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Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 51: Pub. 1902, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1415241


Background: The artificial insemination has become a well-established method in the breeding of bitches, and evaluation of the factors that may potentially affect pregnancy success is essential. For this reason, it is essential to evaluate the factors that may affect fertility of the bitch when artificial insemination is performed. Serum progesterone concentrations and vaginal cytology have been used to determine the time of ovulation and stage of the estrus cycle. This study aimed to evaluate the artificial insemination method, the serum progesterone concentration, the breed size, age, the whelping number, vaginal cytology parameters, and their interactions on pregnancy success in bitches. Materials, Methods & Results: A total of 607 bitches that had undergone reproductive consultation with the Mexican Canine Federation from January to December 2016 were enrolled in the present study and assigned to one of 2 artificial insemination methods (intravaginal and transcervical) using fresh semen. Determination of the estrus cycle phase and the time of Artificial insemination was based on vaginal cytology and serum progesterone concentrations. Bitches inseminated by the transcervical technique had a higher pregnancy rate with respect to females inseminated by the intravaginal technique (P < 0.05). Moreover, females with a serum progesterone concentration of 5-10 ng/mL had a greater probability (> 4 times) of getting pregnant than animals with lower or higher progesterone concentrations (P < 0.05). Bitches inseminated by the intravaginal technique and with serum progesterone concentrations >10 ng/mL had a considerable reduction in pregnancy (P < 0.05) compared with females with < 10 ng/mL serum progesterone or with bitches inseminated by the transcervical technique. Discusion: Serum progesterone concentration, the artificial insemination method, and superficial cells without a nucleus modified the pregnancy rate in bitches. Females inseminated by transcervical semen deposition had a higher pregnancy rate than females inseminated by the intravaginal technique. Using fresh or frozen-thawed semen produced a higher pregnancy rate in bitches inseminated by transcervical semen deposition than females inseminated by the intravaginal technique. Differences in the pregnancy rate between transcervical and intravaginal insemination could be associated with the correct semen disposition, the distance that the sperm must travel to reach the oocyte, as well as the number of sperm that reach the oviduct ampulla. Exist evidences that after ovulation, as progesterone rises, the cervix is closed, which may compromise the passage of the sperm deposited into the vagina. Therefore, it is likely that in females with a serum progesterone concentration > 10 ng/mL, the cervix was closed, compromising the ability of the sperm to access the oviduct. Thus, the use of intravaginal insemination should be done in bitches with a serum progesterone concentrations < 11 ng/mL to reduce the possibility of cervical closure and to increase the odds of pregnancy. It is well documented that the serum progesterone concentration and vaginal cytology parameters have a great influence on pregnancy success, and the results confirm these findings. In the present study, 96% of the bitches inseminated with a serum progesterone concentration of 5-10 ng/mL got pregnant and had higher odds of pregnancy than bitches with lower or higher serum progesterone concentrations.

Animais , Feminino , Cães , Progesterona/sangue , Vagina/citologia , Prenhez , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Taxa de Gravidez
Sci. agric ; 80: e20220088, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1434352


Determining what and how much each environmental factor affects pregnancy is crucial to the sustainability and management of beef cow herds. The study evaluated through logistic regression the effect of environmental variables on the increase or reduction in the pregnancy rate of beef cows. The average pregnancy rate in the cows was 73 %, with an average age for the herd of 3.7 years. An increase in age of one year represented a 30 % increase in pregnancy, while a reduction of one year reduced the odds of pregnancy in the cows by 23 %. During the lactation period, an extra seven days' lactation reduced the odds of pregnancy by 12 %. For every seven days that weaning was brought forward, the cows' pregnancy odds increased by 14 %. An increase of 0.1 kg in average daily gain represented an increase of 17 % and 15 % in the odds of pregnancy during the first 60 days post-partum and 60 days to the end of the reproductive period. On the other hand, the loss of 0.1 kg in average daily gain resulted in a 14 % and 13 % reduction in the cows' pregnancy odds, respectively. Factors such as age, the precocity of calving in the calving season, the time the calf remains with the cow and better performance in cows between calving and the end of the mating are strategies that increase the chances of pregnancy in beef cows.(AU)

Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Prenhez , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Lactação
Anim. Reprod. (Online) ; 20(1): e20220093, 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1433934


Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain receptors (NOD-like receptors, NLRs) have critical effects on interfaces of the immune and reproductive systems, and the spleen plays a key role in both innate and adaptive immune functions. It is hypothesized that NLR family participates in maternal splenic immune regulation during early pregnancy in sheep. In this study, maternal spleens were collected on day 16 of the estrous cycle, and days 13, 16 and 25 of gestation (n = 6 for each group) in ewes. Expression of NLR family, including NOD1, NOD2, class II transactivator (CIITA), NLR family apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, Leucine rich repeat and Pyrin domain containing 1 (NLRP1), NLRP3 and NLRP7, was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis. The results revealed that expression levels of NOD1, NOD2, CIITA and NLRP3 were downregulated at days 13 and 16 of pregnancy, but expression of NLRP3 was increased at day 25 of pregnancy. In addition, expression values of NAIP and NLRP7 mRNA and proteins were improved at days 16 and 25 of pregnancy, and NLRP1 was peaked at days 13 and 16 of pregnancy in the maternal spleen. Furthermore, NOD2 and NLRP7 proteins were limited to the capsule, trabeculae and splenic cords. In summary, early pregnancy changes expression of NLR family in the maternal spleen, which may be related with the maternal splenic immunomodulation during early pregnancy in sheep.(AU)

Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Prenhez , Ovinos/imunologia , Proteínas NLR/análise , Baço/fisiologia
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 75(2): 254-260, Mar.-Apr. 2023. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1434108


Pregnancy toxemia has a high mortality rate and few cases with effective treatment are reported, especially when associated with secondary diseases. Therefore, the present work reports the case of a sheep, which was referred to the veterinary hospital of UFMG, in the last month of pregnancy, presenting apathy, hyporexia and sternal recumbency. After the diagnosis of pregnancy toxemia, the fetuses were removed while still alive, but did not survive. Monitoring was started with blood gas analysis, blood glucose assessments and laboratory tests. The results were consistent with liver damage, which was justified by the condition of lipolysis. Treatment consisted of electrolyte replacement plus 50% glucose and potassium chloride, along with administration of antibiotics (ceftiofur, 5mg/kg/SID/IM/7 days), flunixim meglumine (2.2mg/kg/SID/IM first day and 1.1mg/kg/SID/IM on the second and third days) and omeprazole (4mg/kg/SID/oral). The patient had secondarily clinical laminitis, which was treated with cryotherapy and anti-inflammatory drugs, in addition to mastitis, using a single dose of intramammary antibiotics. The work demonstrated the effectiveness of the treatment of pregnancy toxemia, when performed early and intensively, associated with daily clinical and laboratory monitoring of the animal.

A toxemia da prenhez possui alto índice de mortalidade, e poucos casos com tratamento eficaz são relatados, principalmente quando associados a doenças secundárias. Diante disso, o presente trabalho relata o caso de uma ovelha, que foi encaminhada ao hospital veterinário da UFMG, no último mês de gestação, apresentando apatia, hiporexia e decúbito esternal. Após o diagnóstico de toxemia da prenhez, os fetos foram retirados ainda vivos, porém não sobreviveram. Iniciou-se um monitoramento com análises hemogasométricas, avaliações de glicemia e exames laboratoriais. Os resultados foram condizentes com lesão hepática, a qual foi justificada pelo quadro de lipólise. O tratamento consistiu em reposição hidroeletrolítica associada à glicose 50% e a cloreto de potássio, juntamente com administração de antibióticos (ceftiofur, 5mg/kg/SID/IM/7 dias), flunixim meglumine (2,2mg/kg/SID/IM no primeiro dia e 1,1mg/kg/SID/IM no segundo e terceiro dias) e omeprazol (4mg/kg/SID/oral). A paciente apresentou secundariamente laminite clínica, a qual foi tratada com crioterapia e antinflamatórios, além de um quadro de mastite, sendo utilizado antibiótico intramamário em dose única. O trabalho demonstrou a eficácia do tratamento da toxemia da prenhez, quando realizado de forma precoce e intensiva, associado a um monitoramento clínico e laboratorial diário do animal.

Animais , Toxemia/veterinária , Prenhez , Ovinos
Rev. bras. reprod. anim ; 47(2): 226-230, abr.-jun. 2023.
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1435300


Nos últimos quinze anos, a equideocultura foi uma atividade em destaque com significativo crescimento no Brasil e no mundo. O Brasil é o segundo país no mundo que mais utiliza transporte de sêmen equino, ficando atrás apenas dos Estados Unidos e a utilização do sêmen congelado no país vem expandido a cada dia. O índice de prenhez por ciclo, com sêmen equino congelado é variável e oscila entre 25 e 40%. Adicionalmente, sabe-se que o sêmen de alguns garanhões apresenta baixa viabilidade após o descongelamento. A primeira prenhez obtida com sêmen equino congelado foi relatada há cinco décadas. Segundo Cazalez, 2020, é muito difícil recomendar uma dose inseminante padrão para sêmen congelado em equinos. A maioria dos estudos científicos não consegue controlar o efeito de outros fatores "de confusão" como método de processo, fator égua, fator garanhão, técnica de inseminação etc., tornando difícil uma comparação crítica dos mesmos. Rigby et al. (2001) obtiveram taxas de prenhez similares ao se comparar a inseminação artificial profunda em corno uterino com endoscópio e pipeta flexível.(AU)

In the last fifteen years, equine breeding has been a prominent activity with significant growth in Brazil and in the world. Brazil is the second country in the world that most uses equine semen transport, second only to the United States, and the use of frozen semen in the country is expanding every day. The pregnancy rate per cycle with frozen equine semen is variable and ranges from 25 to 40%. Additionally, it is known that the semen of some stallions has low viability after thawing. The first pregnancy obtained with frozen equine semen was reported five decades ago. According to Cazalez, 2020, it is very difficult to recommend a standard insemination dose for frozen semen in horses. Most scientific studies cannot control for the effect of other "confounding" factors such as processing method, mare factor, stallion factor, insemination technique, etc., making it difficult to critically compare them. Rigby et al. (2001) obtained similar pregnancy rates when comparing deep artificial insemination in the uterine horn with an endoscope and flexible pipette.(AU)

Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Cavalos , Coeficiente de Natalidade
Rev. bras. reprod. anim ; 47(2): 159-163, abr.-jun. 2023.
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1435138


A transferência de embriões equinos é uma biotecnologia que traz inúmeros benefícios reprodutivos para um haras. Entretanto, os índices reprodutivos obtidos numa estação de monta podem ser afetados por diversos fatores que interferem tanto na recuperação embrionária que normalmente são relacionados à doadora de embriões, quanto na taxa de gestação na receptora de embriões. O objetivo do presente artigo foi revisar os fatores relacionados à receptora de embriões em programas de transferência de embriões equinos.(AU)

Equine embryo transfer is a biotechnology that brings reproductive benefits to a stud farm. However, the reproductive rates obtained in a breeding season can be affected by several factors that interfere both in the embryonic recovery that are normally related to the embryo donor, and in the pregnancy rate in the embryo recipient. The aim of this article was to review the factors related to the recipient of embryos in equine embryo transfer programs.(AU)

Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Transferência Embrionária/veterinária , Cavalos/embriologia , Taxa de Fecundidade
Rev. bras. zootec ; 52: e20220148, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1507920


ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationships between preovulatory follicle (POF) and corpus luteum (CL) diameters, and POF and CL vascular perfusion with progesterone production, ovulation, and pregnancy in Nellore cows subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI). Nellore cows (n = 201) were subjected to ovulation synchronization and later to ultrasound evaluation of POF and CL at the time of insemination (D0) and seven days later (D7), respectively. Females were divided into three categories according to the POF diameter assessed at the time of insemination: small (SF), medium (MF), and large (LF) follicles. The LF group had a greater number and intensity of pixels in the POF ultrasound exam compared with the SF group. The CL flow intensity and progesterone concentration were also higher in the LF group. The SF group showed lower flow intensity and lower ovulation rate compared with the others. When non-pregnant females were compared to pregnant ones, no difference was observed in any of the analyzed variables. The results show for the first time in Nellore cattle the relationship between the size of ovarian structures and blood flow (quantity and intensity) as well as the ability of the CL to produce progesterone. The intensity of the POF pixels proved to be relevant, demonstrating correlations with the size and flow of the CL, which were not found when evaluating only the number of pixels, thus revealing the importance of evaluating complementary characteristics of the flow.

Anim. Reprod. (Online) ; 20(1): e20230006, 2023. graf, tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1427296


The aim of this study was to evaluate and correlate modifications of vaginal mucous impedance, vulvar temperature and ultrasonographic measurements (echobiometric parameters) to parturition in pregnant Saanen does. 30 does were selected for the study and submitted to an estrus synchronization protocol and natural mating. The females were evaluated daily from Day 143 of pregnancy to parturition. For the sonographic evaluations, the following structures were measured: biparietal diameter, thoracic diameter, abdominal diameter, ocular orbit, kidney length, kidney height, cardiac area, placentome length, cervical measurement and fetal heart rate; by means of two different approaches: transrectal and transabdominal, using a 7.5 MHz linear transducer. The vaginal mucous impedance was assessed using an electric estrous detector and vulvar temperature was measured using a non-contact infrared thermometer. Statistical analysis was performed using the R-project software and the significance level was set at 5% for all tests. 25 Saanen does became pregnant, resulting in 80.33% pregnancy rate. Fetal heart rate was negatively correlated to the hours to parturition (p<0,001; r-Pearson= -0,451), as well as vaginal temperature (p= 0,001; r-Pearson= -0,275), while cervical thickness was positively correlated to hours to parturition (p<0,001; r-Pearson= 0,490). The echobiometric parameters (biparietal diameter, thoracic diameter, abdominal diameter, ocular orbit, kidney length and height, cardiac area, placentome length), as well as vaginal mucous impedance did not vary throughout the timepoints of evaluation and did not correlate to the moment of parturition. It was concluded that the parameters of fetal heartbeat, vaginal temperature and cervical effacement in the last week of pregnancy provide valuable information regarding the proximity of parturition.(AU)

Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Prenhez , Cabras/fisiologia , Impedância Elétrica , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Biometria/métodos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/veterinária
Rev. bras. reprod. anim ; 47(2): 257-266, abr.-jun. 2023. tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1435330


O aumento da taxa de sobrevivência neonatal está diretamente relacionada a medidas de prevenção de fatores que levem a morte do filhote. A viabilidade do neonato é otimizada por meio de cuidados realizados antes mesmo do acasalamento, cuidados com a gestante e o acompanhamento do desenvolvimento do feto durante a gestação. É de suma importância o reconhecimento precoce do parto distócico, e da fisiologia neonatal para a aplicação de condutas adequadas afim de se otimizar a viabilidade do recém-nascido.(AU)

The increase in the neonatal survival rate is directly related to measures to prevent factors that lead to the death of the puppy and kitten. The viability of the newborn is optimized through care provided even before mating, care for the pregnant woman and monitoring the development of the fetus during pregnancy. Early recognition of dystocia and neonatal physiology is of paramount importance for the application of appropriate conducts in order to optimize the viability of the newborn.(AU)

Animais , Mortalidade , Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Sobrevida
Ciênc. anim. bras. (Impr.) ; 24: e-75064E, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1447902


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the type of calving (normal or assisted) on the occurrence of puerperal uterine disorders and on the number of artificial inseminations (AI) per conception and pregnancy rate at 150 days postpartum (PPD). Cows were observed during parturition and the type of calving was classified as normal or assisted. Normal calving required no human interference, while assisted calving required a calf removal aid via vaginal access. There were 825 births, 7 stillbirths (0.85%) and 17 twins (2.06%). We analyzed 801 single births, from which 766 (95.63%) were normal and 35 (4.36%) assisted. Were evaluated the uterine disorders occurrence such as retained placenta combined with metritis (PR/ME) and clinical endometritis (CE). The overall occurrences were 10.24% (82/801) of RP/ME, 12.86% for CE and 5.12% for RP/ME and CE. Most of normal calving cows had healthy puerperium (73.89%), whereas a majority of assisted calving cows had uterine disorders (74.29%). The number of AI per conception was similar for cows that had either normal or assisted calving (2.39±0.08 and 3.00±0.43, P = 0.16). There was no evidence of negative influence of calving type on the 150 PPD pregnancy rate of lactating crossbreed dairy cows (P = 0.44). Healthy cows had higher 150 PPD pregnancy rate than cows affected by puerperium uterine disorders (51.65 vs. 42.92%). Normal calving crossbred dairy cows had a healthier puerperium, compared to cows with assisted calving which were more susceptible to puerperium uterine disorders. And cows with a health puerperium have a higher pregnancy rate at 150 days postpartum.

Objetivou-se avaliar em vacas leiteiras mestiças que pariram um bezerro vivo, o efeito do tipo de parto (normal ou assistido) na ocorrência de desordens uterinas puerperais e no número de inseminações artificiais (IA) por concepção e taxa de prenhez 150 dias pós-parto (DPP). As vacas foram monitoradas durante o parto e o tipo de parto foi classificado como normal ou assistido. O parto normal não precisou de interferência humana, enquanto o parto assistido precisou de auxílio para retirada do bezerro por via vaginal. Foram registrados 825 partos, sendo 7 natimortos (0,85%) e 17 gemelares (2,06%). Foram analisados 801 partos simples, dos quais 766 (95,63%) foram normais e 35 (4,36%) foram assistidos. Foram avaliadas a ocorrência de desordens uterinas como a retenção de placenta associada com metrite (RP/ME) e endometrite clínica (EC). A ocorrência das doenças foi de 10,24% (82/801) para RP/ME, 12,86% para EC e 5.12% para RP/ME com CE. A maioria das vacas com parto normal tiveram puerpério saudável (73,89%), enquanto a maioria das vacas com parto assistido apresentaram desordens uterinas (74,29%). O número de IA por concepção foi semelhante nas vacas que tiveram parto normal ou assistido (2,39±0,08 e 3,00±0,43, P = 0,16). Não houve evidência de influência negativa do tipo de parto na taxa de prenhez 150 DPP de vacas leiteiras mestiças em lactação (P = 0,44). Vacas saudáveis apresentaram maior taxa de prenhez 150 DPP do que vacas afetadas por desordens uterinas no puerpério (51,65 vs. 42,92%). Vacas leiteiras mestiças com parto normal tiveram um puerpério saudável, comparadas às que tiveram parto assistido, por sua vez foram mais susceptíveis as desordens uterinas no puerpério. E vacas com puerpério saudável resultaram em maiores taxas de prenhez aos 150 dias pós parto.

Animais , Bovinos , Transtornos Puerperais/veterinária , Reprodução , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Parto
Rev. bras. reprod. anim ; 47(2): 212-219, abr.-jun. 2023. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1435291


At least 30-40% of stallions in commercial breeding programs are moderately fertile and 8-12% are subfertile (0.5-3% with severe subfertility). From the total reported cases of the subfertility, in 2-20% of the stallions the cause is unknown or was not established. The objective of this work is to present the concept of subfertile stallion based on the current state of knowledge and advanced molecular diagnostic technologies. Low pregnancy rates have been reported in stallions with normal semen quality after conventional evaluation. Acrosome reaction (AR) is necessary for natural fertilization and impaired acrosome reaction (IAR) leads to subfertility or infertility in horses, however, AR test is not included in routine semen analysis. Genome-wide association study identified FKBP6 as a strong candidate gene responsible for this failure. The gene encodes for FK506 binding protein 6 (FKBP6) which is involved in sperm development and functions. We could conclude that the evaluation of the acrosomal status is essential in cases of stallions with good motility, concentration, morphology and viability but unexplained (idiopathic) subfertility or infertility. It is important to highlight the recent increase in reports of fertility problems in stallions related to disorders of genetic origin.(AU)

Animais , Masculino , Análise do Sêmen/métodos , Cavalos/fisiologia , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Reação Acrossômica/fisiologia
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1418950


A cetose, conhecida também como acetonemia, é um distúrbio metabólico que afeta principalmente vacas leiteiras de alta produção. A elevação anormal de corpos cetônicos nos tecidos e fluidos corporais do animal ocorre devido a um déficit de energia. A quantidade de alimento/nutrientes ingeridos não é suficiente para suprir a demanda corporal do mesmo, assim como a eficiência reprodutiva que está diretamente ligada à saúde, condição corporal e sua capacidade de produção. Animais de alta produção possuem um desafio muito grande de aumentar a produção a cada lactação, com isso, estão susceptíveis a mudanças metabólicas, entre elas a cetose, clínica ou subclínica. Tal enfermidade ocorre devido a uma má adaptação metabólica do animal a sua nova condição de lactante. A elevada incidência de doenças uterinas no pós-parto de vacas leiteiras é responsável por inúmeros prejuízos para a atividade, principalmente pela redução da eficiência reprodutiva das vacas acometidas por infecções. Contudo, visto que a cetose subclínica prevalece nos rebanhos leiteiros de alta produção, o objetivo desta revisão de literatura é apresentar a patogenia e os efeitos que esse distúrbio metabólico têm sobre a reprodução das vacas de aptidão leiteira no após o parto, utilizando de indicadores como taxa de prenhez, taxa de concepção, retorno a ciclicidade, intervalo entre partos e intervalo entre parto e estro.(AU)

Ketosis, also known as acetonemia, is a metabolic disorder that primarily affects high-yielding dairy cows. The abnormal elevation of ketone bodies in the animal's tissues and body fluids occurs due to an energy deficit. The amount of food/nutrients ingested are not enough to supply the body's demand, as well as the reproductive efficiency that is directly linked to health, body condition and its production capacity. High production animals have a very big challenge to increase production with each lactation, therefore, they are susceptible to metabolic changes, including clinical or subclinical ketosis. Such a disease occurs due to a poor metabolic adaptation of the animal to its new lactating condition. The high incidence of uterine diseases in the postpartum period of dairy cows is responsible for numerous losses to the activity, mainly for the reduction of the reproductive efficiency of cows affected by infections. However, since subclinical ketosis prevails in high production dairy herds, the objective of this literature review is to present the pathogenesis and the effects that this metabolic disorder has on the reproduction of dairy cows in the postpartum period, using indicators such as pregnancy rate, conception rate, return to cyclicity, calving interval and calving-estrus interval.(AU)

Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/fisiologia , Cetoses/análise , Prenhez
Rev. bras. reprod. anim ; 47(2): 182-190, abr.-jun. 2023.
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1435242


A qualidade do sêmen criopreservado, utilizado na inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF) em bovinos, é um dos principais fatores que impactam sobre a fertilidade, e está relacionada à capacidade de produção espermática dos touros, à criotolerância dos espermatozoides e aos critérios técnicos do processo de criopreservação adotados. Neste sentido, devemos destacar a importância do controle de qualidade das partidas de sêmen antes de serem liberadas para uso na IATF. Nos últimos anos várias técnicas vêm sendo desenvolvidas para avaliar com mais acurácia as partidas de sêmen e evitar o uso daquelas que possam resultar em prejuízos na fertilidade, mas mesmo assim, tem se notado alta variabilidade na taxa de prenhez entre touros e entre partidas de sêmen. Esta divergência se deve ao fato da habilidade fértil do espermatozoide ser multifatorial, ou seja, dependente de diversas características estruturais, morfofuncionais e moleculares. Ademais, os eventos que permitem os espermatozoides passarem por capacitação espermática, um pré-requisito para a fertilidade, têm intrigado os pesquisadores em vista da complexidade dos processos envolvidos e dos efeitos deletérios da criopreservação espermática. Esta revisão tem por objetivo compilar estudos que mostrem a relação entre a capacitação espermática e a fertilidade do sêmen bovino criopreservado, levando em consideração as técnicas de avaliação e os resultados até o momento.(AU)

The quality of cryopreserved semen, used in fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in cattle, is one of the main factors that impact fertility and is related to the sperm production capacity of bulls, sperm cryotolerance, and the technical criteria for cryopreservation. In this sense, we must highlight the importance of quality control of semen batches before commercialization for the FTAI. In recent years, several techniques have progressed to more accurately evaluate semen batches and avoid using those that may result in impaired fertility. However, we still notice a high variability in the pregnancy rate between bulls and between semen batches. This divergence is due to the multifactorial sperm-fertilizing ability, i.e., it depends on several structural, morphofunctional, and molecular characteristics. In addition, the events that allow sperm to undergo sperm capacitation, a prerequisite for fertility, have intrigued researchers due to the complexity of the processes involved and the adverse effects of sperm cryopreservation. This review aims to compile studies that show the relationship between sperm capacitation and fertility in cryopreserved bovine semen, considering the evaluation techniques and results to date.(AU)

Animais , Masculino , Bovinos , Preservação do Sêmen/métodos , Capacitação Espermática/fisiologia , Criopreservação/veterinária , Prenhez , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Fertilidade/fisiologia
Acta sci., Anim. sci ; 45: e57546, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1396762


This experiment conducted using 20 Rahmani ewes at the last third of pregnancy in two equal groups. One group served as control, while the other group received Spirulina platensis(SP) at the rate of 0.5 gm 10 kg-1live body weight. The objective was to find out the effect of adding Spirulina platensisalgae to small ruminant rations on reproductive and productive traits and blood components of sheep. The experiments lasted for 120 days for both dams and their lambs after weaning. The findings proved that adding SP in ewes' diets had no effect on the average of live body weight change. Average milk yield was significantly (p <0.01) higher in the treatment group than the control. Lamb's birth weight and daily body gain of the treated group were significantly (p <0.01) higher than the control. Blood and serum picture profile of ewes were significantly higher when fed SP additive than the control.It could be concluded that the addition of SP to the ration of sheep positively preserved their health, productive and reproductive status as well as their lambs' growth rate. Also the additive improved the economic efficiency of treated animals by about 53.13%.(AU)

Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Ruminantes/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Spirulina/química , Ração Animal/análise , Ovinos/fisiologia
Semina ciênc. agrar ; 44(1): 85-96, jan.-fev. 2023. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1418810


This study aimed to evaluate the ovarian structure, estrus intensity, ultrasound carcass measurements, and pregnancy rate of Nelore breed heifers and cows in accordance with antral follicle counts (AFCs). We evaluated 503 heifers and 565 Nelore cows, with a mean age of 15.5±2.2 and 69.8±36.1 months, respectively, submitted to a fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) protocol. On day zero, all bovine females were examined using ultrasound to determine the AFC. The mean AFC of the heifers and cows were 20±8.6 and 22.5±8.4, respectively. The rib-eye area (REA) and fat thickness (FT) of the heifers (n = 119 for REA and n = 219 for FT) were measured using ultrasound imaging. The average conception rates at the first FTAI and at the end of the breeding season were 35.8% and 57.5%, respectively, for heifers and 45.1% and 78.9%, respectively, for cows. We demonstrated that the probability of pregnancy at the first FTAI and at the end of the breeding season for both young heifers and cows increased as the AFC decreased (P>0.001 and P=0.0123, respectively). FT and REA showed no correlation with AFC in heifers. The intensity of estrus expression was negatively correlated with AFC (−0.46; P<0.0001). In conclusion, Nelore heifers and cows with low AFC had a high probability of pregnancy during the entire breeding season. Thus, AFC can be used as a tool to select heifers with increased fertility without affecting carcass traits (REA and FT).

Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as estruturas ovarianas, intensidade do cio, medidas de carcaça por ultrassonografia e taxa de gestação de novilhas e vacas da raça Nelore com diferentes contagens de folículos antrais (CFA). Avaliamos 503 novilhas e 565 vacas Nelore, com idade média de 15,5 ± 2,2 e 69,8 ± 36,1 meses, respectivamente, submetidas a um protocolo de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF). No dia zero, todas as fêmeas foram examinadas por ultrassom para determinar a CFA. A CFA média das novilhas foi de 20 ± 8,6 e a das vacas foi de 22,5 ± 8,4 folículos. A área de olho de lombo (AOL) e a espessura de gordura (EG) das novilhas (n = 119 para AOL e n = 219 para EG) foram medidas utilizando imagens ultrassonográficas. As taxas médias de concepção na primeira IATF e no final da estação de monta foram de 35,8% e 57,5% e 45,1% e 78,9% para as novilhas e vacas, respectivamente. Demonstramos que a probabilidade de gestação na primeira IATF e no final da estação de monta, tanto para novilhas jovens quanto para vacas, foi maior quando a CFA era menor (P>0,001 e P=0,0123, respectivamente). A espessura da gordura e a AOL não mostraram nenhuma correlação com a CFA. A intensidade da expressão do cio foi negativamente correlacionada com o CFA (-0,46; P < 0,0001). Em conclusão, novilhas jovens e vacas da raça Nelore com menor CFA apresentam maior probabilidade de prenhez durante toda a estação de monta. Nenhuma relação entre a CFA e as características de carcaça foram observadas em novilhas Nelore. A CFA pode ser usada como uma ferramenta de seleção de novilhas com maior fertilidade sem influenciar as características de carcaça (AOL e EG).

Animais , Bovinos , Ovário , Bovinos/fisiologia , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Fertilidade
Rev. bras. reprod. anim ; 47(2): 179-181, abr.-jun. 2023.
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1435155


A biópsia endometrial na égua é uma técnica simples e bastante antiga. É uma importante ferramenta para o diagnóstico de patologia no endométrio nesta espécie utilizada para determinar o estágio do ciclo estral, para detectar a presença de inflamações agudas ou crônicas e para determina a possibilidade do útero levar a gestação a termo. Mais recentemente outras alterações tais como a má-diferenciação e as angiopatias, também estão sendo avaliadas em amostras de biópsia endometrial em éguas, uma vez que também podem interferir no prognóstico reprodutivo destas fêmeas. Esta revisão tem por objetivo descrever a avaliação da biópsia endometrial e as principais alterações que ocorrem no endométrio das éguas.(AU)

Endometrial biopsy in the mare is a simple and quite old technique. It is an important tool for the diagnosis of pathology in the endometrium in this species, used to determine the stage of the estrous cycle, to detect the presence of acute or chronic inflammation and to determine the possibility of the uterus carrying the pregnancy to term. More recently, other alterations, such as poor differentiation and angiopathies, are also being evaluated in endometrial biopsy samples in mares, since they may also interfere with the reproductive prognosis of these females. This review aims to describe the evaluation of the endometrial biopsy and the main changes that occur in the endometrium of mares.(AU)

Animais , Feminino , Biópsia/veterinária , Fibrose/patologia , Endométrio , Cavalos/anatomia & histologia , Ciclo Estral , Taxa de Fecundidade
Semina ciênc. agrar ; 44(2): 635-652, mar.-abr. 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1434405


Rectal temperature (RT), heart rate (HR), and respiratory rate (RR), determined as repeated measurements over time in female goats, were used to identify covariance matrices that best fit the data for residual modeling on these three traits. Then, based on this result, the goats' responses to heat were evaluated. Five matrices were found with convergence for the three traits. The Heterogeneous Compound Symmetry matrix showed a good fit for modeling the residual associated with RT, whereas the Heterogeneous Autoregressive matrix had a better fit for RR and HR, according to the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC), corrected AIC (AICc), and Schwarz Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) used. After adjusting the residual data for these three traits, a mixed-model analysis was used to evaluate collection period (3), physiological stage (3), and animal age (3) as fixed effects. Residual modeling interfered differently with the p-value associated with the fixed effects studied. Collection period and interactions did not influence the variation in RT (P>0.761), which was within the standard range for goats in the tropics, while the physiological stage of the goats affected it (P<0.05). Rectal temperature, HR, and RR tend to show covariance structures that can be modeled using specific residual covariance matrices, that is, the heterogeneous compound symmetry matrix best suits RT data, whereas the heterogeneous autoregressive matrix is better suited for HR and RR, which are usually correlated. The goats of the evaluated breed maintain RT within the range of variation displayed by breeds adapted to a hot environment, regardless of their physiological condition. Variations occur in RR and HR, without, however, exceeding the normal range for goats. Pregnancy causes goats to raise their RR in the rainy season of the year in the region in order to maintain RT within the normal range for the species.(AU)

Utilizou-se a Temperatura retal (TR), Frequências cardíaca (FC) e respiratória (FR) aferidas como medidas repetidas no tempo em fêmeas caprinas, objetivando-se identificar matrizes de estruturas de covariância que melhor se ajustou aos dados para modelagem do resíduo nessas três características e, em seguida, avaliou-se a respostas de cabras ao calor, com base nesse resultado. Constatou-se cinco matrizes com convergência nas três características. A Simétrica composta heterogênea ajustou-se bem para modelagem do resíduo associado a TR, enquanto a Autorregressiva heterogênea ajustou-se melhor para a FR e FC, de acordo com os critérios de informação de Akaike (AIC), Akaike corrigido (AICc) e o Bayesiano de Schwarz (BIC) utilizados. Com o resíduos de dados dessas três características ajustados, utilizou-se uma análise com modelos mistos para avaliar a Época de coleta (3), Estado fisiológico (3) e Idade do animal (3) foram como efeitos fixos. Constatou-se que a modelagem do resíduo interferiu de modo diferenciado no p valor associado aos efeitos fixos estudados. A época da coleta e interações não influenciaram a variação da TR (P>0,761), que oscilou dentro da faixa padrão para caprinos nos trópicos, mas o Estágio fisiológico da cabra sim (P<0,05). A Temperatura retal e as Frequências cardíaca e respiratória tendem a apresentar estruturas de covariâncias modeláveis com utilização de matrizes de covariâncias residuais especificas, ou seja, a matriz Simétrica composta heterogênea mais adequada para dados da Temperatura retal, enquanto a Autorregressiva heterogênea para as Frequências cardíaca e respiratória, geralmente correlacionas. As cabras da raça avaliadas mantêm a temperatura retal dentro da amplitude de variação apresentada por raças adaptadas a ambiente quente. Isso ocorre independente da condição fisiológica que se encontra, mas com ocorrência de variação na frequência respiratória e cardíaca, não excedendo, no entanto, a faixa normal para caprinos. A gestação condiciona a cabra a elevar a FR na época chuvosa do ano na região para manter a TR na faixa de amplitude normal para caprinos.(AU)

Cabras/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal
Anim. Reprod. (Online) ; 20(1): e20220068, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1427298


The cryopreservation reduces ram sperm quality, decreasing the pregnancy rate of ewes inseminated with thawed sperm. Hence, we aimed to improve the post-thaw quality of ram sperm replacing egg yolk on Tris-Glucose extender with different concentrations of LDL (2 or 8%), associated with the addition of 10 mM non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbic acid, hydroxytoluene butylate, ascorbyl palmitate, and trehalose). Semen samples were collected from six rams, split into different treatments, and frozen. After thawing, kinematic (CASA), structural (propidium iodide and carboxyfluorescein diacetate) and functional (hypoosmotic test) sperm membrane integrity was assessed. Total motility, VCL, and LIN were also assessed in thawed samples during 3 h of incubation (38 °C). The results showed that hydroxytoluene butylate at 10 mM in Tris-Glucose extender with 8% LDL improved velocity parameters immediately post-thaw compared with Tris-Glucose egg yolk extender, as well as prevented the reduction of total motility and VCL after incubation. There was no benefit of adding ascorbic acid and trehalose. Moreover, for the first time, it was shown the motility impairment promoted by ascorbyl palmitate to ram sperm.(AU)

Animais , Masculino , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Ovinos/fisiologia , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Hidroxitolueno Butilado/administração & dosagem , Lipoproteínas/análise , Antioxidantes
Ars vet ; 39(2): 29-33, 2023. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1438472


A ultrassonografia é um dos principais métodos de diagnóstico gestacional, no qual se realiza: biometria, monitoramento de batimentos e organogênese, detecção de anormalidades e avaliação da circulação sanguínea materno-fetal. Nesse quesito, o diagnóstico ultrassonográfico intrauterino de anormalidades fetais vem adquirindo espaço com o desenvolvimento de equipamentos mais avançados, tendo potencial para se tornar uma ferramenta de triagem para tal. Baseado na escassez observada nesse aspecto, visa-se relatar o diagnóstico ultrassonográfico intrauterino de uma alteração fetal em uma felina gestante. Foi atendida uma felina da raça persa, 3 anos, com histórico de monta natural há 40 dias. Na ultrassonografia visibilizou-se quatro fetos vivos com aproximadamente 38 dias. Uma segunda avaliação ultrassonográfica ocorreu após 12 dias, notando-se um feto com cardiomegalia, oscilação da frequência cardíaca e sofrimento fetal, enquanto os demais fetos apresentavam-se dentro da normalidade. O terceiro exame foi feito após quatro dias, visibilizando ausência de batimento cardíaco e presença de líquido em espaço pleural no feto em questão, confirmando o óbito. O parto natural ocorreu após uma semana, com nascimento de três filhotes vivos e um natimorto. Ao exame necroscópico do natimorto, confirmou-se cardiomegalia generalizada. Conclui-se que a ultrassonografia é um método padrão-ouro para diagnóstico de anormalidades fetais, permitindo planejar o parto e interceder de maneira precoce conforme a situação. Assim, esse trabalho enriquece a literatura com maiores informações relacionadas a malformações fetais observadas antes do parto, contribuindo assim com as condutas obstétricas em pequenos animais.(AU)

Ultrasonography is one of the main methods of gestational diagnosis, in which it performs: biometry, monitoring of beats and organogenesis, detection of abnormalities and evaluation of maternal-fetal blood circulation. In this regard, intrauterine sonographic diagnosis of fetal abnormalities has been gaining space with the development of more advanced equipment, and has the potential to become a screening tool for this purpose. Based on the scarcity observed in this aspect, this study aimsto report the intrauterine ultrasound diagnosis of a fetal abnormality in a pregnant feline. The patient was a 3-year-old Persian female with a history of natural mounting for 40 days. At ultrasonography, four live fetuses were visualized at approximately38 days of age. Asecond ultrasonographic evaluation was performed after 12 days, and one fetus with cardiomegaly, heart rate oscillation and fetal distress was observed, while the other fetuses were within normal limits. The third scan was performed after four days, showing absence of heartbeat and presence of fluid in the pleural space in the fetus in question, confirming the death. Natural delivery occurred after one week, with the birth of three live pups and one stillborn. At necroscopic examination of the stillborn, generalized cardiomegaly was confirmed. We conclude that ultrasonography is a gold standard method for diagnosing fetal abnormalities, allowing birth planning and early intervention according to the situation. Thus, this study enriches theliterature with more information related to fetal malformations observed before delivery, thus contributing to obstetric management in small animals.(AU)

Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/veterinária , Gatos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/métodos , Cardiomegalia Induzida por Exercícios/fisiologia , Anormalidades Congênitas/veterinária
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 74(6): 969-982, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1415367


The aim of this study was to assess in vitro sperm characteristics and pregnancies/AI (P/AI) of conventional and sex-sorted semen at timed-AI of suckled, multiparous Nelore cows. All cows (n=348) were submitted to a traditional estradiol/progesterone (P4)-based protocol. At 48h after P4-device removal, the estrous behavior was recorded, and AI was performed with conventional or sex-sorted semen from two bulls. The following sperm assessments were performed: CASA, Hyposmotic Test, sperm morphometry and chromatin structure by TB staining. P/AI were reduced (P<0.001) for sex-sorted compared to conventional semen in cows expressing estrus (27vs47%) or not (11vs.37%). Membrane integrity (Bull1: 30.3±9.6 vs. 52.3±12.4%, P=0.01; Bull2: 24.5±3.0 vs. 48.7±1.6%, P=0.006) and sperm concentration (Bulll: 23.2±0.6 vs. 43.0±0.8x10 sperm/mL, P<0.001; Bull2: 25.1+2.8 VS. 42.1±0.7x10 sperm/mL; P<0.001) were reduced in sex-sorted compared to conventional semen, for both bulls. Total and progressive motility were reduced in sex-sorted semen for Bull1 (TM: 49.7±15.9 vs. 94.9±1.9%, P=0.007; PM: 16.7±3.4 vs. 44.1±13.2%, P=0.009) and no differences were detected for Bull2 (TM: 45.0±17.5 vs. 68.2±19.1%, P=0.098; PM: 12.8±4.7 vs. 30.0±13.0%, P=0.065). Sperm ellipticity from sex-sorted was lower than conventional semen for Bull2 (0.306±0.01 vs. 0.342±0.02, P=0.02) and no difference was detected for Bull1 (0.332±0.01 vs. 0.330±0.01, P=0.55). Reduced in vivo fertility was observed for sex-sorted semen, regardless of estrous behavior. In vitro sperm quality of sex-sorted semen was compromised for both bulls, but differently affected for each sire.

O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar características espermáticas in vitro e a taxa de concepção (TC) de sêmen convencional e sexado em um programa de IATF tradicional de vacas Nelore pós-parto. Todas as vacas (n=348) foram submetidas ao mesmo protocolo de IATF à base de estradiol e de progesterona. Após 48 horas da retirada do implante, foi determinada a expressão de estro dos animais e a IA foi realizada com sêmen convencional e sexado de dois touros Angus. As seguintes características espermáticas foram avaliadas: análise computadorizada do sêmen, teste hiposmótico, morfometria espermática e estrutura cromatinica por meio da coloração com azul de toluidina. A TC foi menor (P<0,001) para sêmen sexado comparado ao convencional, em vacas que expressaram estro (27 vs. 47%) e que não apresentaram estro (11 vs. 37%). A integridade da membrana plasmática (Touro 1: 30,319,6 vs. 52,3+12,4%, P=0,010; Touro 2: 24,5+3,0 vs. 48,7±1,6%, P=0,006) e a concentração espermática (Touro 1: 23,2±0,6 vs. 43,0±0,8x10 sperm/mL, P<0,001; Touro 2: 25,1+2,8 vs. 42,1 +0,7x10'sperm/mL, P<0,001) foram menores no sêmen sexado comparado ao convencional, para ambos os touros. Motilidades total e progressiva foram menores no sêmen sexado comparado ao convencional para o Touro 1 (MT: 49,7±15,9 vs. 94,9±1,9%, P=0,007; MP: 16,7+3,4 vs. 44,1+13,2%, P=0,009), enquanto diferenças não foram detectadas no Touro 2 (MT: 45,0±17,5 vs. 68,2±19,1%, P=0,098; MP: 12,8±4,7 vs. 30,0±13,0%, P=0,065). Elipticidade espermática do sêmen sexado foi menor do que do sêmen convencional no Touro 2 (0,306±0,01 vs. 0,342±0,02, P=0,020), mas não houve diferença no Touro 1 (0,332±0,01 vs. 0,330±0,01, P=0,552). Reduzida fertilidade in vivo foi observada para o sêmen sexado em relação ao convencional, independentemente da expressão de cio das vacas. A qualidade seminal in vitro do sêmen sexado foi comprometida para ambos os touros, mas diferentemente afetada para cada reprodutor.

Animais , Gravidez , Bovinos , Prenhez/fisiologia , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Taxa de Gravidez , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Espermatozoides , Estro