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1.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 102(2): 125-129, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012301

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the feasibility of assessing cognitive function of the elderly by serum metabolites of brain-gut axis. Methods: Convenience sampling was used to select 100 and 60 participants from the healthy population cohort and microecological balance cohort of the longevity population in Guangxi, to constitute subset of healthy population and longevity population, respectively. A questionnaire was used to investigate the demographic characteristics of the subjects, 2-5 ml of fasting venous blood was collected from the subjects, and the serum untargeted metabolomics was determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The biomarkers related to the brain-gut axis were collected through literature retrieval, and the results were intersected with the untargeted metabolites and annotated. Spearman correlation analysis was used to screen serum metabolites of brain-gut axis associated with aging, and multiple linear regression method was used to construct biological age model. The mini mental status examination was used to evaluate the cognitive function of longevity population subsets. The differences of biological age and chronological age of longevity population subsets with different cognitive function were compared. Results: The M (Q1, Q3) of subset of healthy population and longevity population were 64 (38, 72) and 97 (95, 99) years old, respectively, and there were 50 (50.0%) and 44 (73.3%) females, respectively. Nine serum metabolites of brain-gut axis were obtained by initial screening, which were propionic acid, glutamic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), lactic acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), tryptophan, trimethylamine oxide, dopamine and canine urea. Spearman correlation analysis showed that glutamic acid and dopamine were positively correlated with aging (r values were 0.208 and 0.524, respectively, all P values<0.05), and tryptophan, 5-HT and GABA were negatively correlated with aging (r values were -0.308, -0.533 and -0.213, respectively, all P values<0.05). The biological age model was constructed as: y=49.81-1.18×10-5× GABA-1.82×10-4×5-HT+1.99×10-3×dopamine+1.65×10-6×glutamic acid -2.04×10-6×tryptophan+2.36×gender, where y was the biological age (years), the items on the right were the intercept item, the relative concentration of each metabolite, and gender (male=1, female=2). The coefficient of determination of model was 0.50 (P<0.001). The M (Q1, Q3) of the chronological age of the subset of longevity population with poor, moderate and good cognitive function were 97 (94, 100), 97 (93, 101) and 96 (94, 101) years old, respectively, and there was no statistical significance in pairwise comparison (all P values>0.05). The M (Q1, Q3) of the biological age of the subjects with better cognitive function was 51 (38, 54) years old, which was lower than that of the subjects with poor cognitive function [57 (47, 61)] (P=0.040). Conclusion: The biological age model can be constructed based on serum metabolites of brain-gut axis and used to evaluate the cognitive function of the elderly.


Assuntos
Metabolômica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , China , Cromatografia Líquida , Cognição , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 74, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997868

RESUMO

National Key Ecological Functions Areas (NKEFAs) in China perform critical ecological functions and play a key role in ensuring the ecological safety of a large region or the whole country. Conservation planning in NKEFAs needs to scientifically locate conservation areas and development sites to support the "globally conserved, locally developed" strategy. However, popular conservation planning approaches often underestimate the impacts of natural and anthropogenic stressors and thus fail to handle the conflicts between conservation and development goals. This article proposes a conservation planning framework (CP-NKEFA) to overcome the limitations of popular conservation planning approaches and fulfill the conservation planning requirements of China's NKEFAs. Conservation planning is converted to an ecological risk assessment problem to integrate natural and anthropogenic stressors analysis with ecosystem service (ES) evaluation. The framework clarifies stressor types and quantifies stressor risks and ES importance to set conservation, development, and buffer zones. As a case study, the framework was implemented in Changyang County, China, an NKEFA for water and soil retention in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region. The framework is more useful than typical ecological redline zoning for instructing conservation and development spatial arrangement with a multi-category zoning scheme. The zoning results protect the areas vulnerable to natural and anthropogenic stressors or significant for ES provisions. Furthermore, the buffer zone prevents direct impacts of human activities on conservation areas and permits trade-offs between conservation and development goals. Except for NKEFAs, the framework also applies to conservation planning in other areas where conservation and development goals must be handled.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Medição de Risco
3.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 22, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The public's perception of the health system provides valuable insights on health system performance and future directions of improvement. While China's health care reform was a response to people's discontent in the health care system due to the lack of accessibility and affordability, little is known on changes in public perception of China's health system. This paper examines trends in public perception of the health system between 2006 and 2019 and assesses determinants of public perception in China's health system. METHODS: Seven waves of the China Social Survey, a nationally representative survey, were used to examine trends in public satisfaction with health care and perceived fairness in health care. Chi-square tests were used to examine differences across waves. Logistic regression models were used to explore determinants of public perception, including variables on sociodemographic characteristics, health system characteristics, and patient experience. RESULTS: Satisfaction with health care increased from 57.76% to 77.26% between 2006 and 2019. Perceived fairness in health care increased from 49.79% to 72.03% during the same period. Both indicators showed that the major improvement occurred before 2013. Sociodemographic characteristics are weakly associated with public perception. Financial protection and perceived medical safety are strongly associated with public perception, while accessibility is weakly associated with public perception. Patient experience such as perceived affordability and quality in the last medical visit are strongly associated with public perception of the health care system, while the accessibility of the last medical visit shows no impacts. CONCLUSION: Public satisfaction on health care and perceived fairness in health care in China improved over 2006-2019. The main improvement occurred in accordance with huge financial investments in public health insurance before 2013. Financial protection and perceived quality play significant roles in determining public perception, whereas accessibility and sociodemographic characteristics have limited influence on people's perception of China's health system. To achieve higher satisfaction and a higher sense of fairness in health care, China's health system needs to continue its reforms on hospital incentives and integrated delivery system to control health expenditure and improve health care quality.


Assuntos
Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Satisfação Pessoal , China , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Seguro Saúde
4.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 18(1): 2, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Baiku Yao is a branch of the Yao nationality in China. The unique dying process of traditional clothing employed by these people has distinct national characteristics, a profound impact on the production and life of local people, and important research value. For this reason, it is important to investigate and document the dyeing plants and the traditional knowledge involved in the dyeing of Baku Yao traditional clothing. METHODOLOGY: Information on dyeing plants was obtained using the free-list method and interviews with 61 Baiku Yao informants in Guangxi and Guizhou from January 2020 to August 2021. Based on the free-list method, we evaluated and screened out important plants by calculating the cognitive salience value of each plant. RESULTS: The results showed that the people of Baiku Yao have accumulated rich traditional knowledge of dyeing plants and long-term dyeing and other processes. We collected 23 species and recorded the related traditional knowledge, such as the Baiku Yao name, life form, habitat, part(s) used, application type, usage, and area used. The utilization of dyeing plants has a strong relationship with ethnic culture. The Baiku Yao uses unique anti-dyeing material (Ailanthus vilmoriniana) in the cotton dyeing process, they call it "the mother tree". As well as, the results also showed that 15 plants (65.2%) have medicinal value and can be used to treat 18 aliments, and wild plants play a very important role in the life of the Baiku Yao. CONCLUSION: These plants not only meet the color needs of the Baiku Yao people but also have health care effects, aligning with the trends toward green dyeing and the health contentiousness of modern people. This study provides a reference for the inheritance and development of Baiku Yao traditional clothing dyeing culture, will aid the identification of new natural, safe and healthy textile dyes, and is of positive significance in promoting regional economic development, national cultural inheritance, and biodiversity protection.


Assuntos
Corantes , China , Etnobotânica , Humanos , Plantas
5.
Malar J ; 21(1): 11, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early accurate diagnosis and risk assessment for malaria are crucial for improving patients' terminal prognosis and preventing them from progressing to a severe or critical stage. This study aims to describe the accuracy of the initial diagnosis of malaria cases with different characteristics and the factors that affect the accuracy in the context of the agenda for a world free of malaria. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on 494 patients admitted to hospitals with a diagnosis of malaria from January 2014 through December 2016. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and decision tree analysis was performed to predict the probability of patients who may be misdiagnosed. RESULTS: Of the 494 patients included in this study, the proportions of patients seeking care in county-level, prefecture-level and provincial-level hospitals were 27.5% (n = 136), 26.3% (n = 130) and 8.3% (n = 41), respectively; the proportions of patients seeking care in clinic, township health centre and Centres for Disease Control and Prevention were 25.9% (n = 128), 4.1% (n = 20), and 7.9% (n = 39), respectively. Nearly 60% of malaria patients were misdiagnosed on their first visit, and 18.8% had complications. The median time from onset to the first visit was 2 days (IQR: 0-3 days), and the median time from the first visit to diagnosis was 3 days (IQR: 0-4 days). The decision tree classification of malaria patients being misdiagnosed consisted of six categorical variables: healthcare facilities for the initial diagnosis, time interval between onset and initial diagnosis, region, residence type, insurance status, and age. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient diagnostic capacity of healthcare facilities with lower administrative levels for the first visit was the most important risk factor in misdiagnosing patients. To reduce diagnostic errors, clinicians, government decision-makers and communities should consider strengthening the primary care facilities, the time interval between onset and initial diagnosis, residence type, and health insurance status.


Assuntos
Árvores de Decisões , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Malária/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , China , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
6.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(1): 102-112, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989494

RESUMO

To investigate the characteristics of atmospheric volatile organic compound (VOCs) pollution and promote VOCs pollution prevention and control in industrial areas, in December 2020, VOCs samples collected using Summa Canisters at three observation sites were used to study the characteristics of VOCs pollution and source apportionment and to conduct a health risk assessment in large integrated industrial areas and surrounding urban areas in southwest China. The results showed that the mean φ(TVOCs) at site A and site B in an industrial area and at a third urban site were 105.25×10-9, 222.92×10-9, and 82.87×10-9, respectively. Monochloromethane, dichloromethane, acetone, ethanol, and ethane were the species with higher volume fractions at the three sites. Aromatic hydrocarbons and OVOCs had a large contribution to the ozone formation potential (OFP), with a cumulative contribution of more than 50%, and the main reactive species were methyl methacrylate, toluene, p-xylene, and o-xylene; the secondary organic aerosol formation potential (SOAP) of aromatic hydrocarbons contributed more than 80%, with the main active species being toluene, p-xylene, and o-xylene. The results of PMF source analysis showed six main sources of VOCs, in the descending order of the petrochemical industry (21.83%), industrial waste incineration (18.6%), pharmaceutical manufacturing (16.99%), fossil fuel combustion (16.03%), motor vehicle exhaust (14.23%), and chemical manufacturing (12.32%). The mean values of the hazard index (HI) of site A and site B in the industrial area and in the urban site were 0.55, 0.68, and 0.41, respectively, and the mean lifetime cancer risk (LCR) values were 6.71×10-6, 6.72×10-6, and 6.58×10-6, respectively. Both HI and LCR in industrial areas were larger than those in urban areas. The quantitative assessment of risk sources showed that motor vehicle exhaust and fossil fuel combustion contributed relatively high carcinogenic risks.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Ozônio , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos Industriais , Ozônio/análise , Medição de Risco , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/toxicidade
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35010793

RESUMO

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a severe public health and social problem worldwide. A limitation of the existing literature is that multiple environmental variables have not been frequently elaborated, which is why the overall effect of the environment on COVID-19 has not been conclusive. In this study, we used generalized additive model (GAM) to detect the relationship between meteorological and air pollution variables and COVID-19 in four urban agglomerations in China and made comparisons among the urban agglomerations. The four urban agglomerations are Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH), middle reaches of the Yangtze River (MYR), Yangtze River Delta (YRD), and the Pearl River Delta (PRD). The daily rates of average precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, sunshine duration, and atmospheric pressure were selected as meteorological variables. The PM2.5, PM10, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO) contents were selected as air pollution variables. The results indicated that meteorological and air pollution variables tended to be significantly correlated. Moreover, the nature of the relationship between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and meteorological and air pollution variables (i.e., linear or nonlinear) varied with urban agglomerations. Among the variance explained by GAMs, BTH had the highest value (75.4%), while MYR had the lowest value (35.2%). The values of the YRD and PRD were between the above two, namely 45.6% and 62.2%, respectively. The findings showed that the association between SARS-CoV-2 and meteorological and air pollution variables varied in regions, making it difficult to obtain a relationship that is applicable to every region. Moreover, this study enriches our understanding of SARS-CoV-2. It is required to create awareness within the government that anti-COVID-19 measures should be adapted to the local meteorological and air pollution conditions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(1): 1-10, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989485

RESUMO

The rapid urbanization in China may lead to heavy metal pollution in urban soil, threatening the health of residents. By collecting literature data published in the last 15 years, the characteristics and risks of heavy metals in the urban soils of 52 cities in China were analyzed. The results showed that the average ω(Pb), ω(Cd), ω(Cu) and ω(Zn) in the urban soils of China were 58.5, 0.49, 42.1, and 156.3 mg·kg-1, respectively, and the average Igeo values were ordered as follows Cd(1.10) > Zn(0.36) > Pb(0.28) > Cu(0.13). The high concentrations of heavy metals in the urban soils were mainly found in cities located in coastal economically developed provinces (such as Jiangsu, Zhejiang, etc.) and resource-based provinces (such as Hunan, Henan, Inner Mongolia, etc.). The cities of Kaifeng, Yangzhou, Hohhot, Taiyuan, and Xiangtan had relatively high Igeo values for heavy metals in the soils. The concentrations of heavy metals in soils from industrial areas and roadsides were significantly higher than those from residential areas and parks, suggesting that heavy traffic and developed heavy industry were the main causes of heavy metal accumulation in the urban soils. No significant correlations between the average concentrations of heavy metals in urban soil and urban economic and environmental indicators[such as permanent population, GDP, ρ (PM10), ρ(PM2.5), and SO2 emissions] were found. The concentrations of heavy metals in urban soils showed large spatial heterogeneity, and hence the average concentrations may not reflect the overall accumulation level in a city. The non-carcinogenic risks for children posed by heavy metals in urban soils were generally low, and the main risk contributor was Pb. However, the exposure to heavy metals in soils in cities with developed smelting industries is worthy of attention.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Criança , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
9.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(1): 210-219, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989505

RESUMO

To preliminarily explore the antibiotic concentration distribution characteristics of Guizhou Chishui River basin surface water and potential ecological risks, we used solid phase extraction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-HPLC- MS) to analyze 21 types of antibiotics in surface water samples. Twelve types of antibiotics were detected in the Chishui River basin surface water, and the total concentrations of ofloxacin, sulfadiazine, and trimethoprim ranged from ND-1166.97 ng·L-1, with a detection rate of 100%. On average, the highest concentration of the three types of antibiotics detected were ofloxacin (221.59 ng·L-1), tetracycline (13.18 ng·L-1), and sulfadiazine (4.11 ng·L-1), and the antibiotic concentration distribution showed the following order of characteristics:downstream (359.41 ng·L-1) > midstream(224.59 ng·L-1) > upstream (179.72 ng·L-1). The ecological environment risk assessment results indicated the largest risk for downstream W21, tetracycline, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, and erythromycin. The risk quotient revealed that lincomycin had a medium-risk level, and ofloxacin had a high-risk level. This shows that antibiotics in the waters of the Chishui River basin may cause certain ecological risks.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Antibacterianos/análise , China , Medição de Risco , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
10.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(1): 230-238, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989507

RESUMO

Based on the flow direction of the Fuhe River into Baiyangdian Lake, the impacted area of the Fuhe River was divided into 6 subareas, and sediments from 48 sites were collected in November 2020. The characteristics and risks of sediment nutrients and heavy metal pollution in these six subareas were investigated. The results showed that the average ω(TN), ω(TP), and ω(TOC) were 1841 mg·kg-1, 769 mg·kg-1, and 1.77%, respectively. The major heavy metals were Cd, Cu, Zn, Hg, and Pb, which were 3.73, 1.50, 1.42, 1.31, and 1.31 times the soil background values for Hebei Province, respectively. The TP and heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Zn, Hg, and Pb) content showed a decreasing trend from the Fuhe River estuary to the downstream Zaolinzhuang, whereas the TN and TOC content showed no marked trends. TN, TP, TOC, and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Zn, Hg, and Pb) were enriched in surface sediments (0-10 cm). The TP content in the surface sediments (0-10 cm) of the Fuhe River estuary, Fuhe River estuary-Nanliuzhuang, and Nanliuzhuang subareas were heavily polluted; the Wangjiazhai and Guangdian subareas were moderately polluted; and the Zaolinzhuang subarea was slightly polluted. Cd and Hg were the major contributors to heavy metal pollution, which were at considerable risk and moderate risk levels, respectively. The heavy metals in surface sediments (0-10 cm) of the Fuhe River estuary, Fuhe River estuary-Nanliuzhuang, and Nanliuzhuang subareas were at a considerable risk level, and the sediments below 30 cm presented a low risk level. The leaching concentrations of heavy metals in sediments from the subarea of severe ecological risk level were far less than the identification standard values of leaching toxicity, suggesting that the sediments can be treated as general waste after dredging.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Lagos , Metais Pesados/análise , Nutrientes , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(1): 247-255, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989509

RESUMO

Macrobenthos can reflect the cumulative effect of various ecological threats on the water environment and are closely related to the health of river ecosystems. In this study, taking the North Canal River basin, a typical basin in Beijing, as an example, ecological data from 34 stations were investigated in the summer of 2015. Characteristics of the macrobenthos communities were analyzed, and driving environmental factors were identified using typical correspondence analysis. Thresholds and response species of those driving environmental factors were conducted using the thresholds indicator taxa analysis (TITAN). In this study, the health status of the river ecosystem was evaluated by the multi-metrics method and benthic index of biotic integrity (B-IBI). The benthic community was dominated by pollution-tolerant aquatic insects and mollusks, with a low-level Shannon-wiener diversity index between 0-1.01; fluoride, biochemical oxygen demand, ammonia-nitrogen, and total phosphorus were driving environmental factors influencing the community structure of macrobenthos. Indicator species of ammonia-nitrogen were identified by the TITAN in the North Canal River basin with a threshold range of 1.09-6.94 mg·L-1; three indicator species of total phosphorus were identified with a threshold range of 0.48-1.27 mg·L-1, which were all positive response species. According to the health assessment, the river ecosystem in the North Canal River basin was generally unhealthy, and the upstream ecosystem was better than that downstream; the health conditions in the mountainous areas of Changping district were the best, whereas those in Chaoyang and central city districts were the worst. This study can provide a basis for ecological restoration and pollution control of rivers and also provide a reference for the water ecological civilization construction in other cities.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Água , Pequim , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios
12.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(1): 329-338, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989517

RESUMO

To explore the distribution characteristics of metal elements in groundwater and evaluate the health risks they pose to the population in the Ningxia region of China, a total of 210 groundwater samples were collected, and eight metal elements (As, Cr, Al, Cu, Pb, Mn, Fe, and Sr) in the water samples were analyzed. The pollution characteristics, distribution, and health risks of the metals in the groundwater were revealed by a comprehensive pollution assessment, multivariate statistical analysis, and health risk assessment model, respectively. The results revealed that the mean mass concentrations of metal elements in groundwater from the study area were in the following order:ρ(Sr) > ρ(Al) > ρ(Mn) > ρ(Cu) > ρ(Pb) > ρ(Cr) > ρ(As) > ρ(Fe). The ρ(Sr) content of 75.24% of the samples exceeded that from drinking natural mineral water[0.2 mg·L-1of ρ(Sr)] as per China's standard. The maximum ρ(As) 76.60 µg·L-1, ρ(Cr) 145.01 µg·L-1, ρ(Pb) 59.93 µg·L-1, and ρ(Mn) 734.67 µg·L-1 exceeded the corresponding standard limits. Compared with the natural control, the As and Pb pollution in the study area was more serious, showing a planar distribution. Mn and Cr pollution were relatively concentrated, mainly distributed in the northern Yellow River and southeast, respectively. Other metals were lightly polluted. The results of the multivariate statistical analysis showed that the concentrations of As and Pb pollution may be caused by natural factors, industrial activities, and the use of pesticides. Mn pollution may be caused by irrigation with the Yellow River. Cr pollution may be caused by mining for oil. The health risk assessment showed that the health risk to children was higher than that to adults, and the risk of drinking water exposure was higher than that of skin infiltration exposure. The non-carcinogenic health risk (HI) was mainly caused by As through the drinking water pathway. Due to the pollution of As and Cr, the carcinogenic risk through the drinking water and skin penetration pathways to children and adults in the study area was higher than the safety level (5.0×10-5). The contribution rate of Cr to the carcinogenic risk through the two pathways was greater than 80%. For drinking water safety, the concentrations of As and Cr should be controlled before drinking.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(1): 349-362, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989519

RESUMO

In this study, 50 surface water and sediment samples were collected from 25 sampling points in Qingpu District (including Taipu River basin, Jinze Reservoir, and Qingxi country park) in the Yangtze River Delta integration demonstration area, and 22 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the samples were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS-MS). The distribution characteristics, sources, and influencing factors of targeted PPCPs in the study area were studied in detail. The ecological and health risks of the target PPCPs were evaluated using the quotients method. The results showed that a total of 19 PPCPs were detected in the surface water and sediment samples from 25 sampling points in Qingpu District, with total concentrations ranging from 0.06 to 178.67 ng·L-1 and 0.07 to 37.68 ng·g-1, respectively. The average value of sulfachloropyridazine (SCP) in the surface water was the highest with a concentration of 129.54 ng·L-1, whereas the average value of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in the sediment was the highest with a concentration of 70.62 ng·g-1. The spatial distribution of the total amount of PPCPs showed a trend of Qingxi country park > Jinze Reservoir > Taipu River basin. Principal component analysis showed that the main sources of pollution were animal antibiotics used in aquaculture and the discharge of domestic sewage. There was a significant correlation between lg Koc and lg Kd (P<0.05), indicating that the organic carbon plays an important role in the distribution of the target PPCPs in water and sediments. The ecological risk assessment results revealed that the fungicides (TCC and TCS) in the surface waters showed a moderate risk to aquatic organisms of different trophic levels. The Qingxi country park and Jinze Reservoir were the regions with the highest ecological risks of PPCPs in surface water and sediment. The health risk entropy (HQ) of people of all age groups exposed through drinking was less than 1; however, with the continuous emission and accumulation of PPCPs, the pollution control of PPCPs in the environment still requires further attention.


Assuntos
Cosméticos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , China , Cosméticos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Multimídia , Medição de Risco , Rios , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(1): 500-509, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989535

RESUMO

The residual content of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in soil and crops of typical agricultural land in the southern Leizhou peninsula were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Additionally, the bioconcentration factors of organochlorine pesticides in eight crops were investigated, and the human health risk was evaluated. The results indicated that 10 types of OCPs were detected to varying degrees; HCHs and heptachlor were the main OCPs in the study area, with the residual contents of 23.83-111.51 ng·g-1 and 11.01-25.97 ng·g-1 in soil and 7.54-61.28 ng·g-1 and 3.96-30.97 ng·g-1 in crops, respectively. A small number of soil and crop samples were found to exceed the standard. The ratio of α-HCH/γ-HCH was less than 1 in 87.50% of the soil samples, and ß-HCH/α-HCH was larger than 1. This indicates that the HCHs were probably derived from the recent use of lindane and historical residual pollution, whereas the heptachlor was mainly derived from underground insect pests and the application of termite control agents. The enrichment ability of OCPs was significantly different among different crops. The bioaccumulation capacity of vegetables was higher than that of fruit. Furthermore, bulb vegetables (leeks) were significantly stronger than other vegetables. A human health risk assessment of OCPs showed that OCP-combined pollution would not cause significant health risks to the population in the study area. However, the maximum value of HI in some crop samples was greater than 1, indicating that there were still potential risks, which should not be ignored.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Poluentes do Solo , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
15.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 113: 40-54, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34963548

RESUMO

Ambient carbonyls were continuously observed in the field during a heavy ozone pollution episode in Chengdu, China from August 4 to August 19, 2019, and the pollution characteristics, atmospheric photochemical reactivity, human health risk, and sources of carbonyls were analyzed. Fifteen carbonyls were quantified with average total mixing ratios of 20.38 ppbv Formaldehyde (9.86 ppbv), acetone (4.41 ppbv), and acetaldehyde (3.57 ppbv) were the three most abundant carbonyls. During the heavy ozone pollution episode, the concentration of carbonyls was found to be higher on pollution days than on the clean days, and relatively higher in the daytime, especially at noon on the pollution days. This was influenced by the intensity of photochemical reactions and precipitation. The "weekend effect" with the concentration of carbonyls was higher on the weekends than on the weekdays was pointed out. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and hexaldehyde were the dominant oxidative species during the observation. The carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk values of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were higher on pollution days than on clean days, and these values were higher compared with those of other cities in China and abroad. Long-term exposure to these compounds should therefore be avoided. Diagnostic ratios and correlation analysis together with backward trajectory analysis showed that primary emission and secondary formation accounted 66%-76% and 24%-34% of carbonyls in Chengdu, respectively, with primary emission being the main sources of carbonyls, and carbonyls from the surrounding cities and emission from natural sources also had a significant contribution to the carbonyls in Chengdu.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Ozônio , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Ozônio/análise , Medição de Risco , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
16.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113912, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628281

RESUMO

The increase in coal consumption and its impact on the environment has become a bottleneck that hinders sustainable development. This paper discusses the effect of economic growth and coal intensity on China's coal consumption during 2005-2017 using the Laspeyres index decomposition method. The decoupling of coal consumption from economic growth was examined in conjunction with the Tapio elasticity index, and the decoupling contributions of economic growth and coal intensity are further determined. The results indicated that economic growth drives an increase in coal consumption; however, the contribution rate declines gradually with decrease in economic growth rate in each province. Further research showed that the secondary industry is the main contributor to the increment, and the rapid development of tertiary industry increases indirect coal consumption. Coal intensity has a positive impact on curbing coal consumption, but it is not sufficient to offset the increment generated by the economic effect. Moreover, in each province, the curbing effect gradually decreased as the decline in coal intensity weakened in the secondary industry. Furthermore, coal consumption is weakly decoupled from economic growth over the long term, and the secondary industry will determine the future trend of decoupling.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Carvão Mineral , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Indústrias
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 4): 150913, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653454

RESUMO

With rapid socio-economic development, China's coastal areas are among the fastest growing and most economically dynamic regions in the world. Under the influence of climate change and human activities, protecting the quality of coastal groundwater has emerged as one of the key environmental and resource management issues for these areas. This paper reviews (for the first time) groundwater quality data for the coastal basins of China, where over 600 million people live, focussing on key inorganic indicators/pollutants; groundwater salinity, nitrate, fluoride, and arsenic. These pollutants present major water quality issues and are also valuable as indicators of wider processes and influences impacting coastal groundwater quality - e.g. saltwater intrusion, agricultural pollution and release of geo-genic contaminants. We discuss the major drivers causing water quality problems in different regions and assess future trajectories and challenges for controlling changes in coastal groundwater quality in China. Multiple processes, including modern and palaeo seawater/brine migration, groundwater pumping for agricultural irrigation, pollution from agrochemical application, rapid development of aquaculture, urban growth, and water transfer projects, may all be responsible (to different degrees) for changes observed in coastal groundwater quality, and associated long-term health and ecological effects. We discuss implications for sustainable coastal aquifer management in China, arguing that groundwater monitoring and contamination control measures require urgent improvement. The evolution and treatment of coastal groundwater quality problems in China will serve as an important warning and example for other countries facing similar pressures, due to climate change, coastal development, and intensification of anthropogenic activity in coming decades.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Água do Mar , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 4): 150929, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655624

RESUMO

Making cities safe, resilient and sustainable is one of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Health risk, productivity loss and climate change caused by air pollution obstacles the present urban sustainable development, especially people living in middle-and low-income countries areas are most affected. The spatial models (such as SAR and SEM) are often considered to examine the driven factors and the spatial spillover effect of PM2.5 concentrations. Given that these spatial models assume spatially dependent second-order moments of the dependent variable without considering the possible autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity. This present study empirically examines the heterogeneous effects of economic development, secondary industry, FDI, population density, number of buses and urbanization on PM2.5 concentrations in 269 Chinese cities using the SAR, spARCH and SARspARCH, respectively. This newly proposed Spatial ARCH model is the first attempt to be applied to environmental research. The empirical results indicate that an increasing spatial correlation with PM2.5 concentration was observed among 269 cities during 2004-2016, and the most influential cities in high-high clustering are mainly located in North China. Furthermore, except for population density, the effects of other factors are heterogeneous on the time scale. Among those socioeconomic factors, population density shows the largest contribution to urban PM2.5 pollution, the effects of secondary industry, GDP and FDI may be overestimated in the absence of spatial neighbouring effects in mean or variance. The comparative analysis could provide new enlightenments for a deeper understanding of the socioeconomic impact on PM2.5 pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 4): 150966, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656589

RESUMO

A total of 96 water, soil, and sediment samples, collected from 32 sampling sites in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, were analyzed for 9 phthalate esters (PAEs). The sum concentrations of 9 PAEs (∑9PAEs) in the water, soil, and sediment samples were 2.23-6.30 µg L-1 (mean: 4.11 µg L-1), 155-1410 µg kg-1 (408 µg kg-1), and 30.1-16,000 µg kg-1 (1200 µg kg-1), respectively. Among the 9 PAEs, di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP) are the predominant congeners in the YRD region. DBP was the dominant PAE congener in water, accounting for 50.6% of the Σ9PAEs, while DEHP was the predominant one in soil and sediment (accounting for 69.6% and 83.1% of the Σ9PAEs, respectively). Soil and sediment samples collected from Wuxi city manifested relatively higher PAE concentrations. The partitioning of PAEs between water and sediment was attributed to the fact that low molecular weight PAEs (e.g., dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP)) were dominant in water, medium molecular weight PAEs (e.g., BzBP) were close to the equilibrium between sediment-water, and high molecular weight PAEs (e.g., DEHP) were more prevalent in sediment. The ecological risk assessment of PAEs in the surface water showed that the potential environmental risks followed the order of DEHP > DIBP > DBP > DMP > DEP. Comparatively, DEHP posed high ecological risk to sensitive algae, crustaceans and fish, while DMP and DEP exhibited low risk. In the sediment, DIBP exhibited a high risk to the sensitive fish, whereas DMP, DEP, DBP and DEHP displayed no risk.


Assuntos
Ácidos Ftálicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Dibutilftalato , Ésteres , Medição de Risco , Rios , Solo , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 4): 150969, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656600

RESUMO

Because of their highly persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic properties, short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) have become emerging contaminants and have been included in Annex A (elimination) of the Stockholm Convention since 2017. The contamination of SCCPs has been observed in the environment and biota worldwide but has not been detected in Taiwanese river ecosystems. Thus, this study aimed to determine the occurrence of SCCPs in sediments and fish from 30 major rivers in Taiwan and to evaluate the risk of SCCPs to river ecosystems and human health. The concentrations of SCCPs in sediments and fish ranged from ND (not detected) to 12.6 mg/kg dw and ND to 2.07 mg/kg ww, respectively. The concentrations of SCCPs in sediments were significantly correlated with some indicators of the discharge sources and water quality variables, indicating that SCCPs were released via human activities and various discharges into rivers and accumulated in sediments. The bioaccumulation of SCCPs in fish exhibited species-specific profiles and was related to environmental contamination levels and the living pattern and trophic level of the fish. The SCCP levels in sediments from 20 major rivers in Taiwan might pose a potential ecological risk to river ecosystems according to the criteria of the Federal Environmental Quality Guidelines in Canada, the biota-sediment accumulation factor and the risk quotient. Consumption of SCCP-contaminated river fish by different gender and age groups showed no significant health risk to residents in Taiwan evaluated by the estimated daily intake and hazard quotient. However, there was a health concern for the 0- to 3-year-old group due to the consumption of contaminated river fish at a bioaccessibility of 100% for SCCPs by the margin of exposure. Routine monitoring of SCCPs in river ecosystems is needed to protect aquatic organisms and human health.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Parafina , Animais , Pré-Escolar , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Parafina/análise , Medição de Risco , Taiwan
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