries of the pelvic limbs with the palmar arteries of the thoracic limbs, in addition to verifying the differences of the digital arteries in the contralateral limbs (right and left) in horses and mules using B-mode and spectral Doppler ultrasonography. The evaluated parameters were the diameter and the intima-media thickness (IMT), resistivity index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), peak of systolic velocity (pSV), final diastolic velocity (fDV) and mean velocity (MV) of the lateral and medial palmar and plantar arteries digital in healthy horses and mules. The horses presented higher diameters values, IMT, pSV, fDV and MV in comparison to the mules. The variables RI and PI also presented differences between horses and mules. Also, both species showed higher values in the variables of B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography in the thoracic limbs. Differences were also detected in the comparison between the limb sides (right and left) in the two modalities. The B-Mode and spectral Doppler ultrasound techniques are viable tools to identify differences in the palmar and plantar digital arteries in healthy horses and mules, highlight the differences between the thoracic and pelvic limbs and their respective sides (right and left) as well.

O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar e comparar as artérias digitais palmares e plantares de 10 equinos e 10 muares, por meio de ultrassom modo B e Doppler espectral. Da mesma forma, buscou-se comparar as artérias plantares dos membros pélvicos com as artérias palmares dos membros torácicos, além de se verificarem as diferenças das artérias digitais nos membros contralaterais (direito e esquerdo) em equinos e mulas, por meio de ultrassonografia modo B e Doppler espectral. Os parâmetros avaliados foram o diâmetro e a espessura médio-intimal (EMI), o índice de resistividade (IR), o índice de pulsatilidade (IP), o pico de velocidade sistólica (pVS), a velocidade diastólica final (VDf) e a velocidade média (VM) das artérias palmares e plantares lateral e medial digitais em equinos e muares sadios. Os equinos apresentaram maiores valores de diâmetros, EMI, pVS, VDf e VM em comparação aos muares. As variáveis IR e IP também apresentaram diferenças entre equinos e muares. Cavalos e mulas apresentaram maiores valores nas variáveis de ultrassonografia modo B e Doppler nos membros torácicos. Também foram detectadas diferenças na comparação entre os lados dos membros (direito e esquerdo) nas duas modalidades. As técnicas de ultrassom modo-B e Doppler espectral são ferramentas viáveis para identificar diferenças nas artérias digitais palmares e plantares em equinos e muares saudáveis, bem como para destacar as diferenças entre os membros torácicos e pélvicos e seus respectivos lados (direito e esquerdo).

Animais , Artérias , Ultrassonografia Doppler/veterinária , Cavalos , Locomoção
Rev. bras. reprod. anim ; 47(2): 267-274, abr.-jun. 2023.
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1435388


A ultrassonografia (US) Doppler colorido fornece uma ferramenta não invasiva valiosa para detectar e monitorar mudanças dinâmicas na rede vascular e fluxo sanguíneo em vários órgãos e tecidos reprodutivos. Em apoio as biotécnicas da reprodução animal assistida, a US Doppler colorido tem mostrada alta eficiência no monitoramento funcional das estruturas ovarianas. A previsão de respostas ovarianas e produções embrionária em ovinos pela identificação de sinais Doppler na parede folicular já se mostrou eficiente. A aplicação da US Doppler colorido para a identificação da funcionalidade do tecido luteal é ainda maior, desde acompanhamentos fisiológicos e diagnósticos de disfunções luteais até ampla aplicação em conjunto as diferentes biotécnicas reprodutivas. Destaca-se em ovelhas e cabras, a aplicação comercial da US Doppler colorido para o diagnóstico de gestação precoce, de disfunções luteais, de determinação de respostas ovarianas em fêmeas doadoras e receptoras de embriões, para identificar efeitos luteotrófico de estratégias hormonais, e ainda para amparar as estratégias de ressincronização de estro.(AU)

Color Doppler ultrasonography (US) provides a valuable non-invasive tool for detecting and monitoring dynamic changes in the vascular network and blood flow in various reproductive organs and tissues. In support of assisted animal reproduction biotechniques, color Doppler US has shown high efficiency in the functional monitoring of ovarian structures. The prediction of ovarian responses and embryonic production in sheep by identifying Doppler signals in the follicular wall has already proved to be efficient. The application of color Doppler US for identifying the functionality of the luteal tissue is even greater, from physiological monitoring and diagnosis of luteal dysfunctions to wide application together with different reproductive biotechniques. It stands out in sheep and goats, the commercial application of color Doppler US for the diagnosis of early pregnancy, luteal dysfunctions, determination of ovarian responses in embryo donor and recipient females, to identify luteotrophic effects of hormonal strategies, and even to support estrus resynchronization strategies.(AU)

Animais , Feminino , Cabras/fisiologia , Ovinos/fisiologia , Ultrassonografia Doppler/instrumentação , Corpo Lúteo/diagnóstico por imagem , Folículo Ovariano/diagnóstico por imagem
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 51(supl.1): Pub. 857, 2023. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1434541


Background: Portosystemic shunt (PSS), an alteration commonly found in toy dogs, is caused by an anastomosis between the systemic and portal circulation, interfering with the metabolism of several toxins. It can be of congenital or acquired origin and is classified as intra- or extrahepatic. Clinical signs include the gastrointestinal tract, nervous system, and urinary system according to the fraction of the shunt. It is diagnosed by several imaging tests and exploratory laparotomy. Therapy involves drug therapy and/or surgical correction of the anomalous vessels. Thus, the aim is to present an unusual case of extrahepatic cPSS originating from the left gastric vein and insertion into the azygos vein. Case: A 2-year-old female toy poodle, spayed, weighing 2.7 kg was treated with a history of recurrent cystitis and neurological signs such as focal seizures, ataxia, tremors, blindness, lethargy, head pressing, and compulsive gait. Complementary tests revealed normochromic microcytic anemia, neutrophilia-induced leukocytosis, monocytosis, and lymphopenia. Biochemical analysis revealed hypoproteinemia due to hypoglobulinemia, an increase in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase, and a decrease in urea. In the urinalysis, ammonium biurate crystals were detected, and Doppler ultrasound revealed microhepathy and the presence of an anomalous gastrosplenic vein inserted into the azygos vein, a finding compatible with the congenital extrahepatic PSS. Abdominal tomography confirmed vascular deviation with a sinuous path originating from the left gastric and splenic veins, inserting into the azygos vein, measuring approximately 5.95 cm in length. Cranial tomography revealed changes consistent with hepatic encephalopathy. Drug therapy was performed with hydration, liver chow, lactulose, probiotics, metronidazole, S-adenosyl-L-methionine, and ursodeoxycholic acid, and after 15 days, surgery was performed to place a 3.5 mm ameroid constrictor ring for gradual occlusion of the anomalous vessel. The animal recovered well, and a control abdominal ultrasound was repeated 30 days after the procedure, noting that the constrictor had not yet fully occluded the deviation. Doppler imaging revealed a favorable evolution with an increase in the diameter of the portal vein in the hepatopetal direction. The patient was followed-up for a year and had a normal and healthy life. Discussion: Extrahepatic PSS is frequently diagnosed in purebred and toy dogs, commonly occurring between the portal vein and one of its tributaries, with a lower frequency of anomalous vessels between the azygos veins, as in the present report. The patient's age and clinical signs were compatible with the disease, in addition to ammonia biurate crystals and hematological and biochemical alterations. The neurological clinical signs observed were compatible with hepatic encephalopathy secondary to congenital PSS. The imaging examinations facilitated the identification of the extrahepatic vascular anomaly, with the tomography being more accurate and helping in proper surgical planning. Clinical treatment should be performed for presurgical stabilization, and occlusion can be performed by placing cellophane bands or an ameroid constrictor, which is the technique of choice for congenital PSS, as it allows for slow constriction to avoid acute portal hypertension, as in this case, emphasizing that anesthesia in animals with portosystemic shunts must be performed with care.

Animais , Feminino , Cães , Veia Ázigos/cirurgia , Derivação Portossistêmica Cirúrgica/veterinária , Ductos Biliares Extra-Hepáticos , Ultrassonografia Doppler/veterinária
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 43: e07212, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1507030


Mammary neoplasia represents the most frequently diagnosed type of neoplasia in bitches. Although surgical removal is the procedure of choice for therapeutic management, chemotherapy protocols appear as important allies and adjuvants. Despite the great advances that have occurred in the field of cancer therapy, the systemic repercussions of these drugs still impose important limitations on their use. In this sense, the development of increasingly targeted therapeutic protocols and preventive monitoring of patients represent important strategies to avoid possible complications - among them, Acute Kidney Injury (AKI). Routinely, ultrasound evaluation is used to identify morphological or metastatic variations in abdominal cavity organs. Acting complementary to the B-mode evaluation, Doppler mapping proves to be efficient in recognizing alterations in vascular hemodynamics. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the use of B-mode and Doppler ultrasound to identify renal morphological and hemodynamic alterations in bitches with mammary neoplasia submitted to adjuvant chemotherapy protocols that associate gemcitabine with carboplatin. Thirteen bitches were included, without distinction of breed and between seven and 13 years of age. The animals were evaluated ultrasonographically at two different times during three consecutive chemotherapy cycles: before (T0) and one and a half hours after each cycle (T1), for 42 days. No morphological changes were observed in B-mode throughout the chemotherapy protocol. However, the Doppler velocimetry indices demonstrated statistical differences before (T0) and after (T1) the administration of the drugs. It was concluded that Doppler ultrasound could be used as a complementary method for monitoring the renal response of patients exposed to nephrotoxic drugs and potentially causing renal injury.

As neoplasias mamárias representam o tipo de neoplasma mais frequentemente diagnosticado em fêmeas da espécie canina. Embora a remoção cirúrgica seja o procedimento de eleição para a conduta terapêutica, os protocolos quimioterápicos aparecem como importantes aliados e adjuvantes. Apesar dos grandes avanços ocorridos na área da terapia oncológica, as repercussões sistêmicas destes fármacos ainda impõem importantes limitações ao seu uso. Neste sentido, o desenvolvimento de protocolos terapêuticos cada vez mais direcionados e o monitoramento preventivo dos pacientes representam estratégias importantes para evitar possíveis complicações - dentre elas, a injúria renal aguda (IRA). Rotineiramente, a avaliação ultrassonográfica é utilizada para identificação de variações morfológicas ou metastáticas em órgãos da cavidade abdominal. Atuando de forma complementar à avaliação em modo-B, o mapeamento Doppler mostra-se eficiente no reconhecimento de alterações na hemodinâmica vascular. Portanto, o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a utilização da ultrassonografia modo-B e Doppler como método para identificação de alterações morfológicas e hemodinâmicas renais em cadelas com neoplasias mamárias submetidas a protocolos quimioterápicos adjuvantes que associam a gencitabina à carboplatina. Foram incluídas 13 fêmeas caninas, sem distinção quanto a raça e com idades entre sete e 13 anos. Os animais foram avaliados ultrassonograficamente em dois momentos distintos durante três ciclos quimioterápicos consecutivos: antes (T0) e uma hora e meia após a realização de cada ciclo (T1), totalizando 42 dias. Não foram observadas alterações morfológicas em modo-B ao longo do protocolo quimioterápico. Entretanto, os índices dopplervelocimétricos demonstraram diferenças estatísticas antes (T0) e após (T1) a administração dos fármacos. Concluiu-se que a ultrassonografia Doppler pode ser utilizada como método complementar para o monitoramento da resposta renal de pacientes expostos a fármacos nefrotóxicos e potencialmente causadores de injúrias renais.

Animais , Feminino , Cães , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/complicações , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/veterinária , Doenças do Cão , Injúria Renal Aguda/veterinária , Injúria Renal Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Carboplatina , Ultrassonografia Doppler/veterinária , Gencitabina
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 51: Pub. 1917, 2023. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1443930


Background: Hypertrophic phenotype cardiomyopathy is the most common heart disease in cats. Although the echocardiogram is the gold standard test for diagnosing fHCM, patients with the disease may have electrocardiographic changes. Despite being reported in most 12-lead electrocardiograms, the P wave axis generally receives little attention when compared to other wave parameters. We performed a Doppler echocardiographic and electrocardiographic study in cats, in order to verify the presence of correlation between the electrical axis average P wave and the presence of fCMH, aiming to investigate the possibility of its aid in the early diagnosis of cardiac disorders. Materials, Methods & Results: One hundred cats of different breeds, ages, males and females were evaluated. Those animals with a history of previous disease other than hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were excluded from the study. The groups were formed after obtaining the results of the echocardiographic examination. Eight of the 100 cats did not allow echocardiographic evaluation, and the remaining 92 were divided into 2 groups (control group, n = 64 and heart disease group, n = 28) after the examination. Of these 92 animals, 28 cats had the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy phenotype. The electrocardiographic examination was performed after the allocation of animals into groups lasting 5 min with the recording of tracings for later interpretation. To calculate the axis of the P wave, leads D1 and D3 were used, measuring the amplitude of the P wave in these leads and calculating the resulting amplitude. All cats studied had mean electrical axis of the P wave within the normal range for the species (0º to 90º). Based on mean electrical axis P wave values, there was no significant difference between groups. The control group had a median of 63.7° with a maximum value of 80°, a minimum value of 60° and a mean of 65.1°. The fCMH group had a median of 68.7° with a maximum value of 85.3°, a minimum value of 56.3° and a mean of 68.8°. Of the fCMH group, 3 cats had increased P wave duration (50.33 ± 5.77 ms), suggesting left atrial overload, and 13 cats had increased QRS complex duration (66.30 ± 11.23 ms). Also, 18 cats (Control group: 11; fCMH group: 7) showed T wave amplitude greater than 25% of R, suggesting the presence of myocardial hypoxia and/or electrolyte disturbance. One cat had a prolonged PR interval (from the fCMH group). As for the QT interval, 6 cats had an interval < 120 (2 from the control group and 4 from the affected group) and 3 had an interval > 180 (1 from the control group and 2 from the affected group). The ST segment remained isoelectric in all segments. As for the mean electrical axis of the QRS complex, 5 cats (10.42%) had axis deviation to the right (control: 1; fCMH: 4) suggesting right ventricular overload; 7 cats (14.58%) had left axis deviation (control: 5; fCMH: 2), suggestive of left ventricular overload; and 36 cats (75%) had a normal mean electrical axis. Discussion: Based on the results obtained in the present study, it can be concluded that screening studies in asymptomatic felines should be increasingly implemented in the veterinary clinical routine, since the frequency found was high (30.44%) and that patients may remain asymptomatic for years until the development of signs. It should be concluded that there was no correlation between the mean electric axis of P-wave and the presence of subclinical phenotype hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Therefore, more studies are needed, with felines at different stages of the disease, to evaluate whether this electrocardiographic measurement allows us to assist in its diagnosis, since it is a feasible measure in cats. Furthermore, it is concluded that the electrocardiogram should be used as an aid method in the diagnosis of the disease and not as a screening test.

Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Gatos , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/veterinária , Análise de Onda de Pulso/veterinária , Ecocardiografia Doppler de Pulso/veterinária
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 51(supl.1): Pub. 893, 2023. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1444627


Background: A 10-year-old spayed bitch with hip dysplasia was referred for periarticular ultrasound evaluation. A poorly marginated structure of mixed echogenicity, predominantly hypoechoic, with heterogeneous echotexture, was identified in the vastus lateralis muscle of the right pelvic limb with increased stiffness, assessed using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography, compared to that of the adjacent muscle tissues, and intense vascularization by pulsed Doppler and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). Guided biopsy was performed to confirm the diagnosis of hemangiosarcoma. The objective of this study was to describe B-mode ultrasound, CEUS, and ARFI findings of hemangiosarcoma in the vastus lateralis musculature of a bitch. Case: A 10-year-old spayed bitch Golden Retriever weighing 36 kg was evaluated for pelvic limb lameness. The patient presented with bilateral pain during hip extension. The primary diagnostic suspicion was degenerative joint disease and secondary hip dysplasia. The patient was referred for imaging evaluation of the hip joints (radiography and ultrasound) under anesthesia. Right lateral and ventrodorsal projections with the pelvic limbs extended were obtained to confirm the diagnosis. In the right pelvic limb, an amorphous hypoechoic structure with irregular contours and heterogeneous echotexture was observed in the vastus lateralis muscle. In ARFI elastography, it was possible to identify differences in tissue stiffness between healthy and compromised portions. Pulsed-wave Doppler evaluation demonstrated an arterial waveform pattern with a peak systolic velocity of 38.8 cm/s, end-diastolic velocity of 6.9 cm/s, pulsatility index of 1.76, and resistive index of 0.82. CEUS study identified a mean peak of 27.26 %, mean time to peak of 39.95 s, and mean transmission time of 49.96 s. The popliteal lymph node was hyperechoic and heterogeneous in B-mode. In ARFI elastography, the average stiffness was 2.52 m/s, and the CEUS obtained an average peak of 19.98%, average time to peak of 17.52 s, and mean transit time of 22.83 s. Doppler assessment revealed no clear vascularization in the lymph node. Thoracic radiography in 3 projections and abdominal ultrasonography were performed. Radiographic evidence of pulmonary nodules was not observed. On abdominal ultrasound evaluation, it was possible to identify changes in the spleen, which presented with splenomegaly, mixed echogenicity, and heterogeneous echotexture. The animal underwent ultrasound-guided muscle biopsy, which confirmed the presence of hemangiosarcoma in the muscle. The bitch was referred for splenectomy and lymphadenectomy of the right popliteal, which confirmed neoplastic involvement of the same neoplasm. Discussion: On B-mode ultrasound, the observed changes were similar to those in a report of hemangiosarcoma in the muscles of the chest wall in dogs, which contributed to the diagnosis. Although it was only one patient, ARFI elastography results suggest that muscle hemangiosarcoma tends to follow the same elastographic characteristics as malignant lesions in other tissues. Additionally, the popliteal lymph node had a stiffness suggestive of malignancy (mean 2.52 m/s) because it presented a similar result and greater elasticity of metastatic axillary lymph nodes in bitches (>2.5 m/s) and women (> 1.44 m/s) with breast tumor. With CEUS, it was possible to identify vascularization in the sentinel lymph node that was not visible by pulsed Doppler, and in muscle mass. The findings of this report provided relevant results on muscle hemangiosarcoma in a bitch and demonstrated that the information obtained with the association of imaging methods supported the malignancy criteria described in other studies.

Animais , Feminino , Cães , Neoplasias Pélvicas/veterinária , Pelve/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemangiossarcoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Ultrassonografia Doppler de Pulso/veterinária , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/veterinária
Rev. bras. zootec ; 52: e20220148, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1507920


ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationships between preovulatory follicle (POF) and corpus luteum (CL) diameters, and POF and CL vascular perfusion with progesterone production, ovulation, and pregnancy in Nellore cows subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI). Nellore cows (n = 201) were subjected to ovulation synchronization and later to ultrasound evaluation of POF and CL at the time of insemination (D0) and seven days later (D7), respectively. Females were divided into three categories according to the POF diameter assessed at the time of insemination: small (SF), medium (MF), and large (LF) follicles. The LF group had a greater number and intensity of pixels in the POF ultrasound exam compared with the SF group. The CL flow intensity and progesterone concentration were also higher in the LF group. The SF group showed lower flow intensity and lower ovulation rate compared with the others. When non-pregnant females were compared to pregnant ones, no difference was observed in any of the analyzed variables. The results show for the first time in Nellore cattle the relationship between the size of ovarian structures and blood flow (quantity and intensity) as well as the ability of the CL to produce progesterone. The intensity of the POF pixels proved to be relevant, demonstrating correlations with the size and flow of the CL, which were not found when evaluating only the number of pixels, thus revealing the importance of evaluating complementary characteristics of the flow.

Ciênc. Anim. (Impr.) ; 33(1): 71-78, jan.-mar. 2023. graf, ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1434509


A hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS) é uma enfermidade silenciosa que pode afetar gatos e cães. Embora bastante descrita em felinos, a "Síndrome do Jaleco Branco", ou hipertensão situacional, é pouco relatada em cães. Assim, este trabalho tem como objetivo mostrar a importância do estresse na aferição da pressão arterial de cães adultos. O estudo foi realizado com 46 cães de ambos os sexos, dóceis, adultos, e aparentemente saudáveis. Após anamnese, exame físico, ambientação e manejo amigável dos animais, mensurou-se a pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) pelo método Doppler no membro torácico. Foram feitas várias aferições para obtenção de média aritmética. Animais com até 160mmHg de PAS, na primeira aferição, foram considerados normotensos (36 cães, correspondente a 78,26%). Para os que tiveram PAS maior ou igual a 160mmHg (dez cães, equivalente a 21,74%), realizou-se um segundo momento de aferição, após 15 a 30 minutos, com os animais em repouso. Assim, seis desses cães apresentaram PAS entre 154mmHg e 200mmHg, sendo, então, um considerado pré-hipertenso e cinco hipertensos, e outros quatro considerados normotensos. Para o animal com pré-hipertensão e para os hipertensos, realizaram-se exames complementares, pelos quais quatro cães foram diagnosticados com doença renal crônica e dois com dislipidemia familiar dos Schnauzers. Dessa forma, pode-se concluir que, dos 46 cães avaliados, 36 apresentaram-se normotensos (78,26%), um pré-hipertenso (2,17%), cinco hipertensos (10,87%) e quatro com hipertensão situacional (8,7%). Portanto, para cães em ambiente hospitalar, é importante realizar um manejo amigável e, quando necessário, mais de um momento de aferição de PAS para evitar diagnósticos errôneos de HAS.

Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) is a silent disease that can affect cats and dogs. Although well described in felines, "white coat syndrome", or situational hypertension, is little reported in dogs. Thus, this paper aims to show the importance of stress in the measurement of blood pressure from adult dogs. The study was conducted with 46 dogs of both sexes, docile, adults, apparently healthy. After anamnesis, physical examination, ambiance, and friendly management of animals, systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by the doppler method in the thoracic limb. Several measurements were made to obtain an arithmetic average. Animals up to 160mmHg of SBP, in the first measurement, were considered normotensive (36 dogs, corresponding to 78.26%). For those with SBP higher than or equal to 160mmHg (10 dogs, equivalent to 21.74%), a second measurement was performed after 15 to 30 minutes, with the animals at rest. Therefore, six of these dogs presented SBP between 154mmHg and 200mmHg (one considered prehypertense and five hypertensives) and four normotensives. For the animal with prehypertension and the hypertensives, complementary examinations were performed, in which four dogs were diagnosed with chronic kidney disease and two with family dyslipidemia of the Schnauzers. Thus, it can be concluded that among the 46 dogs evaluated, there were 36 normotenses (78.26%), a one prehypertense (2.17%), five hypertensives (10.87%), and four with situational hypertension (8.7%). Therefore, regarding dogs in a hospital environment, it is important to perform friendly management and, when necessary, more than one moment of SBP measurement to avoid erroneous diagnoses of SAH.

Animais , Cães , Estresse Psicológico , Doenças do Cão , Pressão Arterial , Hipertensão/veterinária
Rev. bras. zootec ; 52: e20220041, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1441369


The objective of this study was to evaluate characteristics of the testicular parenchyma and vascular parameters of the pampiniform plexus obtained by ultrasound, semen quality parameters, and sperm freezability in Nellore bulls classified based on residual feed intake (RFI). Twenty-seven bulls (21.82±0.88 months of age) evaluated for feed efficiency were sampled for the study, including 15 with low RFI (−0.592±0.09 kg dry matter/day) and 12 with high RFI (0.792±0.10 kg dry matter/day). In ultrasound and Doppler assessment, the most efficient animals (low RFI) showed higher pulsatility and resistive indexes, as well as a tendency towards greater heterogeneity of the testicular parenchyma (0.625±0.032 vs. 0.508±0.032, 1.012±0.072 vs. 0.802±0.072, and 12.9±0.96 vs. 10.2±0.96, respectively, for low vs. high RFI). However, these animals tended to have lower peak diastolic velocity (5.19±0.50 for low RFI vs. 6.54±0.50 for high RFI). Analysis of fresh semen showed a lower percentage of minor defects in low RFI animals (2.67±1.19%) compared with high RFI animals (8.10±1.19%), without differences in the other parameters in fresh or thawed semen and after thermoresistance testing. Evaluation of flow cytometry parameters showed a higher quality of mitochondrial respiration in semen samples of low RFI animals (22.04±2.50%) compared with high RFI animals (12.29±2.71%). Therefore, although RFI exerts an effect on the Doppler parameters of the pampiniform plexus, it is not sufficient to affect the quality of fresh or thawed semen.(AU)

Animais , Masculino , Testículo/fisiologia , Bovinos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária
Anim. Reprod. (Online) ; 20(2): e20220110, 2023. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1444259


The aim of this study was to investigate uterine involution using ultrasonography techniques during postpartum. Postpartum ultrasonography evaluation (B-mode, color Doppler and Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse elastography) of the uterus was performed by transabdominal approach at immediate after birth and sequentially every 48 hours, during 30 days. The uterine echotexture did not present significant variations (P >0.05) being homogeneous in most evaluations; echogenicity of the uterus increased along the evaluation period (P =0.0452). Progressive and remarkable decrease of the total uterine diameter (UD) were observed (P <0.0001), especially during the first days postpartum. The thickness of uterine wall gradually decreased, as well the endometrial, myometrium and lumen diameters (P <0.0001). Uterine blood flow was assessed by Doppler and decreased during postpartum period, being significantly lower (P=0.0225) on the 30th day of postpartum. Uterine parenchyma presented as homogeneous dark areas (not deformable) on qualitative ultrasound elastography and the means shear velocity values of the uterine wall on quantitative elastography did not differ. This is the first study that evaluate the stiffness of uterine wall in healthy ewes, providing baseline data about quantitative and qualitative stiffness of the normal uterus, and it may be a useful tool for early diagnosis of uterine alterations during the postpartum period, using the reference parameter established for the assessment of uterine integrity during postpartum period.(AU)

Animais , Feminino , Útero/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos/fisiologia , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Período Pós-Parto/fisiologia , Rigidez Muscular/veterinária
Ars vet ; 39(2): 40-47, 2023. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1438482


Biomateriaistem diversas indicações como auxiliares no processo de reparação óssea, além de terem função de substituto ósseo em perdas extensas. Diversas são as vantagens de sua utilização, como por exemplo, auxílio na osteocondutividade, estímulo de neovascularização, potencial antimicrobiano, entre outros. Falhas ósseas foram realizadas nas tíbias de seis ovinos da raça Santa Inês e preenchidas com biomaterial à base de quitosana, colágeno e hidroxiapatita. Um membro foi considerado controle e outro membro tratado segundo estudo randomizado. Foram realizadas avaliações termográficas e por ultrassonografia Power Dopplerem todos os animais do estudo, semanalmente, nos dias D0, D7, D14, D21, D28, D35, D42 e D56. Não houve diferenças significativas com relação à temperatura mínima, máxima e média entre os grupos com biomaterial e controle nas imagens termográficas. Houveram variações com relação ao tempo dentro de ambos os grupos. Com relação à presença de vasos na ultrassonografia Power Dopplernão houve diferenças estatísticas entre os grupos, exceto no dia 21 (P=0,031). Dentro das possibilidades de avaliação que os exames de imagem fornecem, a termografia e a ultrassonografia Power Dopplermostraram-se ferramentas não invasivas de avaliação pós-operatória de processo inflamatório e neovascularização, sendo realizadas semanalmente, permitindo acompanhamento fidedigno e detalhado ao longo do experimento, sem gerar desconforto ou estresse aos animais. Não houve indícios de complicações relacionadas ao biomaterial.(AU)

Biomaterials have several indications supporting the bone repair process, besides having bone substitute function in extensive losses. There are several advantages of its use, such as contribution in osteoconductivity, stimulation of neovascularization, antimicrobial potential, among others.Tibial bone defects was performed in six Santa Inês breed ewes and implanted with chitosan, collagen and hydroxyapatite biomaterial. One limb was considered the control limb and the other one the biomateriallimb, chosenrandomly. Thermographic and Power Dopplersonography was performed in all animals, weekly for 56 days. The thermography showed no significant differences related to low, high and mean temperature between the control and the biomaterial groups. Statisticalvariations were found between time in both groups. The visualization of neovascularization with the Power Dopplersonography did not present statistical differences, except for day 21 (P=0,031). Within the possibilities provided by imaging exams, thermography and Power Doppler sonography demonstrate to be non-invasive methods for post-operative evaluation of inflammatory process and neovascularization. The weekly management allowed reliable and detailed monitoring throughout the experiment, without causingdiscomfort or stress to the animals. There was no evidence of biomaterial complications.(AU)

Animais , Ovinos/fisiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Inibidores da Angiogênese
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 51(supl.1): Pub. 865, 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1434678


Background: Ischemic neuromyopathy is the most common reason for amputation in cats. In veterinary medicine, the use of prosthetic limbs is not widespread; therefore, in most cases total limb amputation is indicated. However, hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is an alternative with several benefits for the treatment of vascular disorders with reperfusion, ischemia, and infection. Therefore, this study aimed to report the positive effects of HBOT on the treatment of ischemic neuromyopathy secondary to arterial thromboembolism on the patient's clinical improvement, and on the preparation of the patient for insertion of an osseointegrated prosthesis. Case: A 6-month-old mixed-breed kitten returned for treatment after undergoing surgery seven days earlier for reduction of traumatic diaphragmatic hernia, during which it suffered a cardiorespiratory arrest. The patient presented with acute pelvic limb paralysis with 24-h evolution, absent femoral pulse, plantar cushions and dorsal part of the limbs cold and pale. After supportive therapy and diagnosis of aortic thromboembolism by arterial Doppler, the patient started adjunctive treatment with HBOT from the first day of hospitalization. Sessions took place in an exclusive hyperbaric chamber for animals and lasted 60 min at a pressure of 2.5 absolute atmospheres and 100% oxygen, initially every 12 h. However, during the first 5 days of hospitalization, the distal region of both pelvic limbs began to show tissue devitalization and edema, and hematologic parameters showed changes on the 7th day. The right pelvic limb (RPL) showed more involvement of superficial tissues, extending to the tarsometatarsal joint region. After 8 days of hospitalization, the devitalized tissue was debrided. The RPL had an extensive devitalized area with exposed bone in the phalanges and necrosis in the pads. The left pelvic limb (LPL) suffered minor complications, with involvement of the phalangeal region. After 12 days, with HBOT every 48 h, exuberant granulation tissue was observed. After 17 days, the patient was discharged, and HBOT sessions were performed weekly. Gangrene of the midfoot and lack of proprioception were observed in RPL, while LPL showed bone divulsion of the 1st, 3rd, and 4th phalanges. Because of the poor prognosis for limb viability, the RPL was partially amputated, and a self-threaded intraosseous prosthesis was inserted. Discussion: The cardiorespiratory arrest that occurred during the surgical procedure to reduce the diaphragmatic hernia without thromboprophylaxis may have contributed to the peripheral ischemia. HBOT was proposed for the adjuvant treatment of ischemic injury because it is especially indicated for cases of ischemia-reperfusion injury. The main hematological parameters were evaluated at an average interval of 7 days. While the platelet count and hematocrit increased, the leukocytosis decreased. This demonstrates the benefit of oxygen therapy in the reported patient. The use of HBOT in orthopedic injuries is known to result mainly in stimulation of osteoblasts, promoting osseointegration of the prosthesis. We conclude that the adjuvant treatment with HBOT helped to preserve a large segment of both pelvic limbs, prevent the progression of necrosis, and provide a healthy bed for fixation of an osseointegrated prosthesis in the RPL, resulting in clinical improvement of the patient.

Animais , Feminino , Gatos , Tromboembolia/terapia , Tromboembolia/veterinária , Prótese Ancorada no Osso/veterinária , Oxigenoterapia Hiperbárica/veterinária
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 75(1): 98-106, 2023. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1416594


Atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) is a rare congenital deformity of variable clinical relevance, often reported in association with patent foramen ovale (PFO). Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTE) is the first choice for diagnosis, but complementary techniques, such as microbubble contrast, should be used. Despite its importance, in Veterinary Medicine, there is little information related to the subject, and the present study is the second report of this condition in dogs. The objective was to report a case of ASA type IV LR associated with PFO in a Shar Pei bitch, diagnosed by a combined approach of transthoracic echocardiography backed by agitated saline solution (microbubbles). During clinical care, the owners reported episodes of seizures as their main complaint. Echocardiographic examination revealed a type 4 LR atrial septal aneurysm and left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The use of microbubble contrast showed right-to-left shunt, confirming PFO. The recommended treatment was medication. It was concluded that the rarity of ASA in dogs may be due to incomplete diagnoses and the transthoracic echocardiographic examination allows its analysis and classification. Furthermore, ASA can be found in animals with or without evidence of heart disease and it should be investigated in patients with neurological alterations.

O aneurisma do septo atrial (ASA) é uma rara deformidade congênita, de relevância clínica variável, frequentemente relatado em associação a forame oval patente (PFO). O ecodopplercardiograma transtorácico (TTE) é a primeira escolha para o diagnóstico, mas técnicas complementares, como o contraste por microbolhas, devem ser utilizadas. Apesar da importância, em medicina veterinária existe uma carência de informações relacionadas ao tema, sendo esse o segundo relato dessa condição em cão. Objetivou-se relatar um caso de ASA tipo IV LR, associado a PFO, em uma cadela Shar Pei, diagnosticado por uma abordagem combinada por ecodopplercardiograma transtorácico e costrastado com solução salina agitada (microbolhas). Ao atendimento clínico, os proprietários relataram, como queixa principal, episódios de crises convulsivas. O exame ecocardiográfico revelou aneurisma de septo atrial tipo 4 LR e disfunção sistólica em ventriculo esquerdo. A utilização de contraste por microbolhas constatou shunt direita-esquerda, confirmando PFO. O tratamento recomendado foi medicamentoso. Concluiu-se que a raridade do ASA em cães pode ser devido a diagnósticos incompletos, e o exame ecocardiográfico transtorácico permite sua análise e classificação. Ainda, ASA pode ser encontrado em animais com ou sem evidências de cardiopatia e sua investigação deve ser feita em pacientes com alterações neurológicas.

Animais , Feminino , Cães , Forame Oval Patente/veterinária , Aneurisma Cardíaco/veterinária , Cardiopatias Congênitas/veterinária , Comunicação Interatrial/veterinária , Ecocardiografia/veterinária
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 51(supl.1): Pub. 847, 2023. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1416633


Background: Peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia is a rare pathogenesis of congenital origin, which occurs due to a failure in the communication between the diaphragm and the pericardium during embryogenesis. Symptoms may be non-existent or non-specific, depending on the herniated organ involved and, in most cases, the diagnosis is incidental. Regarding the most indicated treatment, there are still divergences in the literature concerning the indication of conservative or surgical treatment. This study reports the case of a feline peritoneopericardial hernia, for which surgical correction was the treatment of choice. Case: A 3-month-old female kitten, no defined racial pattern, was referred to the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco for treatment of a peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia. This condition was diagnosed through radiographic examination after the patient having been submitted to pediatric castration and presented anesthetic complications in the transsurgery. Blood count, biochemical profile and Doppler echocardiogram were performed, which showed no significant changes. To obtain a better study and surgical planning, computed tomography was performed to observe the heart located cranially in the pericardial cavity. Caudally to the heart, hepatic parenchyma located in the pericardial cavity was observed; and hepatic vessels presenting slightly enlarged dimensions. These tomographic findings suggested peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia; being the liver present in the pericardial cavity and signs of congestion in the hepatic parenchyma. Due to the likelihood of future worsening of the hernia, surgical correction was performed, with an abdominal midline incision in the preumbilical region to reposition the liver to its normal anatomy, followed by diaphragm reconstitution through a herniorrhaphy. After the surgical procedure, the patient was referred for observation in internment and, after 15 days, the skin sutures were removed. Complete correction of the hernial defect was observed on radiography performed 30 days after the surgical procedure. However, the examination showed the presence of deviation/ deformity in the topography of the sternum and costal cartilages, with slight cardiac displacement to the right hemithorax, suggesting the presence of pectus excavatum. Discussion: Peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia is considered rare and, despite being one of the most common causes of congenital pericardial anomaly in felines, it has a low prevalence ranging from 0.06% to 1.45%. They are usually diagnosed from two years of age, with prevalence for older animals. However, due to having presented anesthetic changes, the patient of this case report could be diagnosed early. Among the most common organs that migrate to the thoracic cavity, the liver is the most commonly observed, which is also the hernia content of the present report. Peritoneopericardial hernia is often diagnosed through radiography and ultrasound, and these imaging tests proved to be sufficient for the diagnosis in this report. However, computed tomography was important for providing a better study of case and for the adoption of median celiotomy as a treatment. Associations with other malformations are described in the literature, with pectus excavatum being the most common and also observed in this report. Peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia is a rare anomaly, rarely reported in the literature and with divergences regarding its treatment. The adoption of early surgical treatment performed in this report showed satisfactory evolution and the possibility of a favorable prognosis.

Animais , Feminino , Gatos , Pericárdio/anormalidades , Peritônio/cirurgia , Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas/veterinária , Radiografia/veterinária
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 50: Pub. 1880, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1400789


Background: Photoplethysmography is widely used in human medicine, with few studies on its use in veterinary medicine. Its sensor detects fluctuations in blood volume at the site, providing direct readings of cardiac pulse and peripheral oxygen saturation, as well as estimating cardiac output, respiratory rate and blood pressure. This study aimed to evaluate the use of photoplethysmography and compare it to vascular Doppler ultrasound as an indirect method of measuring systolic blood pressure in bitches undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy, using the invasive assessment of systolic blood pressure as a reference. Materials, Methods and Results: After clinical and laboratory evaluation, 34 healthy bitches were selected to undergo elective ovariohysterectomy. After food and water fasting, patients received pethidine hydrochloride intramuscularly as pre-anesthetic medication, followed by anesthetic induction with fentanyl citrate and propofol intravenously. General anesthesia was maintained by inhalation with isoflurane diluted in 100% oxygen. Intraoperative analgesia consisted of continuous infusion of fentanyl citrate intravenously. The animals were randomly divided into 2 groups, the thoracic limb group (TLG) and the pelvic limb group (PLG). In each patient, non-invasive blood pressure measurement was obtained simultaneously with Doppler (DOP) and photoplethysmography (PPG). The sensors of both devices were placed on the end of the same limb. The PPG sensor was positioned in the interdigital region. In patients belonging to the TLG, the Doppler sensor was placed in the ventral region of the thoracic limb, under the ulnar artery. In PLG patients, the Doppler sensor was placed in the dorsal region of the pelvic limb, over the dorsal artery of the foot. The sphygmomanometer was positioned close to the sensors. For systolic blood pressure (SBP) measurement, the cuff was inflated until the Doppler sound signal and the plethysmographic wave were lost. The cuff was then deflated until the Doppler pulse sound resumed and the photoplethysmography showed at least 2 continuous waves on a regular basis. The corresponding pressure value observed on the manometer consisted of the SBP. The same 2 evaluators performed all SBP measurements: 1 responsible for the DOP method and the other for the PPG method; both were blind to the other's findings, thus minimizing potential bias in the results. All animals underwent cannulation of the auricular artery for invasive measurement of systolic blood pressure, using a multiparameter monitor. All blood pressure measurements were performed at 5-min intervals, as well as obtaining additional parameters (heart and respiratory rate, esophageal temperature, partial tissue oxygen saturation, carbon dioxide concentration) and electrocardiographic monitoring. All parameters were documented for further statistical analysis. A strong correlation (r² = 0.95) was obtained between the DOP and PPG methods regardless of the limb on which the sensors were placed. There was a low correlation between the invasive method of measuring systolic blood pressure and the other methods. There was better agreement between the DOP and PPG methods (r2 = -0.0061; P = 0.85) when systolic blood pressure was measured in the TLG. Discussion: In the PLG, the values obtained with the DOP and PPG methods were significantly higher than those obtained with the invasive method, while the values obtained in the TLG differed slightly. It was found that the best measurement site by non-invasive methods was the thoracic limb. It was concluded that the non-invasive methods showed a low correlation with the invasive method; however, both methods had similar characteristics and photoplethysmography can be used to replace the vascular Doppler method.

Animais , Feminino , Cães , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/veterinária , Ecocardiografia Doppler/métodos , Fotopletismografia/veterinária , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Histerectomia/veterinária , Anestesia Geral/veterinária
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 50: Pub. 1871, 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1400654


Background: Diagnostic ultrasound has revolutionized obstetric practice. Doppler techniques provided in vivo studies of the fetus-placental and uterus-placental circulations, in an increasingly precise manner. The assessment of fetal well-being is essential in obstetric practice, however, in veterinary medicine, there is a deficit of ultrasound parameters related to fetal distress. The main of this research was to determine the hemodynamic characteristics and behavior, through Doppler ultrasonography, of maternal-fetal vessels during the final third of gestation in bitches with fetuses under stress, as well as correlating them with each other and with fetal distress. Materials, Methods & Results: An observational, prospective study was carried out, in which 30 healthy bitches were examined, during the last third of pregnancy, with fetuses under fetal distress. Fetuses were evaluated in 2 stages: (1st): 50-54 days and (2nd): 55-60 days of gestation. All fetuses were calmly assessed, one by one, and fetal heart rate (FHR) was measured 5 times, for at least 3 min, to identify and confirm fetal distress. At least 3 fetuses were evaluated in each bitch and each measurement was performed in triplicate, setting a hemodynamic mean for each value evaluated. The flow pattern in the middle cerebral artery (MCA), internal carotid artery (ICA) and umbilical artery (UA) was evaluated. The analyzed vessel was initially visualized in B mode, followed by evaluation by color and spectral Doppler. The variables observed were: peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV) and the resistivity (RI) and pulsatility (PI) index, as well as the systole/diastole ratio (S/D). The analysis of RI and PI of the umbilical artery showed a statistically significant difference between the mean values found for the times studied, increasing from time 1 to time 2. For middle cerebral and internal carotid arteries, PI, RI and the relationship systole/diastole (S/D), showed a statistically significant difference between the mean values found for the times studied, decreasing from time 1 to time 2. Discussion: Fetal heart rate (HR) findings are considered normal above 200 beats per minute (bpm), only if preceded by acceleration and deceleration. This fact confirms the presence of fetal stress, by this parameter, for the fetuses in the present study. Corroborating the picture of fetal distress, another study concluded that HR tends to increase up to 20 days before delivery, a fact that did not occur in the study in question, where animals in the same gestational period were evaluated. Recent research has concluded that an elevated umbilical artery PI at 28 weeks of gestation, in the absence of fetal growth restriction or prematurity, is associated with some adverse cognitive findings in 12-year-olds children. In the present study, a progressive increase in this index was observed throughout the final third of pregnancy. Although the pups were not monitored after birth, this data serves as a warning for veterinarians, and can be useful in the assessment and diagnosis of possible postnatal nervous alterations. Like what was found in the present study, a study reported that from the 4th week to birth, the PSV of the umbilical artery (UA) increased almost linearly, with high significance. For the middle cerebral arteries, the PI showed a statistically significant difference between the mean values found for the times studied, however, decreasing throughout the final third of pregnancy.

Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Cães , Sofrimento Fetal/veterinária , Sofrimento Fetal/diagnóstico por imagem , Monitorização Hemodinâmica/veterinária , Troca Materno-Fetal/fisiologia , Ultrassonografia Doppler/veterinária
Anim. Reprod. (Online) ; 19(3): e20220014, set. 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1396857


The objective was to evaluate the blood flow of the uterine artery (UA) and umbilical artery (UMB) in the physiological pregnancy of goats by means of Doppler throughout the gestational period. Twenty-five Saanen goats weighing 55 ± 10 kg and aged between 2 and 5 were evaluated weekly, from the 21st until the 143rd day of gestation, and daily from that period until parturition. Values for peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV) and resistance (RI) and pulsatility (PI) indices of the uterine and umbilical arteries were determined. The values obtained were correlated with gestational age by Spearman's test, tested for adjustment to regression models and compared with the number of fetuses by ANOVA. The umbilical cord was first visualized at 28 days. Of the variables evaluated, RIUMB and PIUMB correlated with gestational age (p<0.001; and 0.046; respectively) and RIUMB had a low negative correlation with the number of fetuses per pregnancy (p = 0.003; r- Spearman = - 0.218). PSVUMB and EDVUMB values did not correlate with gestational age (p=0.737 and 0.768, respectively), but there was a decrease in the mean values throughout pregnancy (PSVUMB= 0.07; 0.31 and EDVUMB= 0.01; 0.06) as well as the change in the flow pattern of the spectral trace. The mean values of the uterine artery dopplervelocimetric variables PSVUT, EDVUT, PIUT and RIUT did not correlate with gestational age (p= 0.324; 0.372, 0.143; 0.13; respectively). It is expected that the results obtained will contribute to a broader understanding of the hemodynamic changes resulting from pregnancy in goats.(AU)

Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Artérias Umbilicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Cabras/anatomia & histologia , Ultrassonografia Doppler/veterinária , Artéria Uterina/diagnóstico por imagem , Circulação Placentária/fisiologia
Acta sci. vet. (Online) ; 50: Pub. 1849, Jan. 13, 2022. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-31327


Background: Doppler ultrasonography enables the investigation of vascular blood flow indexes in gestational assessment,being able to detect vascular resistances that can affect fetal and maternal circulation, such as cases of placental insufficiency, associated with fetal cerebral oxygenation deficit and fetal distress. The study aims to assume hemodynamicallynormal values in the final third of gestation in bitches, of the umbilical, uteroplacental, middle cerebral and internal carotidarteries, correlating the obtained Doppler velocimetric indexes, for the assessment of the feto-placental circulation, andprediction of fetal viability indexes, fetal centralization and probable date of delivery.Materials, Methods & Results: Thirty healthy bitches were examined in the final third of gestation (40-60 days). Thesewere evaluated by Doppler ultrasonography at 2 times (T): T1: between 40-50 days; T2: between 51-60 of gestation.At each time point, the peak systolic velocities (PSV) and end-diastolic velocities (EDV) used to obtain the pulsatility(IP) and resistivity (IR) indexes of the umbilical, uteroplacental, middle cerebral and internal carotid arteries of fetuseswere evaluated. Also, the systole/diastole (S/D) ratio of these vessels was evaluated. The data obtained were subjected toanalysis of variance and Tukey test, using a P value equal to 5%. A significant difference was observed between velocitiesand Doppler velocimetric indexes between the 2 phases of the gestational final third in all studied vessels. There was anincrease in the values of PSV and EDV and a decrease in the indexes, as the probable date of delivery approached. Theanalysis of the umbilical cord IR showed an increase from P1 to P2 (P < 0.05), while the IP decreased at the same time.For all studied variables there was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). In the uteroplacental...(AU)

Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Cães , Monitorização Hemodinâmica/métodos , Monitorização Hemodinâmica/veterinária , Circulação Placentária , Artérias Umbilicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Carótida Interna/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Cerebrais/embriologia , Ultrassonografia Doppler/veterinária
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 50: Pub.1849-2022. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1458524


Background: Doppler ultrasonography enables the investigation of vascular blood flow indexes in gestational assessment,being able to detect vascular resistances that can affect fetal and maternal circulation, such as cases of placental insufficiency, associated with fetal cerebral oxygenation deficit and fetal distress. The study aims to assume hemodynamicallynormal values in the final third of gestation in bitches, of the umbilical, uteroplacental, middle cerebral and internal carotidarteries, correlating the obtained Doppler velocimetric indexes, for the assessment of the feto-placental circulation, andprediction of fetal viability indexes, fetal centralization and probable date of delivery.Materials, Methods & Results: Thirty healthy bitches were examined in the final third of gestation (40-60 days). Thesewere evaluated by Doppler ultrasonography at 2 times (T): T1: between 40-50 days; T2: between 51-60 of gestation.At each time point, the peak systolic velocities (PSV) and end-diastolic velocities (EDV) used to obtain the pulsatility(IP) and resistivity (IR) indexes of the umbilical, uteroplacental, middle cerebral and internal carotid arteries of fetuseswere evaluated. Also, the systole/diastole (S/D) ratio of these vessels was evaluated. The data obtained were subjected toanalysis of variance and Tukey test, using a P value equal to 5%. A significant difference was observed between velocitiesand Doppler velocimetric indexes between the 2 phases of the gestational final third in all studied vessels. There was anincrease in the values of PSV and EDV and a decrease in the indexes, as the probable date of delivery approached. Theanalysis of the umbilical cord IR showed an increase from P1 to P2 (P < 0.05), while the IP decreased at the same time.For all studied variables there was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). In the uteroplacental...

Feminino , Animais , Gravidez , Cães , Artéria Carótida Interna/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Cerebrais/embriologia , Artérias Umbilicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Circulação Placentária , Monitorização Hemodinâmica/métodos , Monitorização Hemodinâmica/veterinária , Ultrassonografia Doppler/veterinária
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 50(suppl.1): Pub.752-4 jan. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1458560


Background: In cats, arterial thromboembolism is one of the most devastating diseases, with an acute presentation, andis often caused by undiagnosed cardiomyopathy. Defined as the obstruction of one or more arterial lumens by emboli,the arterial thromboembolism is responsible for hypoperfusion signs. As the temperature of the skin surface is directlyrelated to tissue perfusion, thermography can be promising for the early diagnosis of thromboembolism. Therefore, thisstudy reports the importance of thermography as a complementary examination for the diagnosis of thromboembolism inthe abdominal aorta of a domestic cat.Case: A 4-year-old mixed-breed cat weighing 2.95 kg was presented with a history of sudden onset paraplegia, apathy,and pain when handled, with greater intensity in the sacro-coccidian region. During physical exam, it was noted that thefemoral artery pulse was undetectable bilaterally during manual pulse measurement. Superficial and deep sensitivity inthe pelvic limbs and proprioception were also absent and the plantar cushions and nail beds of the posterior limbs werepale to cyanotic. Thermographic images revealed that the temperature of both hind limbs was lower than that of forelimbs,with difference of 3.2ºC and 2.9ºC between the left and right limbs, respectively. Doppler ultrasonography revealed theabsence of pulse and flow in the femoral arteries bilaterally. Electrocardiography revealed sinus tachycardia, with a heartrate of 250 bpm. Echocardiography revealed dilation of the left atrium and concentric cardiac hypertrophy. After 24 h, dueto the worsening of the clinical condition and unfavorable prognosis, the animal was euthanized and sent for necropsy.Necropsy revealed that the arterial lumen of the caudal abdominal aorta and bifurcation of the iliac arteries were obliterated...

Animais , Gatos , Artéria Femoral/patologia , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/veterinária , Cianose/veterinária , Isquemia Miocárdica/veterinária , Tromboembolia/veterinária , Termografia/veterinária , Ultrassonografia Doppler de Pulso/veterinária