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1.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 32-36, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-991974

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the epidemic characteristics and clinical key indicators of the patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 of the local Omicron variant epidemic, to understand the clinical characteristics of mild and severe patients, and to provide a scientific basis for the effective treatment and prevention of severe disease.Methods:From January 2020 to March 2022, the clinical and laboratory data of COVID-19 patients admitted to the Fifth People's Hospital of Wuxi were retrospective analyzed, including virus gene subtypes, demographic information, clinical classification, main clinical symptoms, and key indicators of clinical testing, and the changes of clinical characteristics of the patients infected with SARS-CoV-2.Results:A total of 150 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were admitted, 78, 52 and 20 in 2020, 2021 and 2022, including 10, 1 and 1 severe patient, and the main infected virus strains were L, Delta, and Omicron variants. The relapse rate of patients infected with the Omicron variant was as high as 15.0% (3/20), the incidence of diarrhea decreased to 10.0% (2/20), the incidence of severe disease decreased to 5.0% (1/20), and the number of hospitalization days of mild patients increased compared with 2020 (days: 20.43±1.78 vs. 15.84±1.12); respiratory symptoms were reduced, and the proportion of pulmonary lesions decreased to 10.5%; the virus titer of severely ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection (day 3) was higher than that of L-type strain (Ct value: 23.92±1.16 vs. 28.19±1.54). The acute plasma cytokines interleukin (IL-6, IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were significantly lower in patients with severe Omicron variant new coronavirus infection than those with mild disease [IL-6 (ng/L): 3.92±0.24 vs. 6.02±0.41, IL-10 (ng/L): 0.58±0.01 vs. 4.43±0.32, TNF-α (ng/L): 1.73±0.02 vs. 6.91±1.25, all P < 0.05], while γ-interferon (IFN-γ) and IL-17A were significantly higher than patients with mild disease [IFN-γ (ng/L): 23.07±0.17 vs. 13.52±2.34, IL-17A (ng/L): 35.58±0.08 vs. 26.39±1.37, both P < 0.05]. Compared with previous epidemics (2020 and 2021), the proportion of CD4/CD8 ratio, lymphocyte count, eosinophil and serum creatinine decreased in patients with mild Omicron infection in 2022 (36.8% vs. 22.1%, 9.8%; 36.8% vs. 23.5%, 7.8%; 42.1% vs. 41.2%, 15.7%; 42.1% vs. 19.1%, 9.8%), the proportion of patients with elevated monocyte count and procalcitonin was large (42.1% vs. 50.0%, 23.5%; 21.1% vs. 5.9%, 0). Conclusion:The incidences of severe disease in patients with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection was significantly lower than that of previous epidemics, and the occurrence of severe diseases was still related to the underlying diseases.

2.
Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology ; (12): 342-350, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934052

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the protective effects of bicistronic DNA vaccines carrying herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein D (HSV-2 gD) and adjuvant CCL28 sequences that were connected by internal ribosome entry site (IRES) sequence in mouse model.Methods:The recombinant DNA vaccines, pgD-IRES-CCL28 and pCCL28-IRES-gD, encoding HSV-2 gD and adjuvant CCL28 were constructed with IRES sequence. After verified by sequencing, they were intramuscularly injected twice into BALB/c mice. Serum samples and vaginal lavage fluids were collected regularly. Splenocytes, mesenteric lymph node cells and rectal mucosa tissues were separated and collected. The titers of antigen-specific antibodies in immunized mice were analyzed with end-point ELISA. In vitro neutralization assay was used to measure neutralizing antibody titers in serum and vaginal lavage fluid after vaccination and virus challenge. CCL28-responsive immune cells in splenocytes, mesenteric lymph node cells and rectal tissues were detected by chemotaxis experiment and immunohistochemical staining. The protective effects of the bicistronic DNA vaccines were evaluated by fluorescent quantitative PCR, weighing and disease severity assessment. Humoral and cellular immune responses induced by the bicistronic DNA vaccines and their efficacy in immunoprotection were analyzed by comparing with pgD+ pCCL28 group. Results:IgG titers in serum samples and IgA antibody titers in vaginal lavage fluids of mice immunized with pCCL28-IRES-gD were similar to those in pgD+ pCCL28 group. The neutralizing ability of antibodies, the number of rectal mucosal IgA+ plasma cells and CCL28-responsive immune cells in mucosal tissues were increased in pCCL28-IRES-gD group. Serum neutralizing antibodies were not produced immediately in the mice challenged with HSV-2, but no weight loss, disease symptoms or death was observed. However, pgD+ pcDNA3.1 and pgD-IRES-CCL28 were ineffective against HSV-2 infection in mice.Conclusions:The recombinant bicistronic DNA vaccine of pCCL28-IRES-gD could induce stronger mucosal immune response in mice and provide better protective effects.

3.
Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology ; (12): 333-341, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934051

ABSTRACT

Objective:To compare the immune responses to simply mixed and fused recombinant DNA vaccines of herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein D (HSV-2 gD) and molecular adjuvant CCL19 in mice and to evaluate the protective effects.Methods:Gene recombination technology was used to construct recombinant DNA vaccines expressing HSV-2 gD and CCL19 alone or fused together. After verification by sequencing, Western blot and ELISA, BALB/c mice were immunized twice by intramuscular injection. Serum samples and vaginal lavage fluids were collected regularly after immunization. Splenocytes, mesenteric lymph node cells and rectal tissues were collected after immunization. Differences in humoral and cellular immune responses to the two forms of vaccines and their protective effects in mice were analyzed using end-point ELISA, in vitro neutralization assay, immunohistochemical staining, chemotaxis assay, vaginal virus challenge, fluorescence quantitative PCR, weighing and disease severity assessment. Results:The fused recombinant pgD-IZ-CCL19 plasmid could express gD protein and CCL19 protein in vitro, but the level of expressed CCL19 protein by pCCL19-IZ-gD plasmid was less than that by pgD-IZ-CCL19. The mice immunized with pgD-IZ-CCL19 showed higher levels of IgG in sera and IgA in vaginal lavage fluids ( P<0.01) and stronger neutralization ability than the mice vaccinated with pgD+ pCCL19. Compared with other groups, more lymphocytes were recruited in the rectal mucosa, the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of mice immunized with pgD-IZ-CCL19. Weight loss or disease symptoms were not observed in the pgD-IZ-CCL19 group after virus challenge. In addition, the positive rate of HSV-2 in vaginal mucosa and the mortality rate in the pgD-IZ-CCL19 group were the lowest. However, pCCL19-IZ-gD turned out ineffective in preventing HSV-2 infection. Conclusions:The fused recombinant DNA vaccine pgD-IZ-CCL19 could induce stronger immune responses in mice and provide better protective effects, which was superior to the simply mixed DNA vaccine.

4.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 1173-1177, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-991936

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the characteristics of etiology and clinical indicators of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and non-HBV liver failure, and to evaluate their potential roles in reflecting disease outcomes.Methods:The clinical data of 369 patients with liver failure admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of the Fifth People's Hospital of Wuxi which was the designated hospital for treatment of liver failure from January 2018 to December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The classification and comparison of etiology of non-HBV and HBV liver failure patients were performed according to the Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Liver Failure (2018 edition). The indicators of liver failure related etiologies, including gender, age, anticoagulant enzyme Ⅲ (ATⅢ), total bilirubin (TBil), length of ICU stay, hepatic encephalopathy, underlying disease (liver cirrhosis and liver cancer, etc.) and usage of artificial liver were analyzed. According to the 6-month follow-up results after discharge, the differences in the etiological indicators of died and survival patients and the outcome of patients with different types of liver failure were analyzed. Results:A total of 369 patients were enrolled, including 134 (36.3%) with liver failure not caused by HBV and 235 (63.7%) with liver failure caused by HBV. The male with HBV-related liver failure was 4.34 times higher than female (cases: 191 vs. 44), which was higher than non-HBV-related liver failure (1.03 times, cases: 68 vs. 66). The 6-month follow-up showed that the proportion of male with HBV-related liver failure who died and survived was significantly higher than that of female (78.76% vs. 21.24% in died patients, 92.86% vs. 7.14% in survival patients, both P < 0.01). The age of died patients in the non-HBV-related liver failure group was significantly higher than that of the survival patients (years: 58.53±0.15 vs. 54.38±3.01, P < 0.05), and the ATⅢ level was significantly lower than that of the survival patients [(32.20±6.43)% vs. (38.63±2.74)%, P < 0.05]. The length of ICU stay of the died HBV-related liver failure group was significantly shorter than that of the survival patients (days: 23.77±11.74 vs. 35.51±2.85, P < 0.01). The 6-month mortality after discharge of HBV-related liver failure combined with liver cancer was significantly higher than that of non-HBV-related liver failure (12.34% vs. 2.24%, P < 0.01), but there was no significant difference in 6-month mortality after discharge of patients receiving artificial liver and those with hepatic encephalopathy and cirrhosis between different types of liver failure groups. Conclusions:HBV is the main cause of liver failure. Patients with HBV-related liver failure were younger and had a longer hospitalization period, which was conducive to the recovery of the disease. HBV-related liver failure accompanied with liver cancer is the main factors of death. The ATⅢ has the potential value to reflect the disease outcome.

5.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 172-177, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931844

ABSTRACT

Objective:To assess the predictors of outcomes for different subtypes of liver failure, and the effectiveness of artificial liver support systems in the treatment of liver failure.Methods:The clinical data of 112 patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)- and non-HBV-related liver failure admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of the Fifth People's Hospital of Wuxi were collected from January to December 2020. The relevant etiologies of acute, subacute, acute-on-chronic, subacute-on-chronic, chronic subtype liver failure were analyzed. The efficacies of artificial liver support systems in the treatment of various subtypes of liver failure were also compared. The correlation of various indicators was analyzed by Spearman correlation analysis, the risk factors affecting the prognosis of patients with liver failure were analyzed by multivariate Logistic regression equation, and receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC curve) of subjects was plotted to evaluate the predictive value of each risk factor for the prognosis of patients with liver failure.Results:Among the 112 liver failure patients, 63 were caused by hepatitis B and 49 were caused by non-hepatitis B. The liver failure caused by hepatitis B was 6 times higher than for men than for women, which was higher than that of non-HBV liver failure group (1.33 times). Antithrombin Ⅲ (AT Ⅲ) and total bilirubin (TBil) levels of subacute liver failure were higher than those of pre-liver failure in the HBV liver failure group [AT Ⅲ: (59.33±14.57)% vs. (35.66±20.72)%, TBil (μmol/L): 399.21±112.94 vs. 206.08±126.96, both P < 0.05]. The levels of AT Ⅲ in patients with pre-liver failure and chronic liver failure in the non-HBV liver failure group were significantly higher than those with acute liver failure [(58.33±15.28%), (44.00±19.10)% vs. (31.33±7.57)%, both P < 0.05], patients with acute liver failure had significantly lower level of TBil than pre-liver failure (μmol/L: 107.83±49.73 vs. 286.20±128.92, P < 0.05), the TBil levels in patients with subacute and acute-on-chronic liver failure were also significantly higher than that in pre-liver failure group (μmol/L: 417.27±118.60, 373.00±187.00 vs. 286.20±128.92, both P < 0.05). Patients with subacute liver failure, subacute-on-chronic liver failure and chronic liver failure in the non-HBV failure group were significantly longer than those in acute liver failure (days: 36.00±8.31, 27.52±11.71, 27.72±22.71 vs. 11.00±1.41, all P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in the case fatality rate of using the artificial liver support system between the HBV failure group and the non-HBV failure group (55.6% vs. 50.0%, P < 0.05), the levels of AT Ⅲ in the two groups of surviving patients were significantly higher than that of the dead [HBV liver failure group: (36.20±6.26)% vs. (27.33±8.87)%, non-HBV liver failure group: (41.06±4.16)% vs. (28.71±12.35)%, both P < 0.01]. Correlation analysis showed that there was a clear positive correlation between AT Ⅲ and TBil in the dead patients of HBV liver failure group and the survival and death patients of non-HBV liver failure group ( r values were 0.069, 0.341, 0.064, and P values were 0.723, 1.196 and 0.761, respectively); there was a significant inverse correlation between AT Ⅲ and TBil in the HBV liver failure group ( r = -0.105, P = 0.745). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that AT Ⅲ was an independent risk factor affecting the prognosis of patients with non-HBV liver failure [odd ratio ( OR) = 1.023, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was -0.001 to 0.001, P = 0.007]. TBil was an independent risk factor affecting prognosis of patients with HBV liver failure ( OR = 1.005, 95% CI was -0.002 to -7.543, P = 0.033). The analysis of ROC curve showed that AT Ⅲ had a predictive value for the prognosis of patients with non-HBV liver failure, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) = 0.747, the 95% CI was 0.592-0.902, P = 0.009. When the optimal truncation value was 39.5%, its sensitivity and specificity were 83.33% and 56.25%, respectively. Conclusions:Artificial liver support system treatment of liver failure was difficult to effectively reduce the mortality of patients with end-stage liver failure. In addition to AT Ⅲ, TBil also could be used as an indicator to assess liver compensatency and predict prognosis in liver failure patients.

6.
Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology ; (12): 691-698, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-958244

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines in patients with HIV-1 or chronic HBV infection through observing the dynamic changes in antibody responses to two-dose inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.Methods:This cohort study recruited 169 people (including 39 with HIV-1 infection, 36 with chronic HBV infection and 94 individuals without chronic diseases) who completed two doses (prime and boost) of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccination from January to December 2021. The levels of SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies at 14 d, one month and two months after boosting and neutralizing antibodies at one month were detected by chemiluminescence immunoassay and competitive ELISA method.Results:The positive rates of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the HIV-1 and HBV groups were higher at one month after booster immunization, but significantly decreases at two months. The double-negative rate of SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies was higher in the HIV-1 and HBV groups than in the control group. The single positive rate of IgG antibody at one month in the control group was 2.01-fold higher than that of the HIV-1 group and 3.17-fold higher than that of the HBV group. The single positive rate of IgG antibody in people aged 18-39 years in each group was higher than that in the 40-59 age group. The antibody persistence was better in the HBV group than in the HIV-1 group, and the levels of IgG antibody in the HBV group was higher than that in the HIV-1 group. The neutralizing capacity of serum antibodies was significantly lower in the HIV-1 group than in the other groups ( P<0.000 1). The inhibition rate of serum neutralizing antibodies in the HBV group was lower than that in the control group among people aged 18-39 years [(34.050±6.031)% vs (64.220±3.845)%, t=4.43, P<0.000 1]. SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses were induced in 73.08% (19/26) of the patients aged 18-39 years in the HIV-1 group and 80.00% (4/5) in the HBV group. Conclusions:There were differences in the antibody responses to inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines between different age groups, and infectious diseases affected the positive rates of antibodies and the neutralizing capability against SARS-CoV-2.

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