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Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 51(supl.1): Pub. 873, 2023. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1434864


Background: Spinocerebellar degenerations and neuronal vacuolations are alterations characterized by the formation of vacuoles in the nervous tissue, commonly called status spongiosus. This condition occurs in young Rottweiler dogs causing a disease called Neuronal Vacuolation and Spinocerebellar Degeneration. Clinically, it presents with ataxia of the pelvic limbs, which evolves to generalized ataxia, tetraparesis, and laryngeal paralysis. Histologically, spongiform and vacuolar alterations of the neuropil and neurons are highlighted. This reports a case of neuronal vacuolation and spinocerebellar degeneration in a Rottweiler puppy. Case: Necropsy was performed on the cadaver of a 5-month-old Rottweiler bitch that had been presenting with ataxia for approximately 1 month, in addition to dyspnea, pulmonary crepitations, and microphthalmia. Macroscopic evaluation revealed pale ocular and oral mucosae; marked gastric dilatation and abdominal distension; pulmonary hemorrhage and edema; hepatosplenomegaly; fatty degeneration of the liver; and congestion of meningeal blood vessels. Microscopically, histological evaluation of the spinal cord showed an increase in gray matter cellularity with marked presence of oligodendrocytes and microglia cells; moderate to severe multifocal intracytoplasmic micro- and macrovacuoles with displacement of the neurons' nuclei to the periphery of the cell; central chromatolysis of the neurons adjacent to neurons affected by vacuolation; and mild multifocal necrosis associated with mild multifocal neuronophagia. The white matter exhibited discrete digestion chambers, in addition to marked diffuse congestion of the leptomeninges. In the cerebellum, neurons in the nerve nuclei (emboliform, globose, and fastigial) showed moderate multifocal vacuoles in the cytoplasm, whereas adjacent neurons showed central chromatolysis, necrosis, and mild neuronophagia. Additional histological findings included lymphoid hyperplasia, fatty degeneration of the liver, pulmonary edema, and pulmonary hemorrhage. Discussion: Spongiform and degenerative encephalopathies are diseases recognized worldwide, mainly in cattle and sheep. However, the identification of these changes in new species has led to the need for further investigations. In dogs, the first reports occurred in 1995 and 1997 in Rottweiler animals. This disease affects young dogs, and although its pathogenesis is not completely known, it is believed to be associated with a genetic mutation in the RAB3GAP1 gene. Clinically, it is associated with clinical neurological manifestations, including progressive ataxia of the pelvic limbs, changes in spinal reflex, disordered proprioceptive reactions, laryngeal paralysis, as well as behavioral and gait alterations. In the clinical evaluation, leukoencephalomyelopathy and neuroaxonal dystrophy should be diseases considered as possible differential diagnoses, as they present with similar alterations. However, in histological evaluation, the exclusion of both is basically due to the absence of neuronal vacuolization. Unfortunately, the definitive diagnosis is only made post mortem, through a histopathological evaluation of the nervous tissue. Because it is a disease whose pathogenesis is little known and which shows signs of having a genetic character, histopathological examination for diagnostic purposes in young animals with neurological signs is of great importance.

Animais , Feminino , Cães , Vacúolos/patologia , Encefalopatias/veterinária , Degenerações Espinocerebelares/veterinária , Neurônios/patologia , Autopsia/veterinária
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 51(supl.1): Pub. 843, 2023. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1415254


Background: Canine distemper (CD) is a highly contagious viral disease caused by the canine distemper virus (CDV). In dogs, CDV infection is characterized by the presentation of systemic and/or neurological signs with viral persistence in some organs, including the central nervous system (CNS). Neurological damages resulting from CD are a defiance for veterinarians, due to occasioned clinical sequels that influence the patient quality of life. The treatment of sequelae should seek to promote the resolution or decrease of the deleterious effects that impede the patient independence. Thus, the present report aims to describe the action of antiparkinsonian medication (levodopa associated with carbidopa) administered to 3 dogs who presented neurological sequels resulting from the canine distemper. Cases: Dog 1. A 9-month-old male mixed breed; Dog 2. A 6-month-old male Shih Tzu. Dog 3. A 8-years-old bitch mixed breed. All animals were referred for neurological care because presented neurological damages after distemper involvement. Only the Dog 2 was vaccinated to CD. Dog 1 (mixed male) had severe myoclonus, lack of proprioception, decreased of muscle tonus and paralysis in both pelvic limbs, associated with a marked thoracolumbar kyphosis. Dog 2 (a puppy Shih Tzu male) presented myoclonus in PL, proprioceptive loss in thoracic and pelvic limbs, absence of withdrawal reflex in thoracic and pelvic limbs, decrease in muscle tonus in pelvic limb and increase in thoracic limb. Dog 3 (adult unneutered bitch) presented intense myoclonus, absence of proprioception, decrease in muscle tonus and paresis of pelvic limb. All patients were treated with antiparkinsonian medication (levodopa 250 mg associated with carbidopa 25 mg) with following dosages: Dog 1 received a commercially available tablet, orally once a day for 30 days, while Dogs 2 and 3 had doses calculated by extrapolation allometric. For the Dog 2 it was prescribed 0.25 mg of levodopa and 0.025 mg of carbidopa daily for 30 days. Dog 3 was treated with 1 mg of levodopa and 0.1 mg of carbidopa patient day for the same period. Thirty days after starting the treatment, the 3 patients were evaluated again, and showed improvement of the motor signs, and the treatment was maintained. At the next return (30 days): Dog 1 showed significant improvement, however, Dog 2 started to present epileptic seizures and nystagmus that were treated with levetiracetam, while the Dog 3 not returned. As Dog 1 had a better prognosis, treatment was maintained for 1 year, with the frequency being changed from 24 h x 24 h to 48 h x 48 h after 30 days and 72x72 h after another 30 days. Unfortunately, Dog 2 had a worsening of epileptic condition and died, while Dog 3 died by road-kill. Discussion: The cases reported are uncommon, because not exist information about the use of antiparksonian to treatment of neurological damages occasioned by canine distemper. Although there are emerging therapies, such as the use of mesenchymal stem cells, that can reduce these sequels, the access is still restricted to a few professionals. Thus, the use of medications for demyelinating diseases, as antiparkinsonian, may be an alternative. In fact, the three reported patients showed recovery of the motor and sensorial damages observed, which corroborates with the possibility of a new treatment using antiparkinsonian or other drugs to demyelinating diseases.

Animais , Cães , Carbidopa/administração & dosagem , Levodopa/administração & dosagem , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/veterinária , Cinomose/terapia , Antiparkinsonianos/uso terapêutico
Ciênc. anim. bras. (Impr.) ; 24: e-73825E, 2023. ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1417699


Tetanus is a serious and rare disease in small animals, of an acute nature and mediated by the action of the neurotoxin tetanospasmin, from the bacillus Clostridium tetani. This report describes a case of tetanus in a canine, with emphasis on its clinical and therapeutic aspects, in addition to its clinical recovery. A canine, female, Pitbull breed, five months old, in status epilepticus, was attended at the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Passo Fundo. After stabilizing the patient, the animal was found in a trestle position, with generalized spastic paralysis, risus sardonicus, trismus, erect tail and ears, and difficulty in expanding the thorax. The presumptive diagnosis of tetanus was established based on the anamnesis, clinical signs, and laboratory findings. The established supportive treatment included hydro electrolytic replacement, antitetanus serum, antibiotic therapy, analgesia, myorelaxant and anticonvulsant drugs. The patient's intensive management was carried out with urethral and gastroesophageal probing, changes of position every two hours, and reduction of environmental stimuli. Physiotherapy and acupuncture were also used to complement the treatment and accelerate recovery. The patient was discharged one month after the beginning of the treatment, presenting satisfactory evolution. In the present case, the clinical examination in association with the characteristic clinical signs of the disease, added to the detailed anamnesis, was essential for the presumptive diagnosis of tetanus. In addition, intensive management, drug treatment, physiotherapy, and acupuncture enabled the evolution of the clinical condition to cure.

O tétano é uma doença grave e rara em pequenos animais, de caráter agudo e mediada pela ação da neurotoxina tetanospasmina, proveniente do bacilo Clostridium tetani. Neste relato descreve-se um caso de tétano em um canino, com ênfase em seus aspectos clínicos e terapêuticos, além da sua recuperação clínica. Foi atendido no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade de Passo Fundo, um canino, fêmea, da raça Pitbull, com cinco meses, em status epilepticus. Após a estabilização da paciente, constataram-se animal em posição de cavalete, com paralisia espástica generalizada, risus sardonicus, trismo, cauda e orelhas eretas e dificuldade em expandir o tórax. O diagnóstico presuntivo de tétano foi firmado a partir da anamnese, sinais clínicos e achados laboratoriais. O tratamento suporte estabelecido incluiu reposição hidroeletrolítica, soro antitetânico, antibioticoterapia, analgesia, fármacos miorrelaxantes e anticonvulsivantes. O manejo intensivo da paciente foi realizado com sondagem uretral e nasoesofágica, trocas de decúbito a cada duas horas e diminuição de estímulos ambientais. A fisioterapia e a acupuntura também foram utilizadas para complementar o tratamento e acelerar a recuperação. A paciente recebeu alta médica um mês após o início do tratamento, apresentando evolução satisfatória. No presente caso, o exame clínico em associação aos sinais clínicos característicos da doença, acrescidos da anamnese minuciosa foram fundamentais ao diagnóstico presuntivo de tétano. Além disso, o manejo intensivo, o tratamento medicamentoso, assim como a realização de fisioterapia e acupuntura, possibilitaram a evolução do quadro clínico à cura.

Animais , Feminino , Cães , Estado Epiléptico/veterinária , Tétano/fisiopatologia , Tétano/veterinária , Mioclonia/veterinária , Clostridium tetani/isolamento & purificação
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 51(supl.1): Pub. 865, 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1434678


Background: Ischemic neuromyopathy is the most common reason for amputation in cats. In veterinary medicine, the use of prosthetic limbs is not widespread; therefore, in most cases total limb amputation is indicated. However, hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is an alternative with several benefits for the treatment of vascular disorders with reperfusion, ischemia, and infection. Therefore, this study aimed to report the positive effects of HBOT on the treatment of ischemic neuromyopathy secondary to arterial thromboembolism on the patient's clinical improvement, and on the preparation of the patient for insertion of an osseointegrated prosthesis. Case: A 6-month-old mixed-breed kitten returned for treatment after undergoing surgery seven days earlier for reduction of traumatic diaphragmatic hernia, during which it suffered a cardiorespiratory arrest. The patient presented with acute pelvic limb paralysis with 24-h evolution, absent femoral pulse, plantar cushions and dorsal part of the limbs cold and pale. After supportive therapy and diagnosis of aortic thromboembolism by arterial Doppler, the patient started adjunctive treatment with HBOT from the first day of hospitalization. Sessions took place in an exclusive hyperbaric chamber for animals and lasted 60 min at a pressure of 2.5 absolute atmospheres and 100% oxygen, initially every 12 h. However, during the first 5 days of hospitalization, the distal region of both pelvic limbs began to show tissue devitalization and edema, and hematologic parameters showed changes on the 7th day. The right pelvic limb (RPL) showed more involvement of superficial tissues, extending to the tarsometatarsal joint region. After 8 days of hospitalization, the devitalized tissue was debrided. The RPL had an extensive devitalized area with exposed bone in the phalanges and necrosis in the pads. The left pelvic limb (LPL) suffered minor complications, with involvement of the phalangeal region. After 12 days, with HBOT every 48 h, exuberant granulation tissue was observed. After 17 days, the patient was discharged, and HBOT sessions were performed weekly. Gangrene of the midfoot and lack of proprioception were observed in RPL, while LPL showed bone divulsion of the 1st, 3rd, and 4th phalanges. Because of the poor prognosis for limb viability, the RPL was partially amputated, and a self-threaded intraosseous prosthesis was inserted. Discussion: The cardiorespiratory arrest that occurred during the surgical procedure to reduce the diaphragmatic hernia without thromboprophylaxis may have contributed to the peripheral ischemia. HBOT was proposed for the adjuvant treatment of ischemic injury because it is especially indicated for cases of ischemia-reperfusion injury. The main hematological parameters were evaluated at an average interval of 7 days. While the platelet count and hematocrit increased, the leukocytosis decreased. This demonstrates the benefit of oxygen therapy in the reported patient. The use of HBOT in orthopedic injuries is known to result mainly in stimulation of osteoblasts, promoting osseointegration of the prosthesis. We conclude that the adjuvant treatment with HBOT helped to preserve a large segment of both pelvic limbs, prevent the progression of necrosis, and provide a healthy bed for fixation of an osseointegrated prosthesis in the RPL, resulting in clinical improvement of the patient.

Animais , Feminino , Gatos , Tromboembolia/terapia , Tromboembolia/veterinária , Prótese Ancorada no Osso/veterinária , Oxigenoterapia Hiperbárica/veterinária
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 50(supl.1): Pub. 838, 2022. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1415123


Background: Laryngeal paralysis is a disorder that affects the movement of the arytenoid cartilages, creating an obstacle to the passage of air during inspiration. The disease is progressive and clinical signs are associated with upper airway obstruction. Diagnosis occurs through observation of laryngeal movements, and it is important to rule out concomitant diseases. In severely affected animals, surgery is recommended to alleviate clinical signs and improve quality of life. The aim of this report is to report a case of idiopathic laryngeal paralysis in a dog submitted to arytenoid unilateralization to clear the upper airways and evaluate the effectiveness of the technique. Case: A 5-year-old male Great Dane dog was referred to the Hospital de Clínicas Veterinárias (HCV) of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) with severe respiratory distress and respiratory stridor. The animal was taken directly to the emergency room, where it was promptly submitted to oxygen therapy with the aid of a mask, was medicated with nalbuphine hydrochloride 0.3 mg/kg intramuscularly and venous access was performed. After stabilization, complete blood count, biochemical profile, blood gas analysis and chest X-ray were requested. In the anamnesis, the tutor reported that the dog showed signs of fatigue with exercise intolerance, coughing similar to choking, breathing difficulties and noisy breathing, especially on hotter days and in situations of exertion, stress or euphoria. He mentioned that the signs were progressive, having started 2 months ago and that they were more frequent and lasting. The patient was diagnosed with laryngeal paralysis through transoral laryngoscopy and referred to surgery. The improvement in the breathing pattern and the absence of post-surgical complications resulted in the patient being discharged 6 days after hospitalization. Discussion: When the origin of laryngeal paralysis (LP) is undefined, the acquired form may be a consequence of generalized polyneuropathy, polymyopathy, neoplasia, endocrinopathy, iatrogenic or idiopathic injury. The patient under study did not present clinical signs or history of disease, therefore, the case was classified as idiopathic in origin. Laryngeal paralysis of unknown cause is the most common and affects mainly middle-aged to elderly males, large or giant breeds. The disease is often described in Labrador Retriever dogs, but it can affect other breeds such as Great Dane. This information corroborates the profile of the patient in this study. Although oral laryngoscopy is the recommended method for confirming the diagnosis in dogs with characteristic signs of LP, the diagnosis can also be obtained by transnasal laryngoscopy or echolaryngography, however, previous studies have shown that the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis through echoaryngography is inferior to transnasal laryngoscopy, suggesting that direct visualization of the larynx is better to indirect visualization. Dogs with signs of moderate to severe respiratory distress or whose quality of life is affected as a result of LP are candidates for surgical treatment, as in this case, in which the patient had exercise intolerance and severe respiratory distress. The arytenoid unilateralization procedure proved to be effective in improving the quality of life of the patient under study, achieving excellent postoperative results and approval by the tutor. In this case, transoral laryngoscopy was essential to determine the diagnosis and establish the treatment. Although the goal of improving quality of life has been achieved without major complications, the animal must receive long-term follow-up due to a possible correlation with generalized polyneuropathy and long-term complications.

Animais , Masculino , Cães , Cartilagem Aritenoide/cirurgia , Sons Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/terapia , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/veterinária , Pneumonia Aspirativa/veterinária , Laringoscopia/veterinária
Acta cir. bras ; 37(8): e370803, 2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1402975


Purpose: To describe the microsurgical anatomical aspects of the extratemporal facial nerve of Wistar rats under a high-definition video system. Methods: Ten male Wistar rats (12­15 weeks old), without veterinary diseases, weighing 220­280 g, were used in this study. All animals in this study were submitted to the same protocol and by the same surgeon. A 10-mm incision was made below the bony prominence of the right or left ear, and extended towards the angle of the mandible. The dissection was performed and the main branches of the facial nerve were dissected. Results: The main trunk of the facial nerve has a length of 0.88 ± 0.10 mm and a length of 3.81 ± 1.03 mm, measured from its emergence from the stylomastoid foramen to its bifurcation. Seven branches originating from the facial nerve were identified: posterior auricular, posterior cervical, cervical, mandibular, buccal, temporal, and zygomatic. Conclusions: The anatomy of the facial nerve is comparable to that of humans, with some variations. The most observed anatomical division was the distribution in posterior auricular, posterior cervical, cervical, mandibular, buccal, temporal, and zygomatic branches. There is no statistical difference between the thickness and distance of the structures compared to the contralateral side.

Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Microdissecção/veterinária , Nervo Facial/anatomia & histologia , Paralisia Facial/cirurgia , Microcirurgia/veterinária , Cirurgia Vídeoassistida/veterinária
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 28: e20220020, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1405508


Peripheral facial paralysis (PFP) has been shown to be a neurological manifestation of COVID-19. The current study presents two cases of PFP after COVID-19, along with a rapid review of known cases in the literature. Both case reports were conducted following CARE guidelines. We also performed a systematic review of PFP cases temporally related to COVID-19 using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases on August 30, 2021, using a rapid review methodology. The two patients experienced PFP 102 and 110 days after COVID-19 symptom onset. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in nasal samples through reverse-transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) testing. Anosmia was the only other neurological manifestation. PFP was treated with steroids in both cases, with complete subsequent recovery. In the rapid review, we identified 764 articles and included 43 studies. From those, 128 patients with PFP were analyzed, of whom 42.1% (54/128) were male, 39.06% (50/128) female, and in 23 cases the gender was not reported. The age range was 18 to 59 (54.68%). The median time between COVID-19 and PFP was three days (ranging from the first symptom of COVID-19 to 40 days after the acute phase of infection). Late PFP associated with COVID-19 presents mild symptoms and improves with time, with no identified predictors. Late PFP should be added to the spectrum of neurological manifestations associated with the long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection as a post COVID-19 condition.

Humanos , Paralisia Facial/etiologia , COVID-19/complicações , Doenças Neuromusculares/etiologia
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 50(supl.1): Pub. 819, 2022. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1401523


Background: Marek's disease (MD) is a transmissible disease in chickens caused by Gallid alphaherpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2). The infection is characterized by lymphocyte cellular infiltrates in peripheral nerves and other organs and tissues, including the skin; which can lead to dysfunction causing progressive asymmetric paresis and complete spastic paralysis of body extremities. Dermatitis and cardiac myositis caused by GaHV-2 in free-range chickens has rarely been described in Brazil. This reports the occurrence of the disease with a confirmatory molecular diagnosis in free-range poultry showing signs of dermatitis, poor performance, and cachexia and no mortality in the semi-arid Potiguar region. Cases: Twenty roosters of the Shamo lineage, among a brood of 42 birds, had a history of progressive weight loss and skin lesions. Two birds with poor body condition, erythema, and scaling of the skin in the head and cervical regions were sent for clinical care. All birds were between 12 and 18 months of age and were vaccinated against Newcastle disease and Fowlpox with only a few receiving vaccines against MD and Gumboro disease. According to the owner's report, some birds were previously kept outdoors, and when they were transferred to a small shed with little air circulation, they began to develop clinical signs after approximately 15 days. The first signs of the disease were also reported to have appeared 2.5 months before clinical care and, in the meantime, several treatments were instituted without success. Owing to the general condition of the animals and inconclusive clinical suspicion, the birds were subjected to euthanasia and necropsy. Tissue samples were collected for histopathological and polymerase chain reaction analyses to search for the GaHV-2 DNA meq gene. The main clinicopathological findings were erythema (47%, 20/42) and desquamation of skin and mild, prominent white multifocal areas in the heart. Histopathology revealed infiltration of pleomorphic lymphoblastic cells in the skin, heart, and sciatic nerve. The amplification of the L-meq and meq oncoprotein genes in these organs and in the liver, confirmed the infection by GaHV-2, consistent with that of a field strain. Discussion: MD was confirmed based on the macroscopic and histological lesions, and with the detection of GaHV-2 DNA in the affected tissues. The unusual clinical presentation represented an initial challenge for diagnosis. The clinical history was important to lead to the suspicion of MD, as roosters initiated clinical signs 15 days after they were transferred to a small shed with poor air circulation. This probably favored the high viral concentration and disease transmission among susceptible birds in the brood because the feather follicle is the primary site of viral replication for transmission; and desquamation of infected epithelial cells favor airborne horizontal transmission to susceptible chickens. The roosters had not been vaccinated against MD, which probably favored the infection, as vaccination is known to be a fundamental approach for MD control for effective growth of the poultry industry. Clinical findings and lesions, together with viral molecular detection, were fundamental for the diagnosis, a premise for the application of adequate prevention and control measures for the disease in breeding. This is the first report of MD with a confirmatory molecular diagnosis in northeastern Brazil.

Animais , Masculino , Galinhas/virologia , Doença de Marek/diagnóstico , Herpesvirus Galináceo 2/isolamento & purificação , Proto-Oncogenes , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Dermatite/veterinária , Miosite/veterinária
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e06929, 2022. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1437049


Intervertebral disc extrusion (IVDE) is the most common cause of spinal cord compression in dogs, whose prognosis is variable and depends on several factors, with deep pain perception (DPP) being the main parameter used. Investigations of new prognostic factors are studied to assist in the estimation of functional recovery. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate whether spinal hyperesthesia (SH) at the compression site can be used as a prognostic factor for the functional recovery of dogs with acute IVDE (Hansen type I), without DPP being subjected to thoracolumbar hemilaminectomy. Decompression surgery was performed on the same day or the day after admission. The duration of the loss of DPP until surgery performance ranged from 1 to 60 days, with a median of 4.5 days for the group of dogs with SH and 5.5 days for those without SH. Among the 68 dogs included in this retrospective study, 73.5% (50/68) showed SH, and 26.5% (18/68) were not identified. Recovery was satisfactory in 60% (30/50) of dogs with SH and in 27.7% (5/18) of dogs without SH, demonstrating that paraplegic dogs without DPP but with SH were 3.9 times more likely to recover when compared to dogs in the same condition, but with no SH. No studies have evaluated SH by palpation of the spine as a prognostic factor, which reinforces the relevance of the present study. The results of this study imply that SH in paraplegic dogs affected by thoracolumbar IVDE, without the presence of DPP, can be used as a possible prognostic indicator of functional recovery.

A extrusão do disco intervertebral (EDIV) é a causa mais comum de lesão compressiva na medula espinhal de cães, cujo prognóstico é variável e depende de diversos fatores, sendo a percepção de dor profunda (PDP) o principal parâmetro utilizado. Pesquisas de novos fatores prognósticos são estudados com intuito de auxiliar na estimativa mais precisa de recuperação funcional. Com isso, o objetivo do estudo foi avaliar se a hiperestesia espinhal (HE) no local da compressão, pode ser utilizada como um fator prognóstico para recuperação funcional de cães com extrusão aguda do disco intervertebral (Hansen tipo I), sem a presença de PDP submetidos a hemilaminectomia toracolombar. A cirurgia descompressiva ocorreu no mesmo dia ou no dia seguinte ao atendimento. A duração da perda de dor profunda até a realização da cirurgia variou de 1 a 60 dias, com uma mediana de 4,5 dias para o grupo de cães com e 5,5 dias para aqueles sem hiperestesia espinhal. Dos 68 cães incluídos nesse estudo retrospectivo, 73,5% (50/68) apresentavam HE e, em 26,5% (18/68) a dor não foi identificada. A recuperação foi satisfatória nos cães com HE em 60% (30/50) e, sem HE, em 27,7% (5/18) dos casos, demonstrando que os cães paraplégicos sem PDP, mas com presença de hiperestesia espinhal tem 3,9 vezes mais chances de recuperação quando comparado com cães na mesma condição, mas sem HE. Não foram encontrados trabalhos que avaliaram a HE mediante a palpação da coluna vertebral como um fator prognóstico, o que reforça a relevância do presente estudo. Os resultados do presente trabalho sugerem que a HE em cães paraplégicos acometidos por EDIV toracolombar sem presença de PDP pode ser utilizada como um possível indicador prognóstico de recuperação funcional.

Animais , Cães , Paraplegia/veterinária , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/veterinária , Medição da Dor/veterinária , Percepção da Dor , Hiperestesia/veterinária , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/veterinária
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 50(suppl.1): Pub.753-4 jan. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1458561


Background: Botulism is a disease caused by the ingestion of neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum, characterizedby flaccid paralysis, which can lead to high mortality. They have seven types of neurotoxins (A, B, C, D, E, F, and G) and,in birds, most cases are attributed to type C. They are considered sources of botulinum toxins where the decomposition oforganic matter occurs, like stagnant water and rotting food. The main feature of the disease in birds is ascending symmetricflaccid paralysis. The present study aims to describe an outbreak of type C botulism in backyard poultry in the state ofSanta Catarina, Southern Brazil.Case: A visit was made to the property with 160 backyard poultry with a history of high mortality in the municipality ofAgrolândia, Santa Catarina. Clinical signs were characterized by paralysis of the pelvic limbs, neck and pendular wings,which progressed to death within 48 h. There was a mortality rate of 37.5% (60/160) between March and May 2019. Thesebirds were kept in an overcrowded environment, with different species (chickens, ducks, teals, and turkeys) fed irregularly.The water supplied was provided from kitchen exhaust, accumulating in puddles on the floor that contained organic matterresidues such as animal feces, food waste and bone fragments. The disposal of the carcasses of birds that died was in thesame enclosure, buried superficially, facilitating the access of other birds to dig them up and consume them. Necropsywas performed on 2 chickens and one duck, no macroscopic or histopathological lesions were observed. Blood, liver, andgastrointestinal content samples were sent for research and identification of botulinum toxin through the serum neutralization test in mice. The presence of type C botulinum toxin was confirmed in the liver chicken of one sampled animals.Discussion: The identification of type C botulism toxin enabled the characterization of the outbreak, which is...

Animais , Botulismo/epidemiologia , Botulismo/veterinária , Clostridium botulinum tipo C/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas/microbiologia , Neurotoxinas , Brasil , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária
Acta sci. vet. (Online) ; 50(suppl.1): Pub. 753, 15 fev. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-765212


Background: Botulism is a disease caused by the ingestion of neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum, characterizedby flaccid paralysis, which can lead to high mortality. They have seven types of neurotoxins (A, B, C, D, E, F, and G) and,in birds, most cases are attributed to type C. They are considered sources of botulinum toxins where the decomposition oforganic matter occurs, like stagnant water and rotting food. The main feature of the disease in birds is ascending symmetricflaccid paralysis. The present study aims to describe an outbreak of type C botulism in backyard poultry in the state ofSanta Catarina, Southern Brazil.Case: A visit was made to the property with 160 backyard poultry with a history of high mortality in the municipality ofAgrolândia, Santa Catarina. Clinical signs were characterized by paralysis of the pelvic limbs, neck and pendular wings,which progressed to death within 48 h. There was a mortality rate of 37.5% (60/160) between March and May 2019. Thesebirds were kept in an overcrowded environment, with different species (chickens, ducks, teals, and turkeys) fed irregularly.The water supplied was provided from kitchen exhaust, accumulating in puddles on the floor that contained organic matterresidues such as animal feces, food waste and bone fragments. The disposal of the carcasses of birds that died was in thesame enclosure, buried superficially, facilitating the access of other birds to dig them up and consume them. Necropsywas performed on 2 chickens and one duck, no macroscopic or histopathological lesions were observed. Blood, liver, andgastrointestinal content samples were sent for research and identification of botulinum toxin through the serum neutralization test in mice. The presence of type C botulinum toxin was confirmed in the liver chicken of one sampled animals.Discussion: The identification of type C botulism toxin enabled the characterization of the outbreak, which is...(AU)

Animais , Botulismo/epidemiologia , Botulismo/veterinária , Clostridium botulinum tipo C/isolamento & purificação , Neurotoxinas , Galinhas/microbiologia , Brasil , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária
Acta cir. bras ; 37(8): e370804, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1402974


Purpose: Various postoperative protocols have been proposed to improve outcomes and accelerate nerve regeneration. Recently, the use of physical exercise in a post-surgical neurorraphy procedure has shown good results when started early. We experimentally investigated the hypothesis that post-operative exercise speeds up results and improves clinical and morphologic parameters. Methods: Isogenic rats were randomly divided into four groups: 1 SHAM; 2 SHAM submitted to the exercise protocol (EP); 3 Grafting of the sciatic nerve; and 4 Grafting of the sciatic nerve associated with the EP. The EP was based on aerobic activities with a treadmill, with a progressive increase in time and intensity during 6 weeks. The results were evaluated by the sciatic functional index (SFI), morphometric and morphologic analysis of nerve distal to the lesion, and the number of spinal cord motor neurons, positive to the marker Fluoro-Gold (FG), captured retrogradely through neurorraphy. Results: Functional analysis (SFI) did not show a statistical difference between the group grafted with (­50.94) and without exercise (-65.79) after 90 days. The motoneurons count (Spinal cord histology) also showed no diference between these groups (834.5 × 833 respectively). Although functionally there is no difference between these groups, morphometric study showed a greater density (53.62) and larger fibers (7.762) in GRAFT group. When comparing both operated groups with both SHAM groups, all values were much lower. Conclusions: The experimental model that this aerobic treadmill exercises protocol did not modify nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve injury and repair with nerve graft.

Animais , Ratos , Nervo Fibular , Neuropatias Fibulares/terapia , Teste de Esforço , Regeneração Nervosa , Hipertensão/veterinária , Neurônios Motores/fisiologia
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 50(supl.1): 785, 2022. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1370266


Background: Chemodectomas, better known as tumors of the base of the heart, arise from aortic bodies, respiratory chemoreceptors located near or inside the aortic arch or originate from receptors located in the carotid arteries. Relatively rare, they affect dogs and, to a lesser extent, cats. They gain great importance when they influence the function of the cardiovascular system, with animals showing clinical signs related to congestive heart failure. Clinical diagnosis is based on symptomatology and complementary tests such as radiography, electrocardiography and echocardiography, while the definitive diagnosis is obtained by cytological and histopathological exams. This study aims to reports a case of malignant chemodectoma in a bitch, whose main symptomatology was neurological and not cardiovascular. Case: A 1-year-old Rottweiler bitch was attended with neurological alterations compatible with vestibular syndrome, hyporexia, dysphagia, apathy, melena, emesis, and purulent nasal discharge on the right nostril. On physical examination, the animal showed depressed level of consciousness, poor body condition, bilateral quemosis, paralysis of the right eye, inspiratory dyspnea and muffling of cardiac auscultation, besides a subcutaneous nodule between the scapulae. On neurological evaluation, horizontal nystagmus, head tilt to the right side, ventromedial strabismus and facial nerve paralysis on the right side were observed so that the localization of the lesion was set in peripheral vestibular system. During anesthesia for esophageal tube placement, a mass from the hard palate to the oropharynx was noted, making endotracheal intubation impossible to perform. Biopsy of this nodule was performed, and tracheostomy was indicated, but the owner opted for euthanasia before the procedure. Necropsy revealed white soft masses in the bilateral retromandibular region, on the subcutaneous tissue near the scapulae, in the right ear and since nasopharynx to the soft palate, in addition to sparse white nodules in the heart, lung, carotid artery, kidneys, right ovary, mesentery near to the spleen, and axillary lymph node. Histologically, the nodules were characterized by neoplastic cells population organized in short bundles or cords, arranged around small blood vessels surrounded by delicate connective tissue. Neoplastic cells infiltrated muscles and blood and lymphatic vessels were filled by multiple neoplastic emboli. The histological pattern of the cells allowed the diagnosis of chemodectoma. Discussion: The bitch from this case had 1-year-old when diagnosed with chemodectoma, differently from most cases from literature, that are between 7 to 15 years old. Furthermore, primarily cardiac tumors are considered rare, being chemodectoma the most common, often reported in Boxer and Boston Terrier dogs, but unusual in Rottweilers. Despites some articles mentioning seizure and Horner's Syndrome secondary to a carotid body chemodectoma, neurological signs are not commonly observed in these cases. The presence of the tumor in the middle ear region of the right side supports the occurrence of peripheral vestibular syndrome and facial nerve paralysis on the same side. Because it is a neoplasm that is usually detected late during the course of the disorder, most patients either cannot obtain diagnosis in vivo, as in this reported animal, which was in such a critical condition that underwent euthanasia, or there are no more possible therapeutic choices. In the patient described, there were numerous metastatic masses and nodules spread throughout the body. Although the typical clinical signs in animals with chemodectomas are often related to heart disease, neurological signs may also be present. This report emphasizes the importance of chemodectoma being included as a differential diagnosis in young dogs and even in breeds such as Rottweiler.

Animais , Feminino , Cães , Síndromes do Arco Aórtico/veterinária , Doenças Vestibulares/veterinária , Paraganglioma Extrassuprarrenal/veterinária , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/veterinária
Arq. Inst. Biol. (Online) ; 89: e00152021, 2022. graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1393889


Botulism is a disease usually fatal, caused by the ingestion of neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum. In dogs, intoxication is caused by the ingestion of botulinum toxin type C, and animals often recover spontaneously. The present study describes the occurrence of type C botulism in two dogs domiciled on neighboring rural properties in the municipality of Goiânia, state of Goiás, Brazil, probably associated with ingestion of decomposing bovine carcass. Upon clinical evaluation, the dogs were alert in the lateral decubitus position with ascending flaccid paralysis, absence of eyelid reflexes, and reduced muscle tone. Due to their worsening clinical symptoms, the animals died within 12 h and 3 days after supportive treatment. Botulinum toxin type C was identified, in the serum and feces of both dogs, by seroneutralization in mice with homologous monovalent antitoxin. The results of the high-throughput gene sequencing showed that the abundance of C. botulinum in the fecal microbiota of one of the affected dogs was low (0.53%). In this way, the present study highlights the need of sanitary practices related to the appropriate collection and disposal of bovine carcasses in rural areas since they represent a risk factor for the occurrence of botulism in dogs domiciled on rural properties.

Animais , Cães , Camundongos , Toxinas Botulínicas/análise , Botulismo/epidemiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Análise de Sequência de RNA/veterinária , Clostridium botulinum tipo C/isolamento & purificação , Bioensaio/veterinária
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e07166, 2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1406215


Botulism is generally a fatal disease caused by ingestion of neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum. The present study describes the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory aspects of a type C botulism outbreak in free-living aquatic birds residing in an urban park in Quirinópolis, Goiás, Brazil. Among a population of approximately 80 waterfowl, a total of 30 birds, including ducks (Cairina moschata), teals (Anas platyrhynchos), and geese (Anser cygnoides), died within 10 days. Of these, six birds showed signs of flaccid paralysis of the pelvic limbs, eyelids, neck, and wings. To confirm the suspicion of botulism, four lake water samples, two samples of the feed consumed by the birds, and samples of serum, intestinal content, stomach content, and liver tissue from two teals that died after presenting clinical signs were analyzed. Using bioassay and neutralization with homologous antitoxin in mice, it was possible to detect the presence of botulinum toxin type C in a water sample and in the intestinal content of one of the necropsied teals. Additionally, the presence of C. botulinum type C was identified in the lake water using polymerase chain reaction. Based on the clinical signs and laboratory results, a diagnosis of botulism caused by botulinum toxin type C was confirmed with probable transmission by lake water.

O botulismo é uma doença geralmente fatal, causada pela ingestão de neurotoxinas produzidas pelo Clostridium botulinum. O presente estudo descreve os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e laboratoriais de um surto de botulismo tipo C em aves aquáticas de vida livre habitantes de parque urbano em Quirinópolis, Goiás. De uma população de cerca de 80 aves aquáticas, um total de 30 aves, entre patos (Cairina moschata), marrecos (Anas platyrhynchos) e gansos (Anser cygnoides), morreram no intervalo de 10 dias. Destes, seis aves apresentaram sinais de paralisia flácida de membros pélvicos, pálpebras, pescoço e asas. Para confirmar a suspeita de botulismo, foram analisadas quatro amostras da água do lago, duas amostras da ração consumida pelas aves e amostras de soro, conteúdo intestinal, conteúdo estomacal e fígado de dois marrecos que morreram após apresentarem os sinais clínicos. Pelo bioensaio e neutralização com antitoxina homóloga em camundongos foi possível detectar a presença de toxina botulínica tipo C em uma amostra de água e no conteúdo intestinal de um dos marrecos necropsiados. Adicionalmente, pela reação em cadeia da polimerase identificou-se a presença de C. botulinum tipo C na água do lago. Com base nos sinais clínicos e resultados laboratoriais estabeleceu-se o diagnóstico de botulismo causado pela toxina botulínica tipo C e veiculada provavelmente pela água do lago.

Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Botulismo/diagnóstico , Botulismo/patologia , Botulismo/epidemiologia , Anseriformes , Clostridium botulinum tipo C , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Brasil , Patos , Gansos
Acta Vet. Brasilica ; 16(2): 84-89, maio 2022. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1391760


Rabies is an acute, progressive, and fatal encephalomyelitis caused by a Lyssavirus. Horses affected by the disease may be a source of infection for humans. A rapid diagnosis is crucial to initiate a prompt and adequate infection control and public health measures. This manuscript reports the case of a 4-year-old gelding, 370 kg, healthy and routinely used for veterinary teaching purposes that developed rabies although vaccinated against it. Clinical signs included lameness, ataxia, muscle tremors, decubitus and pedalling, progressive paralysis, profuse salivation, teeth grinding, and whinnying. After 4 days, the animal was euthanised and definitive diagnosis was achieved through an animal inoculation test which was positive. Complementary findings included encephalomyelitis with perivascular cuffs and identification of Negri bodies in various areas of the brain.(AU)

A raiva é uma encefalomielite aguda, progressiva e fatal causada por um Lyssavirus. Cavalos acometidos pela doença podem ser uma fonte de infecção para homens. O rápido diagnóstico é crucial para que iniciem medidas de controle de infecção e de saúde pública adequadas. Esse manuscrito descreve o caso clínico de um equino de 4 anos, macho castrado, 370 kg, hígido, usado nas práticas didáticas da escola de veterinária que desenvolveu quadro clínico de raiva, apesar de ser vacinado contra a referida doença. Os sinais clínicos incluíram claudicação, ataxia, tremores musculares, decúbito e movimentos de pedalagem, paralisia progressiva, salivação profusa, bruxismo e relinchos. Após 4 dias, o animal foi eutanasiado e o diagnóstico definitivo foi feito através de prova biológica positivada. Os achados complementares incluíram os achados histopatológicos nos quais destacam-se encefamolielite com manguitos perivasculares e identificação de Corpúsculos de Negri em várias áreas do cérebro.(AU)

Animais , Masculino , Raiva/diagnóstico , Vacina Antirrábica/análise , Vacinação/veterinária , Cavalos/imunologia , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/veterinária
Acta Vet. Brasilica ; 16(2): 101-105, maio 2022. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1392274


The seagull (Larus dominicanus) commonly can be observed near human fishing activities, as this species feeds on discards from fishing. This common interaction between a seabird and human fishing activity (both commercial and recreational), provides an easy source of food, but is not without risk for the birds. We report here clinical, radiographic and anatomopathological findings of an esophageal perforation caused by fishing gear in a specimen of Larus dominicanus found alive on a beach in the state of São Paulo which illustrated a harmful effect of stemming from recreational fishing. Clinical examination revealed a nylon thread in the oral cavity with the presence of caseous suggestive of ingestion of lost fishing gear, paralysis of the pelvic limbs and a decrease in the pain reflex associated with sternal decubitus, suggestive of food intoxication. Necroscopic examination revealed two hooks, one in the caudal portion of the esophagus with esophageal and pulmonary perforation, and the other in the muscular stomach. These injuries would have been expected to lead to the death of the bird. These anatomopathological findings confirmed the seriousness of the injuries. This reinforces the importance of studies focused on the interaction of recreational fishing artifacts (hooks, lines) with coastal birds on the Brazilian coast, in order to develop a preventative strategy.(AU)

A gaivota (Larus dominicanus) está intimamente relacionada às atividades pesqueiras, uma vez que possui hábitos generalistas e se alimenta dos descartes provenientes da pesca. Este processo de interação entre aves marinhas e a pesca apre-senta efeitos positivos e negativos, porém, suas relações ecológicas ainda não são bem compreendidas. No presente trabalho, objetivou-se relatar achados clínicos, radiográficos e anatomopatológicos de uma perfuração esofágica ocasionada por petrecho de pesca em um espécime de Larus dominicanus no litoral do estado de São Paulo e levantar a problemática da pesca recrea-tiva na região. Ao exame clínico, observou-se presença de fio de náilon em cavidade oral com presença de cáseo sugestivo de ingestão de petrecho de pesca, paresia de membros pélvicos e diminuição de reflexo doloroso associado a decúbito esternal, sugerindo um quadro de intoxicação alimentar. O exame necroscópico revelou a presença de dois anzóis, um em porção cau-dal do esôfago com perfuração esofágica e pulmonar, e outro em ventrículo. Os achados anatomopatológicos comprovaram a gravidade das lesões causadas pela interação com a pesca recreativa, o que reforça a importância de estudos referentes à intera-ção de artefatos pesqueiros (anzóis, linhas) com aves costeiras do litoral brasileiro, atualmente escassos na literatura científica.(AU)

Animais , Charadriiformes/anatomia & histologia , Caça , Perfuração Esofágica/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/veterinária
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 50(supl.1): Pub. 793, 2022. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1401195


Background: Wounds that occur with tissue necrosis and that result from the application of medications through the most diverse accesses are described as drug skin medical embolism or Nicholas syndrome in human medicine, with wide description. In veterinary medicine, this subject has not yet been described extensively and specifically in veterinary medicine, especially regarding to wounds that occurred after the application of non-intravenous medications in horses, even though these lesions are recurrent in the clinical routine. This report aims to describe a case of skin necrosis in a horse, due to phenylbutazone infection. Case: A 7 year-old Mangalarga Marchador horse, weighing 400 kg, was admitted to the Veterinary Hospital for Large Animals of the Universiade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), with a history of phenylbutazone injection to the left side of the neck. The animal had an extensive wound on the neck and face on the left side and was characterized by the presence of cold and devitalized skin, with a hardened and parched appearance and that easily detached. During the anamnesis, a single administration of 10 mL of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug based on phenylbutazone was reported intramuscularly for about 10 days to control the pain resulting from the claudication present for 14 days. The medication was administered in the region of the lateral border of the neck, on the left side. After drug administration, the animal presented an increase in volume at the application site. After 24 h, the lesion spread from the inoculation region, extending to the head and chest of the animal. During debridement, it was found that the lesion did not reach the underlying muscle tissue. In addition to the wound, the animal had upper eyelid palsy, lower lip, and auricular ptosis. Treatment with surgical debridement of devitalized tissue, topical application of ozonated sunflower oil, ketanserin, and a free skin graft was instituted. During hospitalization, the animal had a corneal ulcer in the left eye with an unfavorable prognosis due to paralysis of the upper eyelid, with enucleation of the affected eyeball. The animal was under veterinary care for 180 days and was discharged when his wound was already in an advanced stage of healing. Discussion: The history of the application of phenylbutazone intramuscularly and the location and characteristics of the lesion presented by the patient in the present report suggest that this animal presented aseptic tissue necrosis resulting from the administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, phenylbutazone. Although aseptic tissue necrosis, better known as Nicolau's syndrome or drug embolism cutis, is widely characterized and described in this species, there are studies in the literature that reproduce the syndrome in pigs and rabbits. Phenylbutazone was able to cause arterial damage, mainly in the tunica intima of the artery in which the medication was administered, with perivascular inflammatory infiltrate and subsequent skin necrosis at the site of administration. In addition to the skin lesion, the animal started to show signs compatible with the left facial nerve lesion, evidenced by the immobility of the upper eyelid and labial and ear ptosis. This resulted in corneal ulceration and subsequent enucleation. The animal also developed chewing difficulty in the first months of hospitalization. This dysfunction may be due to a lesion of the mandibular nerve, responsible for innervating the masticatory muscles and the oral mucosa. However, the animal showed improvement in this aspect, no longer showing this condition after 90 days of hospitalization. The treatment used was successful in healing the wound.

Animais , Fenilbutazona/efeitos adversos , Gangrena/veterinária , Cavalos/lesões , Síndrome de Nicolau/veterinária , Doença Iatrogênica/veterinária
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e07068, 2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1406220


Forty-six pigs presented muscle weakness, hind limb paresis and paralysis, weight loss, lateral recumbency, and death in a clinical course of 7 to 10 days. Two pigs were necropsied and exhibited bone fragility, bone callus formation, and multiple fractures in the limbs, ribs, and vertebrae. Microscopically, there was a diffuse and marked decrease in thickness and number of trabeculae. These were disconnected, with a "free-floating" appearance, while the cortex of the long bones was thinned, with an increase of the cortical porosity by enlargement of Haversian canals and endosteal erosion and decreased osteoblastic activity. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry in liver samples revealed significant zinc overload (>2300ppm) and copper deficiency (<33.1ppm). In this communication, we present the first pathologic description of an outbreak of osteoporosis in pigs, and we also provide a brief review of metabolic bone diseases in pigs.

Quarenta e seis suínos apresentaram fraqueza muscular, paresia e paralisia de membros pélvicos, perda de peso, decúbito lateral e morte, com um curso clínico de 7 a 10 dias. Dois suínos foram submetidos a necropsia e exibiram fragilidade óssea, formação de calo ósseo, e múltiplas fraturas em membros, costelas e vértebras. Microscopicamente notou-se difusamente um marcado decréscimo na espessura e número de trabéculas ósseas. Essas estavam desconexas, com uma aparência de flutuação, enquanto o córtex dos ossos longos estava afinado, com um aumento da porosidade pela dilatação dos canais de Haversian, erosão endosteal e diminuição da atividade osteoblástica. Espectrofotometria por chama foi realizada em amostras de fígado, e revelou um excesso de zinco (>2300ppm) e deficiência de cobre (<33.1ppm). Neste trabalho, apresentamos a primeira descrição patológica de um surto de osteoporose em suínos, além de fornecer uma breve revisão de doenças metabólicas em suínos.

Animais , Osteoporose/patologia , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Zinco , Cobre/deficiência , Sus scrofa , Raquitismo/veterinária , Brasil , Fraturas Múltiplas/veterinária , Coxeadura Animal
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e07057, 2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1394496


The present study gathered epidemiological and clinical-pathological information about cattle with compressive lesions in the central nervous system (CNS). The retrospective study included observations made in 50 cattle from 1998 to 2021 by reviewing the clinical records of animals with compressive lesions in the CNS treated at the Veterinary Hospital of the Veterinary Medicine Institute of the Federal University of Pará. The animals had clinical signs and were subjected to general and specific clinical examination of the nervous system. Blood samples were collected from 13 animals for complete blood counts, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected from four animals for physical evaluation. Twenty-nine cattle underwent necropsy. The most affected sites were the T3-L3 (46%, 23/50), C1-C5 (22%, 11/50), C6-T2 (14%, 7/50), sacrococcygeal vertebrae, (4%, 2/50), L4-S2 (2%, 1/50), brain (8%, 4/50) and cerebellum (4%, 2/50). The age of the affected cattle ranged from 20 days to 16 years, with a higher occurrence in animals younger than 12 months (56%, 28/50). More Females were affected (58%, 29/50) than males (42%, 21/50). The clinical signs varied according to the location of the lesion and were mainly represented by ataxia, paresis or paralysis of the limbs, inability to stand and walk, postural changes, hyperesthesia in the extremities, and loss of skin sensitivity at the location of the lesion. The necropsy findings revealed changes such as abscesses in the vertebral body; intervertebral space in the medullary canal, pituitary and cerebellum; granuloma in the arch of the vertebra; fractures of the body of the vertebrae; subarachnoid haematoma; congenital bone alteration causing spinal cord compression; and spondylitis. Detailed anamnesis and clinical examination of the CNS, associated with necropsy findings, were important to determine the cause of the disease, correlate with the clinical picture and locate the affected segments of the CNS in the cattle. It is important to include these diseases in the list of differential diagnoses in cattle with nervous symptoms.

O presente trabalho reúne informações epidemiológicas e clínicopatológicas de bovinos com lesões compressivas no sistema nervoso central (SNC). O estudo retrospectivo compreendeu as observações realizadas em 50 bovinos durante os anos de 1998 a 2021, por meio da revisão dos arquivos de fichas clínicas de animais com lesões compressivas no SNC atendidos pelo Hospital Veterinário do Instituto de Medicina Veterinária da Universidade Federal do Pará. Os animais atendidos com sinais clínicos foram submetidos a exame clínico geral e específico do sistema nervoso. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue de 13 animais para realização de hemograma e amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano de quatro animais para avaliação física. Foram submetidos à necropsia 29 bovinos. Os locais mais acometidos foram as vértebras T3-L3 (46%, 23/50), C1-C5 (22%, 11/50), C6-T2 (14%, 7/50), sacrococcígea (4%, 2/50) e L4-S2 (2%, 1/50); cérebro (8%, 4/50) e cerebelo (4%, 2/50). A idade dos bovinos afetados variou de 20 dias a 16 anos, com maior ocorrência em animais com menos de 12 meses (56%, 28/50). As fêmeas foram mais acometidas (58%, 29/50) do que os machos (42%, 21/50). Os sinais clínicos variaram de acordo com a localização da lesão e foram representados principalmente por ataxia, paresia ou paralisia dos membros, incapacidade de se levantar e de ficar em estação, alterações posturais, hiperestesia nas extremidades, além de perda da sensibilidade cutânea relacionada com a localização da lesão. Os achados de necropsia revelaram alterações como abscessos no corpo vertebral, no espaço intervertebral, no canal medular, para-hipofisário e no cerebelo; granuloma no arco da vértebra, fraturas do corpo das vértebras; hematoma subaracnoide; alteração óssea congênita causando compressão medular e espondilite. Anamnese detalhada e exame clínico do SNC, associados aos achados de necropsia foram importantes para determinar a causa da doença, correlacionar com o quadro clínico e localizar os segmentos acometidos do SNC dos bovinos. Torna-se importante incluir estas enfermidades na lista de diagnósticos diferenciais em bovinos que apresentem sintomatologia nervosa.

Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/veterinária , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/epidemiologia , Doenças Cerebelares/veterinária , Ecossistema Amazônico , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/veterinária