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1.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1897-1909, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980976

ABSTRACT

Endometriosis, a heterogeneous, inflammatory, and estrogen-dependent gynecological disease defined by the presence and growth of endometrial tissues outside the lining of the uterus, affects approximately 5-10% of reproductive-age women, causing chronic pelvic pain and reduced fertility. Although the etiology of endometriosis is still elusive, emerging evidence supports the idea that immune dysregulation can promote the survival and growth of retrograde endometrial debris. Peritoneal macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells exhibit deficient cytotoxicity in the endometriotic microenvironment, leading to inefficient eradication of refluxed endometrial fragments. In addition, the imbalance of T-cell subtypes results in aberrant cytokine production and chronic inflammation, which contribute to endometriosis development. Although it remains uncertain whether immune dysregulation represents an initial cause or merely a secondary enhancer of endometriosis, therapies targeting altered immune pathways exhibit satisfactory effects in preventing disease onset and progression. Here, we summarize the phenotypic and functional alterations of immune cells in the endometriotic microenvironment, focusing on their interactions with microbiota and endocrine and nervous systems, and how these interactions contribute to the etiology and symptomology of endometriosis.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Endometriosis/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Estrogens , Endometrium/metabolism
2.
STOMATOLOGY ; (12): 278-281, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-979370

ABSTRACT

@#In recent years, clear aligner technology has been maturing and is rapidly gaining popularity in the orthodontic market for its aesthetic and removable properties. However, despite the background of its large-scale clinical application, mechanical properties of clear aligners need to be studied in depth. This paper reviews the factors influencing mechanical properties of clear aligners and the current status of research to provide evidence-based guidance for clinical application.

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