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1.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 40: e2020302, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS (Americas), SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143856

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze literature data about unnecessary exposure of pediatric emergency patients to ionizing agents from imaging examinations, nowadays and during times of COVID-19. Data sources: Between April and July 2020, articles were selected using the databases: Virtual Health Library, PubMed and Scientific Electronic Library Online. The following descriptors were used: [(pediatrics) AND (emergencies) AND (diagnostic imaging) AND (medical overuse)] and [(Coronavirus infections) OR (COVID-19) AND (pediatrics) AND (emergencies) AND (diagnostic imaging)]. Inclusion criteria were articles available in full, in Portuguese or English, published from 2016 to 2020 or from 2019 to 2020, and articles that covered the theme. Articles without adherence to the theme and duplicate texts in the databases were excluded. Data synthesis: 61 publications were identified, of which 17 were comprised in this review. Some imaging tests used in pediatric emergency departments increase the possibility of developing future malignancies in patients, since they emit ionizing radiation. There are clinical decision instruments that allow reducing unnecessary exam requests, avoiding over-medicalization, and hospital expenses. Moreover, with the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a growing concern about the overuse of imaging exams in the pediatric population, which highlights the problems pointed out by this review. Conclusions: It is necessary to improve hospital staff training, use clinical decision instruments and develop guidelines to reduce the number of exams required, allowing hospital cost savings; and reducing children's exposure to ionizing agents.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar dados da literatura sobre exposição desnecessária de pacientes da emergência pediátrica a agentes ionizantes dos exames de imagem, na atualidade e em tempos de COVID-19. Fontes de dados: Entre abril e julho de 2020 ocorreu a seleção dos artigos, utilizando-se as bases de dados: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, PubMed e Scientific Electronic Library Online. Utilizaram-se os descritores: [(pediatrics) AND (emergencies) AND (diagnostic imaging) AND (medical overuse)] e [(Coronavirus infections) OR (COVID-19) AND (pediatrics) AND (emergencies) AND (diagnostic imaging)]. Incluíram-se artigos disponíveis na íntegra, em português ou inglês, publicados no período de 2016 a 2020 ou de 2019 a 2020, e artigos que contemplassem o tema. Excluiu-se artigos sem aderência com a temática e textos duplicados. Síntese dos dados: Identificaram-se 61 publicações, sendo 17 utilizadas para a elaboração desta revisão. Alguns exames de imagem utilizados nos Setores de Urgência e Emergência (SUEs) pediátricos, por emitirem radiação ionizante, aumentam a possibilidade de desenvolver malignidades futuras nas crianças. Destarte, há instrumentos de decisão clínica que possibilitam diminuir requisições de exames desnecessários, evitando a sobremedicalização e os gastos hospitalares. Ademais, com a pandemia da COVID-19, cresceu a preocupação com o uso excessivo de exames de imagem na população pediátrica, o que reafirma a problematização deste estudo. Conclusões: Veem-se como necessárias a capacitação da equipe hospitalar, a utilização de instrumentos de decisão clínica e a confecção de protocolos que possam avaliar a singularidade da criança. Isso permitirá reduzir o número de exames requeridos, possibilitando economia de custos hospitalares e redução da exposição de crianças a agentes ionizantes.

4.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(1): 112-119, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1134303

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Understanding the effects of high oxidation reduction potential (ORP) levels on sperm parameters will help to identify patients with unexplained and male factor infertility who may have seminal oxidative stress and determine if ORP testing is needed. This study aimed to evaluate the association between seminal ORP and conventional sperm parameters. Materials and Methods: A total of 58 patients who provided a semen sample for simultaneous evaluation of sperm parameters and ORP between January and September 2019 were enrolled in this retrospective study. To identify normal and high ORP levels, a static ORP (sORP) cut-off value of 1.36mV/106sperm/mL was used. Sperm parameters were compared between infertile men with normal sORP (control group, n=23) and high sORP values (study group, n=35). Results: Men with sORP values >1.36mV/106sperm/mL had significantly lower total sperm count (TSC) (p <0.001), sperm concentration (p <0.001) and total motile sperm count (TMSC) (p <0.001). In addition, progressive motility (p=0.04) and fast forward progressive motility (p <0.001) were significantly lower in the study group. A negative correlation was found between sORP and TSC (r=-0.820, p <0.001), sperm concentration (r=-0.822, p <0.001), TMSC (r=-0.808, p <0.001) and progressive motility (r=-0.378, p=0.004). Non-progressive motility positively correlated with sORP (r=0.344, p=0.010). Conclusions: This study has shown that TSC, sperm concentration, progressive motility and TMSC are associated with seminal oxidative stress, indicated by a sORP cut-off of 1.36mV/106sperm/mL. Presence of oligozoospermia, reduced progressive motilty or low TMSC in sperm analysis should raise the suspicion of oxidative stress and warrants seminal ROS testing.

5.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(1): 64-70, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1134304

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: We aimed to compare the success and complication rates of the anterograde and retrograde Ureterorenoscopy (URS) for impacted upper ureteral stones in patients > 65 years of age. Materials and Methods: Data of 146 patients >65 years of age and underwent anterograde URS (n=68) in supine position or retrograde URS (n=78) for upper ureteral impacted stones>10 mm between January 2014 and September 2018 were collected prospectively. The groups were compared for success and complication rates, duration of operation, hospital stay, and ancillary procedures. Results: Anterograde and retrograde URS groups were similar for demographic and stone related characteristics. The success rate of the anterograde URS group was significantly higher than the retrograde URS group (97.1% vs. 78.2%, p=0.0007). The complication rates were similar for the two groups (p=0.86). Clavien grade I and II complications were observed in 3 patients in each group. The mean hemoglobin drop was 0.5 g/dL in the anterograde URS group and blood transfusion was not performed in any of the patients. The mean duration of operation was 41.2±12.5 minutes in the mini-PNL group and 59.6±15.1 minutes in the RIRS group and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.02). The median duration of hospitalization was 1 day for both groups. Conclusions: Performing anterograde URS in supine position provided better success rates and similar complication rates compared to retrograde URS. Based on these results anterograde URS shall be considered as one of the primary treatment options for management of impacted upper ureteral stones in the elderly population.

8.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(1): 73-81, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1134307

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Nocturnal enuresis (enuresis) is one of the most common developmental problems of childhood, which has often a familial basis, causes mental and psychological damage to the child and disrupts family solace. Objectives: In this study, we compared therapeutic efficacy and tolerability of treating primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) with solifenacin plus desmopressin, tolterodine plus desmopressin, and desmopressin alone. Because we don't have enough information about this comparison especially about solifenacin plus desmopressin. Patients and Methods: This clinical trial study was performed on 62 patients with enuresis aged 5-15 years who referred to the urology clinic of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Ahwaz in 2017-2018. Patients were randomly assigned to one of the three different therapeutic protocols and any participants were given a specific code. After that, we compared the therapeutic response and the level of satisfaction of each therapeutic group in different months. Data were analyzed using SPSS 22 software and descriptive and analytical statistics. Results: The mean age of patients was 8.70±66 years. In the therapeutic group with desmopressin and solifenacin, 19 of 20 patients (95%) achieved complete remission (1) after a 3-month treatment in comparison with monotherapy group in which 14 of 22 patients (63.63%) achieved complete remission; and in the combination therapy group of desmopressin and tolterodine, in the study and the evaluation of the consequences of 3-month treatment of this group, it was found that 17 of 20 patients (85%) had complete remission. Overall, the therapeutic response in combination therapy groups of desmopressin plus anticholinergic was higher than the monotherapy group of desmopressin alone. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that the combination of desmopressin and an anticholinergic agent is highly effective in treatment of children with PMNE. Although desmopressin has long been a first - line treatment for PMNE, desmopressin monotherapy often fails to achieve a successful response in patients with PMNE.

9.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(1): 82-89, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1134308

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: We aimed to determine pre-operative and post-operative sexual function scores of patients who underwent four-arm polypropylene mesh implantation surgery to treat urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse. Materials and Methods: A prospective study from January 2011 to November 2015 including patients (n: 72) submitted to surgical mesh implantation (four-arm anterior mesh implant (Betamix POP4®, Betatech Medical, Turkey) questioned the patients with Female Sexual Function Index evaluation form. The questionnaire was applied to all patients at pre-operative, post-operative 3rd month and post-operative 1st year periods. Results: The mean age of the patients was 47.2±7.1 years. The mean Body Mass Index (kg/m2) was 28.7±3.7. The average of incontinence duration (year) was 4.6±2.6 and the average for operation time (min) was 35.7±2.1. After the urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse surgery, it was observed that incontinence complaints of patients reduced. Furthermore, there was a positive change in quality of life and sexual function of patients at the post-operative period. There was a statistically significant increase according to Female Sexual Function Index score among all three periods (16%, 86% and 100% respectively, p=0.001) and improvement of sexual functions was observed. Conclusions: Transvaginal mesh use in the surgical treatment of pelvic organ prolapse improves quality of life. However, risk factors such as transvaginal mesh usage indication, surgical technique and experience of the surgeon, suitability of the material, the current health status of the patient and postoperative personal care of the patient may affect the success of operations.

10.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(1): 169-177, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1134309

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Toilet training (TT) is an important marker in a child's physical and psychosocial development. The present study aimed to evaluate aspects associated to delayed TT. Material and Methods: We interviewed 372 parents of children who had completed TT up to 48 months before the interview. The questionnaires were applied at school exits when parents went to pick their children up and at public parks. Questions included demographics, aspects related to TT, dysfunction voiding symptom score and evaluation of constipation. Results: The interviews were performed at a mean of 15.3±10.4 (0 to 47) months after the end of TT. Girls accounted for 53% of the sample. The mean age at finishing TT was 31.6±9.3 months and similar in both genders (p=0.77). TT occurred before school entry in 45.7% of the children and medical advice for TT was sought only by 4.8% of the parents. No association was observed of age at completing TT and presence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) (p=0.57) and/or constipation (p=0.98). In the univariate analysis, prematurity (OR=2.7 [95% CI 2.3-3.1], p <0.0001) and mothers who work outside their household (OR=1.8 [95% CI 1.4-2.3], p <0.0001) were associated to delayed TT. Conclusion: Children completed TT at a mean of 2 years and 7 months of age. The age of completing TT was not related to LUTS and/or constipation. Premature children and those whose mothers work outside the home finish TT later.

11.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(1): 149-158, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1134310

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Renal artery pseudoaneurysms (RAPs) and arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are rare but potentially life-threatening complications after partial nephrectomy (PN). Selective arterial embolization (SAE) is an effective method for controlling RAPs/AVFs. We assessed the clinical factors affecting the occurrence of RAPs/AVFs after PN and the effects of SAE on postsurgical renal function. Materials and Methods: Four hundred ninety-three patients who underwent PN were retrospectively reviewed. They were placed in either the SAE or the non-SAE group. The effects of clinical factors, including R.E.N.A.L. scores, on the occurrence of RAPs/AVFs were analyzed. The influence of SAE on the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) during the first postoperative year was evaluated. Results: Thirty-three (6.7%) patients experienced RAPs/AVFs within 8 days of the median interval between PN and SAE. The SAE group had significantly higher R.E.N.A.L. scores, higher N component scores, and higher L component scores (all, p <0.05). In the multivariate analysis, higher N component scores were associated with the occurrence of RAPs/AVFs (Odds ratio: 1.96, p=0.039). In the SAE group, the mean 3-day postembolization eGFR was significantly lower than the mean 3-day postoperative eGFR (p <0.01). This difference in the eGFRs was still present 1 year later. Conclusions: Renal tumors located near the renal sinus and collecting system were associated with a higher risk for RAPs/AVFs after PN. Although SAE was an effective method for controlling symptomatic RAPs/AVFs after PN, a procedure-related impairment of renal function after SAE could occur and still be present at the end of the first postoperative year.

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14.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(1): 214-215, Jan.-Feb. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1134313

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction and Objectives: Management of recurrent ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) following pyeloplasty presents a challenging clinical problem. Failure of initial pyeloplasty is, in part, secondary to ureteral devascularization and subsequent fibrosis. In this video, we present a case of an anastomotic augmentation with cryopreserved placental tissue (CPT) to improve tissue healing and angiogenesis, and aid with the success of re-do robotic pyeloplasty. Materials and Methods: We present a 46-year-old female with history of recurrent left-sided UPJO treated by initial endopyelotomy and then open pyeloplasty. She underwent re-do robotic pyeloplasty (DaVinci Si™, Intuitive Surgical) with CPT. The patient was placed in the flank position; a 12mm camera port, three 8mm robotic ports, and a 12mm assistant port were used. The renal pelvis and upper ureter were mobilized to reveal a dense scar at the UPJ. A dismembered pyeloplasty was performed with barbed suture. After completion of the anastomosis, a section of CPT (Stravix™, Osiris Therapeutics) was wrapped around the anastomosis. CPT is composed of umbilical amnion and Wharton's jelly, which contains a mixture of extracellular matrix, and growth factors. The CPT is prepared and thawed on the bedside table, and placed into the peritoneum through the 12mm port in the correct orientation. The wrap is secured to the anastomosis with a fibrin sealant (EVICEL™, Johnson & Johnson). Results: The patient experienced resolution of flank pain. MAG3 renogram demonstrated resolution of obstruction at 6 months, with improvement of T½ time from 34 minutes to 7 minutes, with sustained improvement with repeat scan 18 months after surgery. Ureteroscopy demonstrated a patent UPJ. Strategies for successful robotic pyeloplasty after initial failed management include: (1) use of appropriate CPT agent to support the anastomosis - selection of thicker, more durable CPT to allow passage through laparoscopic port, (2) preparation on bedside table with enough time to allow thawing, (3) marking Wharton's jelly side of tissue for orientation, and (4) use of sealing agent to secure CPT to the anastomosis and prevent dislodgement. Conclusions: We demonstrate a novel approach to manage recurrent UPJ obstruction with robotic surgery using CPT. Placenta-derived products may have an increasing role in the performance of complex robotic urologic reconstructive surgery.

16.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(1): 71-72, Jan.-Feb. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1134315
17.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(1): 103-111, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1134316

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: This study aims to compare renal functional outcomes of access techniques in patients who underwent off-clamp (Off-C) laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN). Materials and Methods: Thirty-four Off-C LPNs in patients with functioning contralateral kidney from March 2011 to June 2018 were included in the study. Twenty-two patients underwent transperitoneal, 12 patients underwent retroperitoneal Off-C LPN. The primary outcome was glomerular filtration rate changes over time, postoperatively. The secondary outcome was the evaluation of trifecta and pentafecta rate. Results: Preoperative demographics, tumor size (26.59 vs. 22.83mm, p=0.790), RENAL score (5.45 vs. 5.33, p=0.990), operation time (79.95 vs. 81.33 min, p=0.157), blood loss (170.23 vs. 150.83mL, p=0.790) were similar in both groups. Although preservation of renal function was better in group 2 in the early period, similar results were found in both groups at the end of the first year, postoperatively. No positive surgical margin and postoperative major complications were detected in any patient. While trifecta goals were achieved in all the patients in the cohort, pentafecta rates were 90.9% and 91.7% in the transperitoneal and retroperitoneal groups, respectively. Conclusions: Transperitoneal and retroperitoneal access were found to have similar outcomes in terms of preservation of renal function at the end of the first year postoperatively. Off-C LPN may be considered as a safe and effective treatment option in patients having non-complex renal tumors.

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