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1.
Med Dosim ; 2021 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To compare the dosimetric performance of Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT) and Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) in terms of target volume coverage and sparing of neurological organs-at-risk (OARs) in salvaging recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (rNPC). The maximum dose to the internal carotid artery (ICA) and nasopharyngeal (NP) mucosa, which are associated with potential carotid blowout and massive epistaxis, were also evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: IMRT and IMPT treatment plans were created for twenty patients with locally advanced rNPC. Planning Target Volume (PTV) was used to account for the setup and spatial error/uncertainty in the IMRT planning. Robust optimization on Clinical Target Volume (CTV) coverage with consideration of range and setup uncertainty was employed to produce two IMPT plans with 3-field and 4-field arrangements. The planning objective was to deliver 60 Gy to the PTV (IMRT) and CTV (IMPT) without exceeding the maximum lifetime cumulative Biologically Effective Dose (BED) of the neurological OARs (applied to the Planning organs-at-risk volume). The target dose coverage as well as the maximum dose to the neurological OARs, ICA, and NP mucosa were compared. RESULTS: Compared with IMRT, 3-field IMPT achieved better coverage to GTV V100% (83.3% vs. 73.2%, P <0.01) and CTV V100% (80.5% vs. 72.4%, P <0.01), and lower maximum dose to the critical OARs including the spinal cord (19.2 Gy vs. 22.3 Gy, P <0.01), brainstem (30.0 Gy vs. 32.3 Gy, P <0.01) and optic chiasm (6.6 Gy vs. 9.8 Gy, P <0.01). The additional beam with the 4-fields IMPT plans further improved the target coverage from the 3-field IMPT (CTV V98%: 85.3% vs. 82.4%, P <0.01) with similar OAR sparing. However, the target dose was highly non-uniform with both IMPT plans, leading to a significantly higher maximum dose to the ICA (∼68 Gy vs. 62.6 Gy, P <0.01) and NP mucosa (∼72 Gy vs. 62.8 Gy, P <0.01) than IMRT. CONCLUSION: IMPT demonstrated some dosimetric advantage over IMRT in treating rNPC. However, IMPT could also result in very high dose hot spots in the target volume. Careful consideration of the ICA and NP mucosal complications is recommended when applying IMPT on rNPC patients.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471239

RESUMO

Relapse after allogeneic stem cell transplant in unfavorable-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) portends a poor prognosis. We conducted a single-center phase I dose-escalation study with lenalidomide maintenance in high-risk MDS and AML patients after allogeneic transplantation. Sixteen patients enrolled in a "3 + 3" study design starting at lenalidomide 5 mg daily, increasing in increments of 5 mg up to 15 mg. Lenalidomide was given for 21 days of a 28-day cycle for a total of six cycles. Most common dose-limiting toxicities were lymphopenia, diarrhea, nausea, and neutropenia. Two patients had acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and five patients developed chronic GVHD. The maximum tolerated dose was 10 mg, after dose-limiting toxicities were seen in the 15 mg group. Two dose-limiting toxicities were seen from development of acute GVHD and grade III diarrhea. Limitations of the study include time to initiation at 6 months post transplant, as many high-risk patients will have relapsed within this time frame before starting maintenance lenalidomide. Overall, lenalidomide was well tolerated with minimal GVHD and low rates of relapse rates, warranting further study.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471954

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the clinical efficacy of lower-extremity ultrasonography screening with early intervention for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) on the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: Between January 2012 and December 2019, 1070 patients were diagnosed with both clinical and pathological stage I-III GC and underwent MIS at our institution. Routine ultrasonographic screening for DVT in lower extremities is performed before MIS. Patients diagnosed with DVT were preoperatively administered anticoagulant therapy. Enoxaparin was routinely administrated after surgery irrespective of the presence of DVT. The incidence of postoperative symptomatic VTE was examined retrospectively. RESULTS: A total of 74 (6.9%) patients were preoperatively diagnosed with DVT. Multivariate analyses revealed that age > 70 years (p = 0.015), female sex (p < 0.001), and positive serum D-dimer test (p < 0.001) were significant and independent risk factors for preoperative DVT. The incidence of symptomatic postoperative VTE was 1 (0.09%); symptomatic VTE developed in one patient among patients without DVT, whereas no patient with DVT developed VTE. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative DVT screening using lower-extremity ultrasonography followed by preoperative anticoagulant therapy should be considered as a useful strategy to safely perform MIS for GC without increasing the incidence of VTE.

5.
J Neurooncol ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472015

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While surgery is the primary treatment choice for intracranial meningiomas in young patients, surgery in elderly patients, especially those with pre-existing comorbidities, has been the subject of repeated discussion. This study investigated the postoperative risks and neurological benefits of meningioma surgery in elderly patients compared to young patients. METHODS: In total, 768 patients were included and divided into two main groups: group I (age: ≤ 64 years; 484 young patients) and group II (age: ≥ 65 years; 284 elderly patients). Group II was subdivided into: IIa (age: 65-69 years), IIb (age: 70-79 years); and IIc (age: ≥ 80 years). RESULTS: The total tumor resection rate was higher in the elderly cohort than in the young cohort (84.5 and 76.2%, respectively). 154 young patients (31.8%) and 132 elderly patients (46.5%) developed postoperative morbidities, with the three most common being bleeding (12.9%), cranial nerve disorder (10%) and CSF fistula (8.1%). Postoperative bleeding, palsy, speech disorder, pneumonia and renal insufficiency were dependent on age (r = 0.123, p = 0.001; r = 0.089, p = 0.014; r = 0.100, p = 0.006; r = 0.098, p = 0.007 and r = 0.084, p = 0.020) and presented more often in elderly patients. 6 young and 15 elderly patients died during the 17.4-year observation period. Most patients showed a significant improvement in postoperative KPS (p < 0.001), except those over 80 years old (p = 0.753). The KPS at the last follow-up was significantly improved in all patients (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Meningioma surgery is associated with a higher rate of postoperative complications in elderly patients than in young patients. Most elderly patients, similar to young patients, show a significant improvement in neurological status postoperatively.

6.
Support Care Cancer ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468825

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) benefit from local control. However, RT can give rise to increased fatigue, lowering quality of life. The aim of this study was to prospectively identify trends and risk factors in patient-reported fatigue associated with breast RT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients were assessed using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) before, once per week during RT, up to 6 weeks after RT completion, and 1-3 months post RT. Patients were included in the analysis if the ESAS was completed before, at least once during, and at least once after RT. RESULTS: A total of 651 patients were included. Fatigue scores increased significantly during weeks 1-3 (p < 0.001) and weeks 5-6 (p < 0.0001) during RT compared to baseline. After RT completion, fatigue scores did not change significantly compared to baseline. Mastectomy patients who received previous chemotherapy experienced significantly more fatigue compared to mastectomy patients without previous chemotherapy (p = 0.0002). Patients less than 50 (p = 0.002), 50-59 (p = 0.007), or 60-69 (p = 0.048) years of age at RT start were more likely to have higher proportions of moderate or severe fatigue compared to patients ≥ 70 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: Fatigue associated with breast irradiation increased up to 6 weeks during RT and returned to near baseline scores at 1-3 months post treatment. Given that fatigue was significant in mastectomy patients, further research is needed to reduce fatigue among this cohort, especially those who have received previous chemotherapy and younger patients who are receiving breast RT.

7.
Cancer Med ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469056

RESUMO

PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: The primary objective is to examine patient self-assessment of breast pain and cosmesis between three-dimensional (3D-CRT) versus intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The secondary objective is to evaluate any relationship of treatment planning conformality of both cohorts to patient-assessed pain. Assessments were performed at interim 12, 24, 36, and 48 months with a final 5-year assessment. MATERIALS/METHODS: In total, 656 patients (3D-CRT n = 328; IMRT n = 328) were randomly assigned to either IMRT or 3D-CRT accelerated partial breast radiotherapy to 38.5 Gy in 10 BID 3.85 Gy fractions. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 3 years. Multivariate analysis showed that pain severity significantly decreased from baseline to the 12-month follow-up visit (<0.001 for both 3D-CRT and IMRT) in each cohort. There was significantly less pain at 2 (p = 0.002) and 3 years (0.045) in the IMRT arm versus the 3D-CRT arm when compared to the baseline pain level. There was no difference in patient-assessed cosmesis at any follow-up point; however, although MD-assessed cosmesis showed no difference from years 1 to 4, there was significantly better cosmesis for 3D-CRT versus IMRT (p = 0.047) at 5 years. There was a significant correlation between a maximum pain score and an increase in the CI100 (indicating less conformity) in the IMRT cohort (p < 0.01) and in the IMRT subgroup when the CI100 was ≤0.37 cohort arm (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: In the analysis of our primary objective we found that at 2 years, IMRT resulted in more interval improvement in breast pain after baseline when compared to patients treated with 3D-CRT planning. As seen in our secondary analysis, this may be due to the ability of IMRT to achieve higher conformality (as evidenced by lower CI values) resulting in less fibrosis. There were no differences in patient-assessed cosmesis or MD-assessed cosmesis for years 1-4; however, physician-assessed 5-year cosmesis was better with 3D-CRT.

8.
J Clin Neurosci ; 92: 98-102, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509270

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gangliogliomas (GG) are considered WHO grade I rare tumors. While they commonly manifest as temporal lobe epilepsy, they can be located anywhere in the brain. Primary treatment is complete microsurgical resection. Remnant or recurrent GG can benefit from radiation therapy. Here, we present a series of GG who received Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKR) after initial microsurgery. METHODS: Between October 2009 and February 2020, four patients benefitted from such approach. The median age at surgery was 16 years (mean 17, 11-25) and at the time of GKR was 22.5 years (mean 23, 19-28). Initial clinical symptom was epilepsy in 3 cases and incidental in one. Biopsy was firstly performed in one case. One patient had stereotactic electroencephalography. The respective anatomical locations were right parieto-occipital, sylvian, left paraventricular and left inferior parietal. RESULTS: Gamma Knife radiosurgery was performed after a median time of 3.5 years after initial gross total microsurgical resection (GTR). The median follow-up after GKR was 54 months (mean 58.5, 6-120). The median marginal dose was 18 Gy (mean 17.5, 16-18). The median target volume was 0.5 mL (mean 0.904, 0.228-2.3). The median prescription isodose volume was 0.6 mL (mean 0.9, 0.3-2.4). At last follow-up, GG majorly decreased in 3 patients, remained stable in one. CONCLUSION: Gamma Knife radiosurgery is safe and effective for remnant GG after GTR. Primary treatment remains microsurgical resection, especially in cases with symptomatic mass effect or with epilepsy. Single fraction GKR can be a valuable option for remnant or recurrent tumors after initial resection.

9.
Brachytherapy ; 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509378

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this guideline is to present evidence-based consensus recommendations for low dose rate (LDR) permanent seed brachytherapy for the primary treatment of prostate cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The American Brachytherapy Society convened a task force for addressing key questions concerning ultrasound-based LDR prostate brachytherapy for the primary treatment of prostate cancer. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify prospective and multi-institutional retrospective studies involving LDR brachytherapy as monotherapy or boost in combination with external beam radiation therapy with or without adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy. Outcomes included disease control, toxicity, and quality of life. RESULTS: LDR prostate brachytherapy monotherapy is an appropriate treatment option for low risk and favorable intermediate risk disease. LDR brachytherapy boost in combination with external beam radiation therapy is appropriate for unfavorable intermediate risk and high-risk disease. Androgen deprivation therapy is recommended in unfavorable intermediate risk and high-risk disease. Acceptable radionuclides for LDR brachytherapy include iodine-125, palladium-103, and cesium-131. Although brachytherapy monotherapy is associated with increased urinary obstructive and irritative symptoms that peak within the first 3 months after treatment, the median time toward symptom resolution is approximately 1 year for iodine-125 and 6 months for palladium-103. Such symptoms can be mitigated with short-term use of alpha blockers. Combination therapy is associated with worse urinary, bowel, and sexual symptoms than monotherapy. A prostate specific antigen <= 0.2 ng/mL at 4 years after LDR brachytherapy may be considered a biochemical definition of cure. CONCLUSIONS: LDR brachytherapy is a convenient, effective, and well-tolerated treatment for prostate cancer.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509549

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite the increasing use of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for non-spine bone metastases (NSBM), there is no established standard for target delineation. The objective of this study was to provide consensus recommendations on clinical target volume (CTV) delineation based on international expert contours. METHODS: Eleven cases of NSBM were contoured by nine international radiation oncologists. For each case the gross tumor volume (GTV) was provided on the simulation CT scans with accompanying MR imaging. Participants contoured the CTV and completed a clinical survey. Agreement between CTV contours were analyzed with simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) using the kappa coefficient and the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and summarized to establish contouring recommendations. A direction-dependent analysis was applied to the consensus contours to quantify margins. RESULTS: All CTV contours were completed. Six participants used a single dose level, while 3 used a two-dose level simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) technique. For the SIB cases, the largest volume receiving an SBRT dose was used for contour analysis. There was substantial agreement between contours across cases with a mean kappa of 0.72 (mean sensitivity 0.85, mean specificity 0.97). The mean DSC values was 0.77 (range, 0.67-0.87). Consensus CTV contouring recommendations were: 1) An intraosseous CTV margin of 5-10mm should be strongly considered within contiguous bone; 2) An extraosseous margin of 5-10mm should be strongly considered where there is soft tissue disease or cortical bone disruption; 3) CTVs should be manually cropped to respect anatomical barriers to spread (e.g. peritoneal cavity, pleura, uninvolved joint space and cortical bone). CONCLUSIONS: CTV contouring recommendations for NSBM SBRT were established based on analysis of international expert consensus contours with a high level of agreement. These principles may provide guidance to treating physicians and inform future study until prospective clinical data can provide further refinement.

11.
Updates Surg ; 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510378

RESUMO

Anastomotic dehiscence is one of the most morbidity related and deadly complication after foregut oncologic surgery. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of double layer stents (Niti-S™ Beta™ Esophageal Stent) in the management of dehiscences after upper gastrointestinal oncologic surgery. We retrospectively studied consecutive patients who underwent Niti-S™ Beta™ esophageal stent placement from June 2014 to September 2019 for the treatment of anastomotic leaks/fistula following esophagectomy or gastrectomy for cancer. Univariate two-sided logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate possible predictors of successful anastomotic leak/fistula closure. A total of 37 patients were studied and 75 stents were positioned in these patients during the endoscopic procedures. Effective leak/fistula closure was obtained in 23/37 (62.2%). No technical endoscopic failure or complications ensued during the placing of the devices. Regarding delayed complications, migration was observed in 17/75 (22.7%) procedures and stent leaking in 29/75 (38.6%). Three variables significantly favoured stent treatment failure, namely previous neoadjuvant therapy (OR 9.3, P = 0.01), fistula (instead of leak) (OR 6.5, P = 0.01), and stent leak (OR 17.0, P = 0.01). Placement of Beta Niti-S esophageal stent is a safe and effective method that could be considered for the management of leaks and fistula after upper gastrointestinal cancer. Crucial points in the management of post-surgical leaks with this technique are the prompt recognition of leaks and fistula, the prompt endoscopic/radiologic drain of collection and the choice of adequate size of the stent.

12.
J Surg Oncol ; 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To analyze and evaluate the impact of preoperative transcatheter rectal arterial chemoembolization (TRACE) with concurrent chemoradiotherapy on surgery and prognosis of locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). METHODS: A total of 118 patients with LARC were enrolled in this nonrandomized prospective study. They were assigned into the experimental group receiving preoperative TRACE with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (TRACE-CRT group, N = 60) and the control group receiving only neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT group, N = 58). All patients underwent surgery after their preoperative treatments. RESULTS: All patients successfully completed the surgical operation. No significant differences were found in sphincter preservation rate and R0 resection rate between TRACE-CRT group and CRT group (p > 0.05). No significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of the perioperative indicators and postoperative complications except mean operation time (165.8 vs. 196.6 min, p < 0.001). Local recurrence occurred in 8 and 5 patients, respectively (p > 0.05). Distant metastasis occurred in 5 and 11 patients, respectively (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Adding TRACE in the preoperative standard treatment for LARC did not increase perioperative complications. In addition, it has the potential advantage of preventing distant metastasis. It is worthy of further application and promotion in clinical practice.

13.
Med Phys ; 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510486

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We report on our proposed phantom based on the new end-to-end (E2E) methodology and its results. In addition, we verify whether the proposed phantom can replace conventional phantoms. METHODS: The hexagonal-shaped newly designed phantom has pockets on each side for a film dosimeter of size 80 × 90 mm2 , which is easily removable, considering the 60 Co penumbra. The new phantom comprises water, shell, and auxiliary shell phantoms. The shell and auxiliary shell materials are Solid Water® HE. A mock tumor (aluminum oxide) was attached by a single prop in the water phantom and placed at the center of the new phantom. The results of a conventional E2E test were compared with those of the novel E2E test using the newly designed phantom. The irradiated film dosimeter in the novel E2E test was scanned in a flatbed scanner and analyzed using an in-house software developed with MATLAB®. The irradiated field center, laser center, and mock tumor center were calculated. In the novel image-matching E2E (IM-E2E) test, image matching is performed by aligning the laser center with ruled lines. In the novel irradiation-field E2E (IF-E2E) test, the displacement of the irradiation-field center was defined as its distance from the laser center. In the composite E2E test, the overall displacement, which included the accuracy of the irradiated field and image matching, was defined as the distance between the irradiated field center and mock tumor center. In addition, using the newly designed phantom, the overall irradiation accuracy of the machine was evaluated by calculating the three-dimensional (3D) center of the irradiated field, phantom, and laser. The composite E2E test could be performed using the newly designed phantom only. RESULTS: In the IM-E2E test, the results of the conventional and novel IM-E2E tests were significantly different in each direction (left-right direction: p-value << 0.05, anterior-posterior direction: p-value = 0.002, and superior-inferior direction: p-value = 0.002). The displacement directions were the same in both the conventional and novel IM-E2E tests. In the analysis of the IF-E2E test, no significant difference was evident between the results in each direction. Moreover, the displacement directions were the same in the conventional and novel IF-E2E tests, except for the left-right lateral direction of head three. In addition, the 3D analysis results of the novel IF-E2E test were less than 1 mm in all directions. In the analysis of the composite E2E test, the maximum displacement was 1.4 mm in all directions. In addition, almost all results of 3D analysis for the composite E2E test were less than 1 mm in all directions. CONCLUSION: The newly designed E2E phantom simplifies the E2E test for MRIdian, and is a possible alternative to the conventional E2E test. Furthermore, we can perform the previously unfeasible composite E2E tests that include the entire treatment process. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

14.
Int Rev Immunol ; : 1-17, 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511006

RESUMO

Since its first clinical application, 120 years ago, radiotherapy evolved into a major anti-cancer treatment modality, offering high cure rates in many human malignancies. During the past ten years, the establishment of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in cancer therapeutics has vigorously reintroduced the immune system's role in the outcome of radiotherapy and, conversely, the role of radio-vaccination in the efficacy of immunotherapy. The knowledge and clinical experience that founded the current era of immuno-radiotherapy started alongside with the birth of radiotherapy, and evolved through exhaustive experimental work, clinical trials on active specific immunotherapy, frustrating attempts to validate the importance of cytokine administration with radiotherapy, and, finally, the encouraging ICI-based clinical trials that opened the door to a far more encouraging perspective; radio-vaccination, through its old and new methods, is rising as a research field that promises to cure, previously incurable, disease. In this critical review, we focus on the scientific knowledge gathered through more than a century of research on radiotherapy interactions with the immune system. Understanding the origins of this promising therapeutic approach will substantially contribute to developing new immuno-radiotherapy policies in the fight against cancer.

15.
Head Neck ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate a novel velopharyngeal squeeze maneuver (VPSM) and novel endoscopic pharyngeal contraction grade (EPCG) scale for the evaluation of pharyngeal motor function. METHODS: During endoscopic examination of 77 post-irradiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients and control subjects, VPSM was rated and lateral pharyngeal wall movement graded with EPCG scale during swallowing. Pharyngeal constriction ratio (PCR) measured by videofluoroscopy was used for correlation. RESULTS: VPSM and EPCG scale showed almost perfect intra-rater and inter-rater reliability (Kappa: >0.90). VPSM was present in 61% of patients suggesting good pharyngeal motor function. VPSM was predictive of EPCG scale (Wald statistic = 29.99, p < 0.001). EPCG scale also correlated strongly with PCR (r: 0.812) and was predictive for aspiration (odds ratio: 22.14 [95% CI 5.01-97.89, p < 0.001]). CONCLUSIONS: VPSM and EPCG scale are two novel tools to assess pharyngeal motor function, and both correlate well with pharyngeal contractility and aspiration.

16.
Cancer Med ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with endometrial cancer (EC) have favorable prognoses, leaving them vulnerable to the development of second primary cancers (SPCs). We investigated the SPC risk and survival outcomes among EC patients treated with surgery alone in order to exclude the impact of adjuvant treatment on the results. METHODS: Data from the Taiwan Cancer Registry from 1995 to 2013 were analyzed. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of SPCs among EC survivors were calculated. RESULTS: Among 7725 women enrolled, 478 developed an SPC. The overall SIR for SPCs in EC survivors was 2.84 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.59-3.10) compared with the general female population. Women diagnosed with EC at age <50 years had a higher SIR for an SPC than those diagnosed at age ≥50 years (SIR = 4.38 vs. 1.28). The most frequent site of an SPC was the small intestine (SIR = 8.39, 95% CI 2.72-19.58), followed by the kidney (SIR = 4.84, 95% CI 1.78-10.54), and oral cavity (SIR = 4.52, 95% CI 2.17-8.31). Women, regardless of age at EC diagnosis, had significantly higher SIRs for subsequent breast, colorectal, lung, and thyroid cancer, and lymphoma. Women with an SPC had shorter overall survival than those without (5-year: 88.9 vs. 94.2%, 10-year: 71.3 vs. 89.8%, 15-year: 62.3 vs. 86.1%, and 20-year: 47.6 vs. 81.1%, all ps<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Even women treated for EC with surgery alone, especially young EC survivors, had an increased risk of SPCs. Genetic counseling/testing is recommended for young EC patients, and all are recommended to receive regular surveillance and screening for breast, colorectal, and lung cancers.

17.
J Med Radiat Sci ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523823

RESUMO

In recent years, we have seen the integration of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) simulators into radiotherapy centres and the emergence MR linear accelerators (MR-linac). Currently, there are limited studies to demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of MRI guided radiotherapy (MRIgRT) treatment for breast cancer patients. The objective of this scoping review was to identify and map the existing evidence surrounding the clinical implementation of MRIgRT for breast cancer patients. We also identified the challenges and knowledge gaps in the literature. The scoping review was reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) extension for Scoping Reviews reporting guidelines. Titles and abstracts were screened by two independent reviewers. Quantitative and qualitative data were extracted and summarised using thematically organised tables. Results identify that accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is the most common form of treatment for MRIgRT. The presence of the magnet does not affect target coverage or violate organ at risk (OAR) constraints compared to standard radiotherapy methods. Consideration is advised for skin and chest wall (CW) due to the electron return effect (ERE) and areas such as armpit and chin due to the electron stream effect (ESE). Clinically, bolus has been used to protect and prevent unwanted dose in these areas. Overall treatment for APBI on the MR-linac is feasible.

18.
Chirurg ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcomas (RPS) include tumors of mesenchymal origin with overall well-defined histological subtypes and heterogenic prognosis. For the first time with the publication of the STRASS study, which investigated the value of neoadjuvant radiotherapy in primary RPS, there is phase III evidence for the use of radiotherapy. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of the present article is to present the role of neoadjuvant radiotherapy in RPS since the publication of the STRASS study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a non-systematic literature search. The results of retrospective and observational studies were compared to those of the STRASS study. RESULTS: In the two of the largest analyses, the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results program (SEER) and the American National Cancer Database (NCDB), an improvement in overall survival due to radiotherapy in RPS could be shown. In contrast to these results, there was no significant improvement in 3­year abdominal recurrence-free survival in the STRASS study. There was solely a trend to improved abdominal recurrence-free survival in initially unplanned subgroup analyses for patients with liposarcoma as well as low-grade sarcoma but not for leiomyosarcoma or high-grade sarcoma. CONCLUSION: Thanks to international collaboration an academic randomized trial was even feasible in such a rare disease as RPS. The results of the STRASS study have relativized the potential benefit of radiotherapy in RPS. A longer follow-up especially regarding the role of radiotherapy in liposarcomas is desirable.

19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 706186, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484202

RESUMO

Background: Sargramostim [recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhu GM-CSF)] was approved by US FDA in 1991 to accelerate bone marrow recovery in diverse settings of bone marrow failure and is designated on the list of FDA Essential Medicines, Medical Countermeasures, and Critical Inputs. Other important biological activities including accelerating tissue repair and modulating host immunity to infection and cancer via the innate and adaptive immune systems are reported in pre-clinical models but incompletely studied in humans. Objective: Assess safety and efficacy of sargramostim in cancer and other diverse experimental and clinical settings. Methods and Results: We systematically reviewed PubMed, Cochrane and TRIP databases for clinical data on sargramostim in cancer. In a variety of settings, sargramostim after exposure to bone marrow-suppressing agents accelerated hematologic recovery resulting in fewer infections, less therapy-related toxicity and sometimes improved survival. As an immune modulator, sargramostim also enhanced anti-cancer responses in solid cancers when combined with conventional therapies, for example with immune checkpoint inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies. Conclusions: Sargramostim accelerates hematologic recovery in diverse clinical settings and enhances anti-cancer responses with a favorable safety profile. Uses other than in hematologic recovery are less-well studied; more data are needed on immune-enhancing benefits. We envision significantly expanded use of sargramostim in varied immune settings. Sargramostim has the potential to reverse the immune suppression associated with sepsis, trauma, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and COVID-19. Further, sargramostim therapy has been promising in the adjuvant setting with vaccines and for anti-microbial-resistant infections and treating autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and gastrointestinal, peripheral arterial and neuro-inflammatory diseases. It also may be useful as an adjuvant in anti-cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/imunologia , Humanos , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Expert Rev Hematol ; : 1-15, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488529

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS) feature complex molecular pathophysiology resulting in ineffective hematopoiesis and increased risk of progression to myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only well-established cure for the hematological manifestations of these diseases. AREAS COVERED: In recent years, analysis of large series from international databases (mainly from the European Bone Marrow Transplantation [EBMT] database) has improved knowledge about HSCT in IBMFS. This review, following a thorough Medline search of the pertinent published studies, reports the most recent data on HSCT in IBMFS. EXPERT OPINION: Despite the common features, IBMFS are very different in their manifestations and in the occurrence and management of HSCT complications. Thus, a 'disease-specific' HSCT using an optimized conditioning regimen based on the characteristics of the disease is essential for achieving long-term survival. The phenotypical heterogeneity associated with extramedullary abnormalities has to be carefully evaluated before HSCT because transplantation may only correct impaired hematopoiesis. HSCT may be associated with the risk of treatment-related mortality and with significant early and late morbidity. For these reasons, the benefits should be carefully weighed against the risks.

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