Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 71.102
Filtrar
Mais filtros

Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Heart Lung ; 66: 94-102, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Iron Deficiency (ID) is common in Heart Failure (HF) and associated with poor outcomes. Replacement with intravenous (IV) iron can improve functional status, quality of life and risk of unplanned admission. In 2015/16 a local service evaluation was performed which found that of people admitted with HF, only 27.5 % had assessment of iron status, and when identified, replacement occurred in fewer than half. Education strategies were employed to increase awareness of the importance of assessment and correction. OBJECTIVES: To assess if practice had improved following education strategies. METHODS: A review of 220 patient records for people admitted with HF in 2020/21 to establish if iron status assessed, presence of ID, and whether if ID identified it was treated, and by which route. Trends in 2020/21 data were explored in sub-groups by age, sex, type of HF, anaemia status, input from HF specialists and type of ID. RESULTS: Compared to 2015/16, more assessments of iron status were performed (45% vs 27.5 %), ID was corrected more frequently (57% vs 46 %) and increased use of the IV route for replacement (83% vs 58 %) CONCLUSIONS: Despite the impact of COVID-19 on usual care in 2020/21, improvement was seen in proportion of assessment and treatment of ID following simple education strategies for key stakeholders. There may be scope to improve practice further if the findings remain similar post pandemic. If so, a formal Quality Improvement approach may be helpful.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Humanos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Anemia Ferropriva/diagnóstico , Anemia Ferropriva/terapia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Ferro/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/complicações
2.
JMIR Hum Factors ; 11: e50889, 2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38669076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New digital technology presents new challenges to health care on multiple levels. There are calls for further research that considers the complex factors related to digital innovations in complex health care settings to bridge the gap when moving from linear, logistic research to embracing and testing the concept of complexity. The nonadoption, abandonment, scale-up, spread, and sustainability (NASSS) framework was developed to help study complexity in digital innovations. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the role of complexity in the development and deployment of innovations by retrospectively assessing challenges to 4 digital health care innovations initiated from the bottom up. METHODS: A multicase retrospective, deductive, and explorative analysis using the NASSS complexity assessment tool LONG was conducted. In total, 4 bottom-up innovations developed in Region Västra Götaland in Sweden were explored and compared to identify unique and shared complexity-related challenges. RESULTS: The analysis resulted in joint insights and individual learning. Overall, the complexity was mostly found outside the actual innovation; more specifically, it related to the organization's readiness to integrate new innovations, how to manage and maintain innovations, and how to finance them. The NASSS framework sheds light on various perspectives that can either facilitate or hinder the adoption, scale-up, and spread of technological innovations. In the domain of condition or diagnosis, a well-informed understanding of the complexity related to the condition or illness (diabetes, cancer, bipolar disorders, and schizophrenia disorders) is of great importance for the innovation. The value proposition needs to be clearly described early to enable an understanding of costs and outcomes. The questions in the NASSS complexity assessment tool LONG were sometimes difficult to comprehend, not only from a language perspective but also due to a lack of understanding of the surrounding organization's system and its setting. CONCLUSIONS: Even when bottom-up innovations arise within the same support organization, the complexity can vary based on the developmental phase and the unique characteristics of each project. Identifying, defining, and understanding complexity may not solve the issues but substantially improves the prospects for successful deployment. Successful innovation within complex organizations necessitates an adaptive leadership and structures to surmount cultural resistance and organizational impediments. A rigid, linear, and stepwise approach risks disregarding interconnected variables and dependencies, leading to suboptimal outcomes. Success lies in embracing the complexity with its uncertainty, nurturing creativity, and adopting a nonlinear methodology that accommodates the iterative nature of innovation processes within complex organizations.


Assuntos
Difusão de Inovações , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suécia , Tecnologia Biomédica
3.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1333081, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566790

RESUMO

Introduction: Many researchers have focused their studies on hypertension due to its over-representation among COVID-19 patients. Both retrospective and observational studies conducted close to the Wuhan area have reported that hypertension is the most common comorbidity observed in patients affected by COVID-19. Objective: Our objective is that patients with arterial hypertension have a worse prognosis in terms of evolution leading to higher costs. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 3,581 patients from La Paz University Hospital (LPUH) during the period between 15 July 2020 and 31 July 2020 were included in this study. Results: It should be noted that 40.71% of the patients were hypertensive. As expected, hypertension was associated with men, among whom we observed a higher prevalence and a higher age (median age of 77 years (IQI: 65-85) versus 52 years (IQI: 37-64), p-value < 0.001). Hypertensive patients had a higher prevalence of dyspnea (52.14% vs. 47.15%, p-value = 0.004) and altered awareness (14.89% vs. 4.30%, p-value <0.001). The non-parametric Kaplan-Meier curve estimates the survival of patients in the two study groups. We can see how patients with hypertension have a higher associated mortality, with the difference being statistically significant, p-value (log-rank) = 0.004. Only for the appearance of complications during hospitalization, the group of hypertensive patients reached the figure of €1,355,901.71 compared to the total of 421,403.48 € for normotensive patients. Conclusion: Our study shows the worse clinical evolution of patients with COVID-19 in terms of associated morbidity and mortality. It also shows that the cost of managing patients with hypertension is greater than that of managing normotensive patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hipertensão , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino
4.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1324141, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38638474

RESUMO

Purpose: To quantify the global impact of vision impairment in individuals aged 65 years and older between 1990 and 2019, segmented by disease, age, and sociodemographic index (SDI). Methods: Using the Global Burden of Diseases 2019 (GBD 2019) dataset, a retrospective demographic evaluation was undertaken to ascertain the magnitude of vision loss over this period. Metrics evaluated included case numbers, prevalence rates per 100,000 individuals, and shifts in prevalence rates via average annual percentage changes (AAPCs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). Results: From 1990 to 2019, vision impairment rates for individuals aged 65 years and older increased from 40,027.0 (95% UI: 32,232.9-49,945.1) to 40,965.8 (95% UI: 32,911-51,358.3, AAPC: 0.11). YLDs associated with vision loss saw a significant decrease, moving from 1713.5 (95% UI: 1216.2-2339.7) to 1579.1 (95% UI: 1108.3-2168.9, AAPC: -0.12). Gender-based evaluation showed males had lower global prevalence and YLD rates compared to females. Cataracts and near vision impairment were the major factors, raising prevalence by 6.95 and 2.11%, respectively. Cataract prevalence in high-middle SDI regions and near vision deficits in high SDI regions significantly influenced YLDs variation between 1990 and 2019. Conclusion: Over the past three decades, there has been a significant decrease in the vision impairment burden in individuals aged 65 and older worldwide. However, disparities continue, based on disease type, regional SDI, and age brackets. Enhancing eye care services, both in scope and quality, is crucial for reducing the global vision impairment burden among the older adults.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Saúde Global , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Idoso , Estudos Retrospectivos , Prevalência , Carga Global da Doença
5.
Turk J Ophthalmol ; 54(2): 76-82, 2024 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38645465

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate serum atherogenic indices as novel cardiovascular risk factors associated with retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Materials and Methods: This retrospective case-control study included 57 patients with newly diagnosed RVO whose plasma lipid profile (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], total cholesterol [TC], and triglycerides [TG]) and insulin resistance were examined. Serum atherogenic indices (LDL-C/HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C, and non-HDL-C/HDL-C ratios) and presence of insulin resistance were compared between the patients and 63 healthy subjects. Cut-off values were determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results: The mean age of the RVO patients was 63.7±9.4 years. Plasma levels of LDL-C, HDL-C, TC, and TG showed no significant difference between the patient and control groups (p>0.05). However, LDL-C/HDL-C, non-HDL-C/HDL-C, and TC/HDL-C ratios were higher in the RVO group compared to healthy subjects (p=0.015, p=0.036, and p=0.015, respectively). Fasting insulin concentrations, plasma insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index were higher in the RVO patients compared to controls (p=0.003, p=0.001, and p=0.001, respectively). Conclusion: LDL-C/HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, and non-HDL-C/HDL-C ratios were found to be increased in RVO. Compared to the traditional plasma lipid profile, serum atherogenic indices were found to be superior predictors of RVO development. Measurement of HOMA-IR index should be taken into consideration in the evaluation of insulin resistance. High serum atherogenic indexes in RVO patients reveal the need to take precautions against the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/sangue , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/diagnóstico , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Biomarcadores/sangue , Idoso , Curva ROC , Lipídeos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue
6.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0292561, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630757

RESUMO

Contrary to North America and Europe, the prevalence of hypertension is rising in West Africa. With a transition from whole foods to processed foods in Nigeria, diet plays a key driver of hypertension. To combat this, the national nutritional guidelines in Nigeria were implemented, but their translation into actionable tools for clinicians remains a challenge. Currently, there are no simple dietary assessment tools that are concise and suitable to be incorporated into clinical care without requiring extensive data analysis while still providing personalised dietary support to their patients. This study aims to deliver a clinically tested and validated short dietary assessment tool for clinicians, patients, and researchers across Nigeria to provide personalised dietary advice for patients with hypertension. The study will be conducted in two phases: Phase 1 (n = 75) will investigate the feasibility of the short FFQ and its agreement with 24-hour dietary recalls (3x) in a clinical setting in Nigeria. During the analysis of Phase 1 data, a scoring system will be developed based on the associations between individual food items in the FFQ and measures of hypertension. Phase 2 (n = 50) will assess the acceptability of the FFQ and validate the association between the FFQ score and hypertension. Expected outcomes: The development of a clinically tested and validated short food frequency questionnaire that will be ready to use by clinicians, patients, and researchers across Nigeria to support the prevention and management of hypertension. This study will contribute to knowledge on dietary assessment and hypertension prevention by developing a validated and acceptable FFQ, which will be valuable for clinicians and researchers for personalised dietary recommendations to combat hypertension in Nigeria.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Avaliação Nutricional , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Nigéria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Dieta , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Registros de Dieta , Inquéritos sobre Dietas
7.
Acta Ortop Mex ; 38(1): 10-14, 2024.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38657146

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: health promotion policy requires the identification of barriers to the adoption of public policies. Paraguay's national healthcare system is inequitable, expensive, and inefficient. The Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare (MSPyBS) is the entity responsible for covering the needs of a significant portion of the population. In January 2022, the MSPyBS financed the purchase of titanium elastic nails through a National Public Tender for Osteosynthesis Materials (LPN 02/22) to provide them for free in the pediatric service. Using research as a tool, we seek to analyze the impact of the implementation of LPN 02/22 at the Trauma Hospital, believing that this action would help streamline administrative and bureaucratic processes, making them more efficient with the assistance of the hospital's human resources. MATERIAL AND METHODS: a retrospective, analytical, and comparative study conducted at a high-complexity trauma center in Asunción, Paraguay. Patients aged 4 to 14 years with an indication for stabilization with elastic nails were included. Demographic data, the mechanism of injury, time elapsed from hospital arrival to surgical treatment, length of hospital stay, and the average hospital cost were analyzed based on the daily expense of pediatric patient hospitalization. RESULTS: 52 patients, divided into 25 cases in 2021 before implementation and 27 cases after implementation. The time elapsed from hospital arrival to definitive treatment was six days in the pre-implementation period, with an average stay from admission to discharge of 7.4 days. After implementation, the time from hospital arrival to definitive treatment was 4.3 days, and the average discharge time for the Post group was six days. The potential savings per patient amount to 332 dollars, offset by the institution's implant supply cost of 197 dollars, resulting in an approximate savings of 135 dollars per patient for the ministry. CONCLUSIONS: we view the implementation of free titanium elastic nails for pediatric femur fracture patients positively. We encourage the institution to continue with similar policies and strive to achieve even greater benefits for users.


INTRODUCCIÓN: la política de promoción de la salud requiere la identificación de los obstáculos para la adopción de políticas públicas. El sistema nacional de salud de Paraguay es inequitativo, caro e ineficiente. El Ministerio de Salud Pública y Bienestar Social (MSPyBS) es el ente que cubre las necesidades de gran parte de la población. El MSPyBS en Enero del 2022 financió, mediante la Licitación Pública Nacional de Materiales de Osteosíntesis (LPN 02/22), la compra de clavos elásticos de titanio para disponer de su uso gratuito en el Servicio de Pediatría; usando a la investigación como herramienta, buscamos analizar el impacto de la implementación de la LPN 02/22 en el Hospital de Trauma, creyendo que esta acción ayudaría a dinamizar los procesos administrativos y burocráticos, haciéndolos más eficientes con la ayuda de los recursos humanos del hospital. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: estudio retrospectivo, analítico y comparativo, realizado en un centro de trauma de alta complejidad de Asunción, Paraguay. Fueron incluidos los pacientes con edad comprendidas entre cuatro y 14 años, con indicación de estabilización con clavos elásticos. Se analizaron los datos demográficos, el mecanismo de trauma, el tiempo transcurrido desde la llegada al hospital hasta el tratamiento quirúrgico, así como el tiempo de estadía hospitalaria. Se evaluó el costo hospitalario promedio, basados en el gasto diario de la internación de un paciente pediátrico. RESULTADOS: cincuenta y dos pacientes, separados en 25 casos en el 2021 previo a la implementación y 27 casos posterior a la implementación. El tiempo transcurrido desde la llegada al hospital hasta el tratamiento definitivo fue de seis días para la etapa previa a la implementación; el promedio desde el ingreso hasta el alta fue de 7.4 días. Desde la implementación se tuvo un transcurso de 4.3 días desde la llegada al hospital hasta el tratamiento definitivo. El egreso del grupo Post tuvo un promedio de seis días. El ahorro probable en relación con cada paciente es de 332 dólares; a esto debemos contrarrestar el monto que paga la institución para la provisión del implante (197 dólares), por lo que el ahorro del ministerio sería de aproximadamente 135 dólares por cada paciente. CONCLUSIONES: vemos como positiva la implementación de la gratuidad de los clavos elásticos de titanio en los pacientes en edad pediátrica con fractura de fémur. Alentamos a la institución a seguir con políticas similares y tratar de lograr mayores beneficios para los usuarios.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Fêmur , Humanos , Criança , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adolescente , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Masculino , Fraturas do Fêmur/cirurgia , Fraturas do Fêmur/economia , Paraguai , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pinos Ortopédicos , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/economia , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/instrumentação , Custos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Traumatologia/organização & administração , Titânio
8.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 27(2): 111-120, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38607874

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The potential benefits of epidural anesthesia on mortality, atrial fibrillation, and pulmonary complications must be weighed against the risk of epidural hematoma associated with intraoperative heparinization. This study aims to provide an updated assessment of the clinical risks of epidural anesthesia in cardiac surgery, focusing on the occurrence of epidural hematomas and subsequent paralysis. A systematic search of Embase, Medline, Ovid Central, Web of Science, and PubMed was conducted to identify relevant publications between 1966 and 2022. Two independent reviewers assessed the eligibility of the retrieved manuscripts. Studies reporting adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery with epidural catheterization were included. The incidence of hematomas was calculated by dividing the number of hematomas by the total number of patients in the included studies. Risk calculations utilized various denominators based on the rigor of trial designs, and the risks of hematoma and paralysis were compared to other commonly encountered risks. The analysis included a total of 33,089 patients who underwent cardiac surgery with epidural catheterization. No epidural hematomas were reported across all published RCTs, prospective, and retrospective trials. Four case reports associated epidural hematoma with epidural catheterization and perioperative heparinization. The risks of epidural hematoma and subsequent paralysis were estimated at 1:7643 (95% CI 1:3860 to 380,916) and 1:10,190 (95% CI 1:4781 to 0:1), respectively. The risk of hematoma is similar to the non-obstetric population (1:5405; 95% CI 1:4784 to 6134). The risk of hematoma in cardiac surgery patients receiving epidural anesthesia is therefore similar to that observed in some other surgical non-obstetric populations commonly exposed to epidural catheterization.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Adulto , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Hematoma , Medição de Risco , Paralisia
9.
J Med Econ ; 27(1): 531-542, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38639988

RESUMO

AIMS: This retrospective claims data study characterized real-world treatment patterns, healthcare resource utilization (HCRU), and costs in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) in Germany. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Continuously insured adults with incident mUC diagnosis (=index; ICD-10: C65-C68/C77-C79) in 2015-2019 were identified from two German claims databases. Patients who received first-line (1 L) treatment within 12 months of index were divided into three mutually exclusive sub-cohorts: platinum-based chemotherapy (PB-CT), non-PB-CT, and immunotherapy (IO). Patient characteristics were assessed during a 24-month baseline period; treatments, HCRU, and costs (of the health insurance fund) per patient-year (ppy) were described during 12-month follow-up. RESULTS: We identified 3,226 patients with mUC (mean age, 73.8 years; male, 70.8%; mean Elixhauser Comorbidity Index, 17.6); 1,286 (39.9%) received 1 L treatment within 12 months of index. Of these, 825 (64.2%) received PB-CT, 322 (25.0%) non-PB-CT, and 139 (10.8%) IO. On average, treated patients had 5.1 hospitalizations ppy. Most UC-related hospitalizations ppy were observed in the PB-CT cohort (5.8), followed by the non-PB-CT (4.2) and IO (2.3) cohorts. Mean UC-related hospitalization costs ppy were €22,218 in the treated cohort, €24,294 in PB-CT, €19,079 in IO, and €18,530 in non-PB-CT cohorts. Cancer-related prescription costs ppy averaged €6,323 in treated patients, and €25,955 in IO, €4,318 in non-PB-CT, and €4,270 in PB-CT cohorts. LIMITATIONS: We recognized limitations in our study's sample selection due to unavailable mUC disease status data. We addressed this through an upstream feasibility study conducted in consultation with clinical experts to determine a suitable proxy. Proxies were also used to delineate treatment lines, switches, and discontinuations due to data absence. Furthermore, due to data restrictions, collective dataset analysis was not possible, prompting a meta-analysis for pooled results. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows that mUC is associated with significant HCRU and costs across different types of 1 L systemic therapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células de Transição , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Atenção à Saúde , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Seguro Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Feminino
10.
Gen Dent ; 72(3): 50-55, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38640006

RESUMO

The objective of this retrospective study was to assess the bone quality of healing mandibular fracture sites by measuring the Hounsfield units (HU) on computed tomographic (CT) images obtained presurgery and postsurgery in patients treated with rigid internal fixation (RIF). The HU values of healing fracture sites were compared to those of corresponding nonfractured (control) sites on the opposing side and cervical vertebrae sites in the same patients. In total, 31 patients with 45 mandibular fractures treated with RIF underwent presurgical and postsurgical CT examinations. The scans performed after surgery (1, 3, 6, 12, or 18 months) were taken only when there was a need for radiographic evaluation due to a complaint of discomfort from the patient or when the surgeon needed to verify the postsurgical outcome, and each patient underwent only a single postsurgical CT. At the presurgical CT examination, the HU values were lower in the fracture sites than in the control sites. At 3 months postsurgery, the HU values in the fracture sites had increased as the mandibular bone healed. At 6 months postsurgery, the HU values in the fracture sites were higher than those of the control sites. At 12 and 18 months postsurgery, the HU values of both sites were similar. The HU values of the cervical vertebrae remained constant with time. These results suggest that, in patients who have been treated with RIF for mandibular bone fracture, HU values measured by CT vary across time, expressing the physiologic bone healing process.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Fraturas Mandibulares , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Fraturas Mandibulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Mandibulares/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Tomografia
11.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 8(1)2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38663937

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The UK falls behind other European countries in the early detection of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) and screening strategies differ for early detection. Clinical detection of DDH is challenging and recognised to be dependent on examiner experience. No studies exist assessing the number of personnel currently involved in such assessments.Our objective was to review the current screening procedure by studying a cohort of newborn babies in one teaching hospital and assess the number of health professionals involved in neonatal hip assessment and the number of examinations undertaken during one period by each individual. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study assessing all babies born consecutively over a 14-week period in 2020. Record of each initial baby check was obtained from BadgerNet. Follow-up data on ultrasound or orthopaedic outpatient referrals were obtained from clinical records. RESULTS: 1037 babies were examined by 65 individual examiners representing 9 different healthcare professional groups. The range of examinations conducted per examiner was 1-97 with a median of 5.5 examinations per person. 49% of individuals examined 5 or less babies across the 14 weeks, with 18% only performing 1 examination. Of the six babies (0.48%) treated for DDH, one was picked up on neonatal assessment. CONCLUSION: In a system where so many examiners are involved in neonatal hip assessment, the experience is limited for most examiners. Currently high rates of late presentation of DDH are observed locally, which are in accordance with published national experience. The potential association merits further investigation.


Assuntos
Triagem Neonatal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Retrospectivos , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Luxação Congênita de Quadril/diagnóstico , Luxação Congênita de Quadril/epidemiologia , Feminino , Displasia do Desenvolvimento do Quadril/diagnóstico , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Masculino , Exame Físico/métodos , Diagnóstico Precoce
12.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1327934, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38596512

RESUMO

Opioids are vital to pain management and sedation after trauma-related hospitalization. However, there are many confounding clinical, social, and environmental factors that exacerbate pain, post-injury care needs, and receipt of opioid prescriptions following orthopaedic trauma. This retrospective study sought to characterize differences in opioid prescribing and dosing in a national Medicaid eligible sample from 2010-2018. The study population included adults, discharged after orthopaedic trauma hospitalization, and receiving an opioid prescription within 30 days of discharge. Patients were identified using the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9; ICD-10) codes for inpatient diagnosis and procedure. Filled opioid prescriptions were identified from National Drug Codes and converted to morphine milligram equivalents (MME). Opioid receipt and dosage (e.g., morphine milligram equivalents [MME]) were examined as the main outcomes using regressions and analyzed by year, sex, race/ethnicity, residence rurality-urbanicity, and geographic region. The study population consisted of 86,091 injured Medicaid-enrolled adults; 35.3% received an opioid prescription within 30 days of discharge. Male patients (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.07-1.18) and those between 31-50 years of age (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.08-1.22) were found to have increased odds ratio of receiving an opioid within 30 days of discharge, compared to female and younger patients, respectively. Patients with disabilities (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.71-0.80), prolonged hospitalizations, and both Black (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.83-0.92) and Hispanic patients (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.66-0.77), relative to white patients, had lower odds ratio of receiving an opioid prescription following trauma. Additionally, Black and Hispanic patients received lower prescription doses compared to white patients. Individuals hospitalized in the Southeastern United States and those between the ages of 51-65 age group were found to be prescribed lower average daily MME. There were significant variations in opioid prescribing practices by race, sex, and region. National guidelines for use of opioids and other pain management interventions in adults after trauma hospitalization may help limit practice variation and reduce implicit bias and potential harms in outpatient opioid usage.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Endrin/análogos & derivados , Ortopedia , Adulto , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Recém-Nascido , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medicaid , Padrões de Prática Médica , Alta do Paciente , Derivados da Morfina
13.
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg ; 144(5): 2403-2411, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578311

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Optimizing operating room (OR) scheduling accuracy is important for OR efficiency, meeting patient expectations, and maximizing value for health systems. However, limited data exist on factors influencing the precision of Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) OR scheduling. This study aims to identify the factors influencing the accuracy of OR scheduling for THA. METHODS: A retrospective review of 6,072 THA (5,579 primary THA and 493 revision THA) performed between January 2020 and May 2023 at an urban, academic institution was conducted. We collected baseline patient characteristics, surgeon years of experience, and compared actual wheels in to wheels out (WIWO) OR time against scheduled OR time. Significant scheduling inaccuracies were defined as actual OR times deviating by at least 15% from scheduled OR times. Logistic regression analyses were employed to assess the impact of patient, surgeon, and intraoperative factors on OR scheduling accuracy. RESULTS: Using adjusted odds ratios, primary THA patients who had a lower BMI and surgeons who had less than 10 years of experience were associated with overestimation of OR time. Whereas, higher BMI, younger age, general anesthesia, non-primary osteoarthritis indications, and afternoon procedure start times were linked to underestimation of OR time. For revision THA, lower BMI and fewer components revised correlated with overestimated OR time. Men, higher BMI, more components revised, septic indication for surgery, and morning procedure start times were associated with underestimation of OR time. CONCLUSION: This study highlights several critical patient, surgeon, and intraoperative factors influencing OR scheduling accuracy for THA. OR scheduling models should consider these factors to enhance OR efficiency.


Assuntos
Agendamento de Consultas , Artroplastia de Quadril , Salas Cirúrgicas , Reoperação , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Salas Cirúrgicas/organização & administração , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Duração da Cirurgia
14.
J Biomed Inform ; 153: 104643, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621640

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Health inequities can be influenced by demographic factors such as race and ethnicity, proficiency in English, and biological sex. Disparities may manifest as differential likelihood of testing which correlates directly with the likelihood of an intervention to address an abnormal finding. Our retrospective observational study evaluated the presence of variation in glucose measurements in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). METHODS: Using the MIMIC-IV database (2008-2019), a single-center, academic referral hospital in Boston (USA), we identified adult patients meeting sepsis-3 criteria. Exclusion criteria were diabetic ketoacidosis, ICU length of stay under 1 day, and unknown race or ethnicity. We performed a logistic regression analysis to assess differential likelihoods of glucose measurements on day 1. A negative binomial regression was fitted to assess the frequency of subsequent glucose readings. Analyses were adjusted for relevant clinical confounders, and performed across three disparity proxy axes: race and ethnicity, sex, and English proficiency. RESULTS: We studied 24,927 patients, of which 19.5% represented racial and ethnic minority groups, 42.4% were female, and 9.8% had limited English proficiency. No significant differences were found for glucose measurement on day 1 in the ICU. This pattern was consistent irrespective of the axis of analysis, i.e. race and ethnicity, sex, or English proficiency. Conversely, subsequent measurement frequency revealed potential disparities. Specifically, males (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01 - 1.21), patients who identify themselves as Hispanic (IRR 1.11, 95% CI 1.01 - 1.21), or Black (IRR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01 - 1.12), and patients being English proficient (IRR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01 - 1.15) had higher chances of subsequent glucose readings. CONCLUSION: We found disparities in ICU glucose measurements among patients with sepsis, albeit the magnitude was small. Variation in disease monitoring is a source of data bias that may lead to spurious correlations when modeling health data.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Humanos , Masculino , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Glicemia/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Idoso , Adulto , Etnicidade/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 103(6): 995-1003, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38662126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data exists regarding incidence, progression, and predictors of left atrial appendage (LAA) sealing after transcatheter LAA closure. We aimed to evaluate the incidence, progression, and predictive factors associated with LAA sealing after LAA closure. METHODS: This study includes patients who underwent successful LAA closure with Watchman FLX device and had both pre- and postprocedural computed tomography (CT). Postprocedural CT was performed 45 days after LAA closure and used to evaluate residual LAA patency. Patient who had residual LAA patency at 45 days underwent 1-year follow-up CT. RESULTS: A total of 105 patients (mean age: 75.2 ± 9.6 years; 53.3% female) who underwent successful LAA closure with Watchman FLX device and had pre- and postprocedural CT at 45 days were included. Residual patency was observed in 35 (33.3%) patients: 21 (20.0%) patients showed complete contrast opacification in LAA (complete LAA patency) while 14 (13.3%) patients showed contrast opacification only in the distal LAA (distal LAA patency). Among patients with residual LAA patency at 45 days, the rate of LAA sealing at 1 year was significantly higher in the distal LAA patency group than in the complete LAA patency group (75.0% vs. 16.7%; p = 0.019). Increased depth oversizing was associated with both distal LAA patency and complete LAA patency. CONCLUSION: Postprocedural CT at 45 days detected patent LAA in one-third of patients after LAA closure. LAA sealing was more frequently observed at 1 year among the distal LAA patency group than the complete LAA patency group.


Assuntos
Apêndice Atrial , Fibrilação Atrial , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Desenho de Prótese , Humanos , Apêndice Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Apêndice Atrial/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Masculino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Fatores de Tempo , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Cateterismo Cardíaco/instrumentação , Cateterismo Cardíaco/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Incidência , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8869, 2024 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38632372

RESUMO

Universal health coverage relies on providing essential medical services and shielding individuals from financial risks. Our study assesses the progressivity of out-of-pocket (OOP) payments, identifies factors contributing to healthcare expenditure inequality, and examines catastrophic health expenditures (CHE) prevalence in Kazakhstan from 2018 to 2021. Using retrospective analysis of National Statistics Bureau data, we employed STATA 13 version for calculations CHE incidence, progressivity, Lorenz and concentration curves. In 2020-2021, OOP expenditures in Kazakhstan decreased, reflecting a nearly twofold reduction in the CHE incidence to 1.32% and 1.24%, respectively. However, during these years, we observe a transition towards a positive trend in the Kakwani index to 0.003 and 0.005, respectively, which may be explained by household size and education level factors. Increased state financing and quarantine measures contributed to reduced OOP payments. Despite a low healthcare expenditure share in gross domestic product, Kazakhstan exhibits a relatively high private healthcare spending proportion. The low CHE incidence and proportional expenditure system suggest private payments do not significantly impact financial resilience, prompting considerations about the role of government funding and social health insurance in the financing structure.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde , Pobreza , Humanos , Características da Família , Cazaquistão , Incidência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doença Catastrófica , Financiamento Pessoal , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde
17.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 24(1): 176, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38632531

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we used ultra-wide field swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (UWF SS-OCTA) to assess changes in retinal thickness (RT) and choroidal parameters in individuals who had received a diagnosis of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). METHODS: The study encompassed the evaluation of 59 eyes from 47 patients with a diagnosis of CSC, alongside 33 fellow eyes and 31 eyes from healthy individuals (controls). The parameters assessed included RT, choroidal thickness (CT), choriocapillaris density, vascular density of the large choroidal vessel layer, three-dimensional choroidal vascularity index (3D-CVI), choroidal vessel volume per unit area (mCVV/a), and choroidal stroma volume per unit area (mCSV/a). RESULTS: Metrics including mCVV/a, mCSV/a, 3D-CVI, CT, and RT exhibited significantly elevated values in the eyes affected by CSC compared to those of the control group across nine subfields. Moreover, a substantial number of the subfields in both CSC-affected and fellow eyes exhibited increased values for mCVV/a, mCSV/a, 3D-CVI, CT, and RT when compared with the control group. Additionally, acute and chronic CSC subfields demonstrated significantly elevated values for mCVV/a, mCSV/a, 3D-CVI, CT, and RT in comparison to healthy control eyes. Notably, specific subfields associated with complex and atypical forms of CSC revealed higher metrics compared to those of the control group. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the UWF SS-OCTA proved to be a valuable tool for exploring the anatomical etiology and clinical classification and diagnosis of CSC.


Assuntos
Coriorretinopatia Serosa Central , Humanos , Coriorretinopatia Serosa Central/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Angiofluoresceinografia/métodos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Acuidade Visual , Corioide/irrigação sanguínea , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Int J Equity Health ; 23(1): 76, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38632575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 2008, children in Catalonia (Spain) have suffered a period of great economic deprivation. This situation has generated broad-ranging health inequalities in a variety of diseases. It is not known how these inequalities have changed over time. The aim of the present study is to determine trends in inequalities over this period in ten relevant diseases in children according to sex and age. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional population-based study of all children under 15 years old resident in Catalonia during the 2014-2021 period (over 1.2 million children/year) and of their diagnoses registered by the Catalan Health System. Health inequalities were estimated by calculating the relative index of inequality and time trends using logistic regression models. Interaction terms were added to test for the effects of sex on time trends. RESULTS: Increasing significant temporal trends in inequalities were shown for both sexes in almost all the diseases or adverse events studied (asthma, injuries, poisoning, congenital anomalies, overweight and obesity), in mood disorders in boys, and in adverse birth outcomes in girls. Adjustment and anxiety and mood disorders in girls showed a decreasing temporal trend in inequalities. More than half of the diseases and adverse events studied experienced significant annual increases in inequality. Poisoning stood out with an average annual increase of 8.65% [4.30, 13.00], p ≤ 0.001 in boys and 8.64% [5.76, 11.52], p ≤ 0.001) in girls, followed by obesity with increases of 5.52% [4.15, 6.90], p = < 0.001 in boys and 4.89% [4.26, 5.51], p ≤ 0.001) in girls. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that inequalities persist and have increased since 2014. Policy makers should turn their attention to how interventions to reduce Health inequalities are designed, and who benefits from them.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Criança , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Desigualdades de Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 30: 10760296241247205, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38632943

RESUMO

To external validate the risk assessment model (RAM) of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in multicenter internal medicine inpatients. We prospectively collected 595 internal medical patients (310 with VTE patients, 285 non-VTE patients) were from Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, and the respiratory department of Beijing Tsinghua Changgeng Hospital from January 2022 to December 2022 for multicenter external validation. The prediction ability of Caprini RAM, Padua RAM, The International Medical Prevention Registry on Venous Thromboembolism (IMPROVE) RAM, and Shijitan (SJT) RAM were compared. This study included a total of 595 internal medicine inpatients, including 242 (40.67%) in the respiratory department, 17 (2.86%) in the respiratory intensive care unit, 49 (8.24%) in the neurology department, 34 (5.71%) in the intensive care unit, 26 (4.37%) in the geriatric department, 22 (3.70%) in the emergency department, 71 (11.93%) in the nephrology department, 63 (10.59%) in the cardiology department, 24 (4.03%) in the hematology department, 6 (1.01%) in the traditional Chinese medicine department, 9 (1.51%) cases in the rheumatology department, 7 (1.18%) in the endocrinology department, 14 (2.35%) in the oncology department, and 11 (1.85%) in the gastroenterology department. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that among internal medicine inpatients, age > 60 years old, heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, tumors, history of VTE, and elevated D-dimer were significantly correlated with the occurrence of VTE (P < .05). The incidence of VTE increases with the increase of D-dimer. It was found that the effectiveness of SJT RAM (AUC = 0.80 ± 0.03) was better than Caprini RAM (AUC = 0.74 ± 0.03), Padua RAM (AUC = 0.72 ± 0.03) and IMPROVE RAM (AUC = 0.52 ± 0.03) (P < .05). The sensitivity and Yoden index of SJT RAM were higher than those of Caprini RAM, Pauda RAM, and IMPROVE RAM (P < .05), but specificity was not significantly different between the 4 models (P > .05). The SJT RAM derived from general hospitalized Chinese patients has effective and better predictive ability for internal medicine inpatients at risk of VTE.


Assuntos
Tromboembolia Venosa , Humanos , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Pacientes Internados , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco
20.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0302136, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38635490

RESUMO

There is a critical need for widespread information dissemination of agricultural best practices in Africa. Literacy, language and resource barriers often impede such information dissemination. Culturally and linguistically localized, computer-animated training videos placed on YouTube and promoted through paid advertising is a potential tool to help overcome these barriers. The goal of this study is to assess the feasibility of reaching language-diverse populations in Africa using this new type of information dissemination channel. As a case study, cost estimates were obtained for YouTube ad campaigns of a video to prevent post-harvest loss through safe food storage using sanitized jerrycan containers. Seventy-three video variants were created for the most common 16 languages in Ghana, 35 languages in Kenya, and 22 languages in Nigeria. Using these videos, campaigns were deployed country wide or focused on zones of influence that represent economically underdeveloped regions known to produce beans suitable for jerrycan storage. Using data collected from YouTube ad campaigns, language-specific models were created for each country to estimate how many viewers could be reached per US dollar spent. Separate models were created to estimate the number of viewers who watched 25% and 75% of the video (most of video without end credits), reflecting different levels of engagement. For language campaigns with both country wide and zone of influence areas of deployment, separate region-specific models were created. Models showed that the estimated number of viewers per dollar spent varied considerably amongst countries and languages. On average, the expected number of viewers per dollar spent were 1.8 (Range = 0.2-7.3) for 25% watched and 0.8 (Range = 0.1-3.2) for 75% watched in Ghana, 1.2 (0.2-4.8) for 25% watched and 0.5 (Range = 0.1-2.0) for 75% watched in Kenya, and 0.4 (Range = 0.2-1.3) for 25% watched and 0.2 (Range = 0.1-0.5) for 75% watched in Nigeria. English versions of the video were the most cost-effective in reaching viewers in Ghana and Nigeria. In Kenya, English language campaigns ranked 28 (country wide) and 36 (zones of influence) out of 37 analyzed campaigns. Results also showed that many local language campaigns performed well, opening the possibility that targeted knowledge dissemination on topics of importance to local populations, is potentially cost effective. In addition, such targeted information dissemination appears feasible, even during regional and global crises when in-person training may not be possible. In summary, leveraging multilingual computer-animations and digital platforms such as YouTube shows promise for conducting large-scale agricultural education campaigns. The findings of the current study provides the justification to pursue a more rigorous prospective study to verify the efficacy of knowledge exchange and societal impact through this form of information dissemination channel.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Humanos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Idioma , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Gana , Gravação em Vídeo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA