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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929793

ABSTRACT

CD99L2(CD99 antigen-like 2)gene is located at Xq28, which encodes a highly conserved and widely expressed glycosylated transmembrane protein.Since it was first reported in 2003, CD99L2 protein has been regarded as an important adhesion molecule, which plays an important role in inflammation, leukocyte exudation, and lymphoma.However, in recent years, more and more studies have found that this gene is closely related to neurological diseases such as autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, and epilepsy, but the specific mechanism is still unclear, and the function of this gene is still unclear.This article reviews the research progress of CD99L2 gene.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936293

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the value of DNA methylation level of HYAL2 gene as a molecular marker for differential diagnosis of malignant and benign thyroid tumors.@*METHODS@#DNA methylation of HYAL2 gene in tissue specimens of 190 patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and 190 age- and gender-matched patients with benign thyroid tumors was examined by mass spectrometry, and the protein expression of HYAL2 was detected immunohistochemically for another 55 pairs of patients. Logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and evaluate the correlation of per 10% reduction in DNA methylation with PTC. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed and the area under curve (AUC) was calculated to assess the predictive value of alterations in HYAL2 methylation.@*RESULTS@#Hypomethylation of HYAL2_CpG_3 was significantly correlated with early-stage PTC (OR=1.51, P=0.001), even in stage I cancer (OR=1.42, P=0.007). Age-stratified analysis revealed a significantly stronger correlation between increased HYAL2_CpG_ 3 methylation and early-stage PTC in patients below 50 years than in those older than 50 years (OR: 1.89 vs 1.37, P < 0.05); ROC analysis also showed a larger AUC of 0.787 in younger patients. The results of immunohistochemistry showed that patients with PTC had significantly higher protein expressions of HYAL2 than patients with benign tumors.@*CONCLUSION@#The alterations of DNA methylation level of HYAL2 gene is significantly correlated with early-stage PTC, suggesting the value of DNA methylation level as a potential biomarker for differentiation of malignant from benign thyroid tumors.


Subject(s)
Adenoma, Oxyphilic/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , DNA Methylation , GPI-Linked Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Hyaluronoglucosaminidase/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Middle Aged , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929031

ABSTRACT

More than 100 genes located on the X chromosome have been found to be associated with X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) to date, and NEXMIF is a pathogenic gene for XLID. In addition to intellectual disability, patients with NEXMIF gene mutation can also have other neurological symptoms, such as epilepsy, abnormal behavior, and hypotonia, as well as abnormalities of other systems. Two children with intellectual disability and epilepsy caused by NEXMIF gene mutation were treated in the Department of Pediatrics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University from March 8, 2017 to June 20, 2020. Patient 1, a 7 years and 8 months old girl, visited our department because of the delayed psychomotor development. Physical examination revealed strabismus (right eye), hyperactivity, and loss of concentration. Intelligence test showed a developmental quotient of 43.6. Electroencephalogram showed abnormal discharge, and cranial imaging appeared normal. Whole exome sequencing revealed a de novo heterozygous mutation, c.2189delC (p.S730Lfs*17) in the NEXMIF gene (NM_001008537). During the follow-up period, the patient developed epileptic seizures, mainly manifested as generalized and absent seizures. She took the medicine of levetiracetam and lamotrigine, and the seizures were under control. Patient 2, a 6-months old boy, visited our department due to developmental regression and seizures. He showed poor reactions to light and sound, and was not able to raise head without aid. Hypotonia was also noticed. The electroencephalogram showed intermittent hyperarrhythmia, and spasms were monitored. He was given topiramate and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). Whole exome sequencing detected a de novo c.592C>T (Q198X) mutation in NEXMIF gene. During the follow-up period, the seizures were reduced with vigabatrin. He had no obvious progress in the psychomotor development, and presented strabismus. There were 91 cases reported abroad, 1 case reported in China, and 2 patients were included in this study. A total of 85 variants in NEXMIF gene were found, involving 83 variants reported in PubMed and HGMD, and the 2 new variants presented in our patients. The patients with variants in NEXMIF gene all had mild to severe intellectual disability. Behavioral abnormalities, epilepsy, hypotonia, and other neurological symptoms are frequently presented. The phenotype of male partially overlaps with that of female. Male patients often have more severe intellectual disability, impaired language, and autistic features, while female patients often have refractory epilepsy. Most of the variants reported so far were loss-of-function resulted in the reduced protein expression of NEXMIF. The degree of NEXMIF loss appears to correlate with the severity of the phenotype.


Subject(s)
Child , Epilepsy/genetics , Female , Humans , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Male , Muscle Hypotonia/complications , Mutation , Phenotype , Seizures/genetics , Strabismus/complications
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888472

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical features and recurrence factors of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody disease in children and the effect of recurrence prevention regimens.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 41 children with MOG antibody disease who were hospitalized in the Department of Pediatric Neurology, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, from December 2014 to September 2020. According to the presence or absence of recurrence, they were divided into a monophasic course group (@*RESULTS@#For these 41 children, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis was the most common initial manifestation and was observed in 23 children (56%). Of the 41 children, 22 (54%) experienced recurrence, with 57 recurrence events in total, among which optic neuritis was the most common event (17/57, 30%). The proportion of children in the recurrence group who were treated with corticosteroids for less than 3 months in the acute phase was higher than that in the monophasic course group (64% @*CONCLUSIONS@#More than half of the children with MOG antibody disease may experience recurrence. Most children with recurrence are treated with corticosteroids for less than 3 months in the acute phase. Rituximab and azathioprine may reduce the risk of recurrence.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies , Child , Humans , Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein , Optic Neuritis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888017

ABSTRACT

Type 2 diabetes mellitus( T2 DM) is a common chronic metabolic disease characterized by persistent hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. In pancreatic β-cells,glucose-stimulated insulin secretion( GSIS) plays a pivotal role in maintaining the balance of blood glucose level. Previous studies have shown that geniposide,one of the active components of Gardenia jasminoides,could quickly regulate the absorption and metabolism of glucose,and affect glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells,but the specific mechanism needs to be further explored. Emerging evidence indicated that glycosylation of glucose transporter( GLUT) has played a key role in sensing cell microenvironmental changes and regulating glucose homeostasis in eucaryotic cells. In this study,we studied the effects of geniposide on the key molecules of GLUT2 glycosylation in pancreatic β cells. The results showed that geniposide could significantly up-regulate the mRNA and protein levels of Glc NAc T-Ⅳa glycosyltransferase( Gn T-Ⅳa) and galectin-9 but had no signi-ficant effect on the expression of clathrin,and geniposide could distinctively regulate the protein level of Gn T-Ⅳa in a short time( 1 h) under the conditions of low and medium glucose concentrations,but had no significant effect on the protein level of galectin-9. In addition,geniposide could also remarkably affect the protein level of glycosylated GLUT2 in a short-time treatment. The above results suggested that geniposide could quickly regulate the protein level of Gn T-Ⅳa,a key molecule of protein glycosylation in INS-1 rat pancreatic βcells and affect the glycosylation of GLUT2. These findings suggested that the regulation of geniposide on glucose absorption,metabolism and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion might be associated with its efficacy in regulating GLUT2 glycosylation and affecting its distribution on the cell membrane and cytoplasm in pancreatic β cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Glycosylation , Insulin/metabolism , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Iridoids , Rats
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880678

ABSTRACT

Cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome is an extremely rare autosomal dominant genetic disease due to BRAF and other gene mutations. The main characteristics of the patients are craniofacial deformities, cardiac malformations, skin abnormalities, delay of language and motor development, gastrointestinal dysfunction, intellectual disability, and epilepsy. In this case, the child has a typical CFC syndrome face and developmental delay. The gene results of the second-generation sequencing technology showed that there was a mutation site c.1741A>G (p. Asn581Asp) (heterozygous) in exon 14 of the BRAF (NM_004333.5) gene. The mutation was not observed in the child's parents. The above-mentioned mutation may be a de novo mutation. There is no effective therapy for this disease so far.


Subject(s)
Abnormalities, Multiple , Child , Ectodermal Dysplasia/genetics , Facies , Failure to Thrive , Heart Defects, Congenital/genetics , Humans , Mutation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics
7.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 1282-1289, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911867

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the clinical, imaging and genetic features of patients with global developmental delay combined with epilepsy and striatal degeneration caused by POLR3A gene mutations.Methods:A total of three patients from two families with non-consanguineous marriages admitted to the Department of Pediatric Neurology of Xiangya Hospital of Central South University in 2020 were examined in detail. Peripheral blood DNA was extracted, and whole-exome sequencing was performed on the patients, combined with Sanger sequencing for verification. The mutation and protein function predictor softwares were applied to analyze the mutation sites.Results:All three patients presented with global developmental delay, seizures, dystonia. Head magnetic resonance imaging of all patients suggested basal ganglia atrophy and striatal degeneration. All had compound heterozygous mutations of c.1980 G>C; c.1771-6 C>G and c.2044C>T; c.1771-7 C>G in POLR3A gene as indicated by whole-exome sequencing. Sanger sequencing validation confirmed that the compound heterozygous mutations were originated from the parents of probands from the two families, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis suggested pathogenic features of the mutations.Conclusions:Compound heterozygous mutations in POLR3A gene , including a splice site mutation result in global developmental delay combined with epilepsy, striatal degeneration. Clinicians should promote the awareness of POLR3 related spectrum disorders, thus make early recognition and diagnosis.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924309

ABSTRACT

@#Allergic contact dermatitis affects 15 to 20% of the population. The pattern of contact allergy varies across nations. Therefore, many countries utilize their unique individual baseline series for patch testing. In this study, we aimed to assess the outcome of rubber and fragrance allergy detection with the addition of 1,3-Diphenylguanidine. N-Cyclohexyl-N-Phenyl-4-Phenylenediamine, N-Cyclohexylthiophthalimide and Ylang ylang oil.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828700

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical features of the diseases associated with aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARS) deficiency.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed of the clinical and gene mutation data of 10 children who were diagnosed with ARS gene mutations, based on next-generation sequencing from January 2016 to October 2019.@*RESULTS@#The age of onset ranged from 0 to 9 years among the 10 children. Convulsion was the most common initial symptom (7 children). Clinical manifestations included ataxia and normal or mildly retarded intellectual development (with or without epilepsy; n=4) and onset of epilepsy in childhood with developmental regression later (n=2). Some children experienced disease onset in the neonatal period and had severe epileptic encephalopathy, with myoclonus, generalized tonic-clonic seizure, and convulsive seizure (n=4); 3 had severe delayed development, 2 had feeding difficulty, and 1 had hearing impairment. Mutations were found in five genes: 3 had novel mutations in the AARS2 gene (c.331G>C, c.2682+5G>A, c.2164C>T, and c.761G>A), 2 had known mutations in the DARS2 gene (c.228-16C>A and c.536G>A), 1 had novel mutations in the CARS2 gene (c.1036C>T and c.323T>G), 1 had novel mutations in the RARS2 gene (c.1210A>G and c.622C>T), and 3 had novel mutations in the AARS gene (c.1901T>A, c.229C>T, c.244C>T, c.961G>C, c.2248C>T, and Chr16:70298860-70316687del).@*CONCLUSIONS@#A high heterogeneity is observed in the clinical phenotypes of the diseases associated with the ARS deficiency. A total of 14 novel mutations in 5 genes are reported in this study, which enriches the clinical phenotypes and genotypes of the diseases associated with ARS deficiency.


Subject(s)
Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases , Genetics , Child , Epilepsy , Humans , Mutation , Phenotype , Retrospective Studies
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828014

ABSTRACT

Using the 260 geographical distribution records of Polygonatum cyrtonema in China, combined with 53 environmental factors, the maximum entropy modeling(MaxEnt) was used to study the ecological factors affecting the suitability distribution of P. cyrtonema. The ArcGIS software was used to predict the potential distribution of the population of P. cyrtonema. The dominant factors were chosen by using the Jackknife test and the Receiver Operating Characteristic(ROC) curve was used to evaluate the simulation. The results showed that high value of area under curve(AUC) denoted good results, which significantly differed from random predictions. Based on the evaluation criterion, the accuracies of the predictions of P. cyrtonema potential distribution in the current periods were excellent. The main environmental factors affecting the suitable growth of P. cyrtonema were the monthly precipitation, the wettest monthly precipitation, the annual average temperature range and the precipitation of November, March, February, April, May and October. There are 9 environmental factors in soil type. The potential fitness of P. cyrtonema in China is high, mainly concentra-ted in Hunan, western Hubei, Guangdong, northeastern Guangxi, southeastern Guizhou, Jiangxi, southwestern Anhui, Fujian, Zhejiang, Shaanxi, southwestern Henan and Chongqing. The growth distribution of the potential distribution area of P. cyrtonema was divided, and the zoning map of the growth suitability of P. cyrtonema was formed. Through the comparative analysis of the potential distribution range based on MaxEnt and the distribution range of literature records, the understanding of the distribution range of P. cyrtonema was expanded.


Subject(s)
China , Ecology , Entropy , Polygonatum , Research Design , Soil
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879354

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of intra-articular injection of tranexamic acid on blood loss and blood transfusion rate after minimally invasive unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.@*METHODS@#From January 2015 to September 2017, 90 patients underwent minimally invasive unicompartmental knee arthroplasty were divided into tranexamic acid group and control group, 45 cases in each group. In the tranexamic acid group, there were 22 males and 23 females, aged 62 to 69 (66.1±2.4) years;in the control group, 20 males and 25 females, aged 63 to 71(68.5±5.2) years. The amount of bleeding in the drainage ball at 48 hours after operation was recorded, and the blood transfusion rate and hematocrit level duringthe perioperative period were recorded. The factors influencing perioperative blood loss included gender, age and body mass index (BMI).@*RESULTS@#All patients were followed up for 12.5 to 28.3 (22.8±7.9) months. During the follow-up, the wounds of the two groups healed well, and no deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism occurred. There was no significant difference in postoperative blood loss between the tranexamic acid group and the control group. The postoperative bleeding volume in the tranexamic acid group was (110.0±52.1) ml, and that in the control group was (123.0±64.5) ml (P=0.39). There was no blood transfusion in the two groups.@*CONCLUSION@#Intra articular injection of tranexamic acid can not significantly reduce the postoperative blood loss in patients with minimally invasive unicompartment.


Subject(s)
Aged , Antifibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , Blood Loss, Surgical/prevention & control , Female , Hemostatics , Humans , Injections, Intra-Articular , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Hemorrhage , Tranexamic Acid
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787730

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic surgery and conventional surgery combined with radiotherapy in the treatment of Neuroblastoma. Forty-three patients with olfactory neuroblastoma undergoing surgery combined with radiotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into endoscopic surgery and conventional surgery. All patients received postoperative radiotherapy at a dose of 60-70 Gy, the 5-year survival rate and local recurrence time of the two groups were compared, and the therapeutic effects of endoscopic surgery and traditional surgery were compared. Through survival analysis, the 5-year overall survival rates of the traditional surgery group and the endoscopic surgery group were 50% and 58% (=0.560), the local recurrence rates were 44% and 48% (=0.288), and the mean recurrence time was 5.6 months and 12.5 months (=0.032). There was no difference between endoscopic surgery and conventional surgery combined with radiotherapy in the treatment of Neuroblastoma, and the time of local recurrence was significantly prolonged. In early Neuroblastoma, endoscopic sinus surgery may be superior to open surgery in terms of efficacy and patient survival.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821520

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic surgery and conventional surgery combined with radiotherapy in the treatment of Neuroblastoma. @*Method@#Forty-three patients with olfactory neuroblastoma undergoing surgery combined with radiotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into endoscopic surgery and conventional surgery. All patients received postoperative radiotherapy at a dose of 60-70 Gy, the 5-year survival rate and local recurrence time of the two groups were compared, and the therapeutic effects of endoscopic surgery and traditional surgery were compared.@*Result@#Through survival analysis, the 5-year overall survival rates of the traditional surgery group and the endoscopic surgery group were 50% and 58% (P=0.560), the local recurrence rates were 44% and 48% (P=0.288), and the mean recurrence time was 5.6 months and 12.5 months (P=0.032).@*Conclusion@#There was no difference between endoscopic surgery and conventional surgery combined with radiotherapy in the treatment of Neuroblastoma, and the time of local recurrence was significantly prolonged. In early Neuroblastoma, endoscopic sinus surgery may be superior to open surgery in terms of efficacy and patient survival.

14.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 1536-1542, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-824524

ABSTRACT

Cervical muscle group has complex anatomical and physiological characteristics,which plays an important role in maintaining cervical stability and participating in cervical activity.Long-term bow of the head will cause irreversible injury to the neck muscle.The clinical manifestations are stiffness of the neck,and increased muscle tension.In severe cases,muscle spasms are like stripes.The pain caused by it for more than 3 months is called chronic neck pain(CNP).With the increasing incidence of chronic neck pain in the population,the related case reports and clinical studies are also increasing.At present,it is generally believed that persistent non-autonomous hypertension of neck muscle is the primary pathological mechanism of chronic neck pain.For the objective,quantitative analysis and evaluation of neck muscle tension is helpful to predict the occurrence of chronic neck pain,explain its pathogenesis and formulate treatment measures,which has gradually become the main development trend in this field.In recent years,with the development of auxiliary medicine,evaluation methods have changed with each passing day,which provides a variety of options for clinical research.In this paper,several mainstream detection methods of cervical muscle tension are summarized,and the shear wave elastography technology,surface electromyography,magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging are introduced respectively.Their development history,and the working principle of each technology aredescribed in detail.By reviewing the classical clinical research cases at domestic and abroad,the research status of each technology in the field of cervical muscle detection is deeply analyzed.The development trend,potential advantages and limitations of Yang's modulus,integrated electromyography,root mean square value,mean power frequency,median frequency,cross sectional area and apparent diffusion coefficient were evaluated.The purpose of this paper is to summarize experience,guide clinic,deepen the understanding of microcosmic pathogenesis of chronic neck pain,provide theoretical basis for exploring new detection methods,provide omni-directional,multi-level and three-dimensional new clinical diagnosis and treatment strategies for related fields,and provide new methods and ideas for the follow-up study of chronic neck pain.

15.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 368-372, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810592

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To summarize the clinical features and gene variation characteristics of a child with Okur-Chung syndrome caused by CSNK2A1 gene variation.@*Methods@#The medical records of one patient who was diagnosed with Okur-Chung syndrome in Department of Pediatrics, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University in July 2018 were analyzed. Using "CSNK2A1" gene as the keyword, relevant information about CSNK2A1 gene was searched at CNKI, Wangfang Data, OMIM, PubMed, ClinVar, Decipher (until August 2018). The characteristics of CSNK2A1 gene variation and the clinical phenotype of children with Okur-Chung syndrome were summarized.@*Results@#The boy, 1 year and 8 months old, was sent to hospital at the age of 1 year and 6 months because of delayed growth for more than 1 year. He was susceptible to cough while eating or drinking. He was also suffering from constipation and poor sleep. Physical examination showed that his body weight was 10.2 kg, microcephalus, broad nasal bridge, micrognathia and hypotonia were observed. Whole exome-sequencing test identified a de novo heterozygous variation c.524A>G (p.D175G) in CSNK2A1 gene. This was the first case report of CSNK2A1 gene variation in the mainland of China. So far, a total of 52 cases were reported worldwide (52 single nucleotide variants), including 35 cases in 7 articles, 9 cases in Decipher database and 14 cases in ClinVar database, 6 of which were also reported in PubMed. In previously reported 52 cases, there were 48 missense variants, whereas, splice and frameshift variations were found in 3 cases and 1 case, respectively. Among the variation sites, p.K198R was the most common sites (12 cases), followed by p.R47 (6 cases), p.R80H (4 cases) and p.S51 (4 cases). Among these 52 cases, only 27 cases have been elaborately described in other studies, so the clinical characteristics were summarized in 28 cases eventually (including 27 cases in the articles and this patient), 27 of whom presented severe intellectual disability or global development delay, 1 case with mild language development delay, and 19 had hypotonia; 8 had autism spectrum disorders, 5 had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and 9 had sleep problems. 20 had dysmorphic facial features, 10 of them had microcephalus. 16 had failure to thrive or short stature, 12 had gastrointestinal or oromotor problem, 5 had immunological problem, and 4 had skin abnormalities.@*Conclusions@#The main clinical feature of patients with CSNK2A1 gene variations is intellectual disability with multiple systems involved, such as microcephalus, abnormal facial shape and hypotonia. The variation of CSNK2A1 gene is the cause of Okur-Chung syndrome. Missense variation is the main cause, and P. K198R is the hotspot variation.

16.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 142-145, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810425

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To summarize the clinical manifestations and gene variations of combined immunodeficiency caused by ORAI1 variation with a case report and literature review.@*Methods@#The clinical data of the patient who was diagnosed with ORAI1 variation caused combined immunodeficiency in the Department of Pediatrics in Xiangya Hospital of Central South University in February 2018 were extracted and analyzed. The literature till August 2018 was searched with key words of 'ORAI1', and 'immunodeficiency' in both English and Chinese in the database of China national knowledge infrast ructure (CNKI), Wanfang and Pubmed.@*Results@#The patient was a 15 months old girl with acute onset of bilateral ptosis after upper respiratory tract infection, which was rapidly progressed to systemic myasthenia and accompanied with recurrent respiratory tract infection during the treatment. The patient poorly to responded immunomodulatory therapy and anti-infection therapy. Laboratory tests demonstrated decreased complement C3 and NK cell (CD3-CD56+), increased anti-thyroglobulin, thyroid peroxidase antibody and B lymphocyte (CD3-CD19+), and slightly increased anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody. Genetic analysis showed the homozygous variation of ORAI1 gene exon l c.12 G>T (p.E4D), with heterozygostty of both parents. There were only 4 papers reporting this disease in the literature review. A total of 7 patients with ORAI1 gene variation were reported, including 3 homozygous variations, 2 heterozygous variations and 2 complex heterozygous variations. The clinical manifestations included early onset recurrent infection, congenital hypotonia, elevated serum IgA and IgM, decreased NK cells, and family history of hereditary diseases. Four of the 7 reported cases died of pulmonary infection and sepsis, and the other 3 survived with low muscular tone and poor self-care ability.@*Conclusions@#The most common clinical manifestations of ORAI1 variation caused combined immunodeficiency are recurrent infection and congenital hypotonia. Myasthenia induced recurrent respiratory tract infection is an important factor of poor prognosis in severe patients. There is a lack of effective treatment for this disease, and the prognosis is poor.

17.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 125-130, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810422

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the clinical features, treatment strategies and long term outcomes of children with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis.@*Methods@#The data of clinical features, auxiliary examinations, treatments and prognosis in children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis in Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from March 2014 to October 2017 were collected and retrospectively analyzed. A total of 71 patients were enrolled, including 33 males and 38 females. The youngest age of onset was 4 months old, and the age of onset was (9±4) years. The first-line immunotherapy treatment for anti-NMDAR encephalitis was short course corticosteroid (high-dose impulse therapy and oral maintenance therapy for 1 month in acute period) and (or) immunoglobulin. The clinical evaluation was performed 2 weeks after first-line immunotherapy treatment. The second-line immunotherapy treatment, including rituximab and (or) cyclophosphamide, would be started if the symptoms did not improve significantly and the modified Rankin scale (mRS) score ≥3. All patients were followed up and evaluated for prognosis. T-test, Mann-Whitney U, Chi square test and Fisher′s exact probability method were used for comparison between good outcome group and poor outcome group, first-line immunotherapy group and first-line immunotherapy combined with second-line immunotherapy group.@*Results@#The more common clinical manifestations were psychiatric symptoms (n=61, 86%), dyskinesia (n=55, 77%) and convulsions (n=51, 72%). Two cases (3%) had tumors. Electroencephalogram (EEG), cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies were abnormal in 83% (59/71), 39% (27/69) and 38% (27/71) patients, respectively. For the treatment regimens, all the 71 patients underwent first-line immunotherapy, resulting in improvement within 14 days in 40 cases (56%), and 1 case (1%) died. The rest 30 cases (42%) received second-line immunotherapy. The patients were followed up for 5.0-41.8 months, with a median of 19.3 months. At the last follow-up, 49 cases (69%) recovered completely, 15 cases (21%) had mild disability, 6 cases (8%) had severe disability, 1 case (1%) died and 3 cases (4%) had relapse. There were significant differences between the groups with good prognosis and poor prognosis on admission to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and consciousness disorder (10/64 vs. 5/7, 39/64 vs. 7/7, P=0.047, 0.004). There were significant differences between first-line immunotherapy group and the first-line combined second-line immunotherapy group on admission to PICU, consciousness disorder, sleep disorder and first mRS score (12% (5/41) vs. 33% (10/30), 44% (18/41) vs. 93% (28/30), 56% (23/41) vs. 90% (27/30), 3 (1-5) vs. 4 (3-5), respectively; χ2=4.645, 18.555, 9.560, Z=5.184, P=0.031, <0.01, 0.002, <0.01, respectively).@*Conclusions@#Anti-NMDAR encephalitis can occur in all ages of children. The most common clinical manifestations are psychotic symptoms, dyskinesia and convulsions. Paraneoplastic cases are less common in children. Immunotherapy is effective. The second-line immunotherapy should be given after the failure of first-line therapy (mRS score≥3).

18.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1533-1540, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771225

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Advanced technology has become a valuable tool in etiological studies of intellectual disability/global developmental delay (ID/GDD). The present study investigated the role of genetic analysis to confirm the etiology in ID/GDD patients where the cause of the disease was uncertain in central China.@*METHODS@#We evaluated 1051 ID/GDD children aged 6 months to 18 years from March 2009 to April 2017. Data concerning basic clinical manifestations were collected, and the method of etiology confirmation was recorded. Genome-wide copy number variations (CNVs) detection and high-throughput sequencing of exons in the targeted regions was performed to identify genetically-based etiologies. We compared the incidence of different methods used to confirm ID/GDD etiology among groups with differing degrees of ID/GDD using the Chi-square or Fisher exact probability test.@*RESULTS@#We recruited 1051 children with mild (367, 34.9%), moderate (301, 28.6%), severe (310, 29.5%), and profoundly severe (73, 6.9%) ID/GDD. The main causes of ID/GDD in the children assessed were perinatal factors, such as acquired brain injury, as well as single gene imbalance and chromosomal gene mutation. We identified karyotype and/or CNVs variation in 46/96 (47.9%) of cases in severe ID/GDD patients, which was significantly higher than those with mild and moderate ID/GDD of 34/96 (35.4%) and 15/96 (15.6%), respectively. A total of 331/536 (61.8%) patients with clear etiology have undergone genetic analysis while 262/515 (50.9%) patients with unclear etiology have undergone genetic analysis (χ = 12.645, P < 0.001). Gene structure variation via karyotype analysis and CNV detection increased the proportion of children with confirmed etiology from 51.0% to 56.3%, and second-generation high-throughput sequencing dramatically increased this to 78.9%. Ten novel mutations were detected, recessive mutations in X-linked genes (ATPase copper transporting alpha and bromodomain and WD repeat domain containing 3) and dominant de novo heterozygous mutations in X-linked genes (cyclin-dependent kinase like 5, protocadherin 19, IQ motif and Sec7 domain 2, and methyl-CpG binding protein 2) were reported in the study.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The present study indicates that genetic analysis is an effective method to increase the proportion of confirmed etiology in ID/GDD children and is highly recommended, especially in ID/GDD children with uncertain etiology.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775111

ABSTRACT

Hereditary angiopathy with nephropathy, aneurysms and muscle cramps (HANAC) syndrome is an autosomal dominant genetic disease caused by COL4A1 gene mutation, with major clinical manifestations of white matter lesion, aneurysm, retinal artery tortuosity, polycystic kidney, microscopic hematuria and muscle cramps. This article reports the clinical features and genotype of one toddler with HANAC syndrome caused by COL4A1 gene mutation. The boy, aged 1 year and 8 months, had an insidious onset, with the clinical manifestations of pyrexia and convulsion, white matter lesions in the periventricular region and the centrum semiovale on both sides, softening lesions beside the left basal ganglia, retinal arteriosclerosis, microscopic hematuria and muscle cramps. Whole exome sequencing revealed a pathogenic de novo heterozygous mutation in the COL4A1 gene, (NM_001845) c.4150+1(IVS46)G>T, and therefore, the boy was diagnosed with HANAC syndrome. COL4A1 gene mutation detection should be performed for children with unexplained white matter lesion, stroke, hematuria, polycystic kidney, cataract and retinal artery tortuosity or families with related history.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Collagen Type IV , Genetics , Genotype , Humans , Infant , Male , Muscle Cramp , Genetics , Mutation , Syndrome
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813025

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effects of ventricular shunt placement in children with post-infective hydrocephalus.
 Methods: A total of 24 cases of post-infectious hydrocephalus, who received ventricular shunt, were enrolled. Age, gender, disease progression, clinical manifestation, laboratory data, treatment, prognosis, complication, and sequela for each patient were retrospectively reviewed.
 Results: Of the 24 cases, 8 had a full recovery, 11 had slight sequela, 2 had severe sequela, 1 was in vegetative state, and 2 died because of bacterial meningitis and tubercular meningitis. Epilepsy, mental impairment, visual and hearing damage were the main sequelae.
 Conclusion: Ventricular shunt is the preferred treatment in children with post-infective hydrocephalus, which shows positive clinical efficacy and can improve the long-term prognosis of such patients.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Hydrocephalus , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Tuberculosis, Meningeal , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt
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