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1.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 751-758, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985557

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of norovirus-caused acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in China, identify the factors influencing the scale of outbreaks, and provide scientific evidences for early control of norovirus infection outbreaks. Methods: The descriptive epidemiological analysis approach was applied to analyze the incidence of national norovirus infection outbreaks by using the data from the Public Health Emergency Event Surveillance System in China from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2021. The unconditional logistic regression model was applied to analyze the risk factors that affected the outbreaks' scale. Results: A total of 1 725 norovirus infection outbreaks were recorded in China from 2007 to 2021, with an upward trend in the number of the reported outbreaks. The southern provinces had their annual outbreak peaks from October to March; the northern provinces had two outbreak peaks from October to December and from March to June annually. The outbreaks occurred mainly in southeastern coastal provinces with a trend of gradual spread to central, northeastern and western provinces. The outbreaks mainly occurred in schools and childcare setting (1 539 cases, 89.22%), followed by enterprises and institutions (67 cases, 3.88%) and community households (55 cases, 3.19%). Human to human transmission was the main infection route (73.16%), and norovirus GⅡ genotype was the predominate pathogen causing the outbreaks (899 cases, 81.58%). The time interval between the onset of the primary case and the outbreak reporting M (Q1, Q3) was 3 (2, 6) days and the case number of the outbreak M (Q1, Q3) was 38 (28, 62). The timeliness of outbreak reporting was improved in recent years and the scale of the outbreaks showed a decreasing trend over the years, the differences in reporting timeliness and outbreak scale among different settings were significant (P<0.001). The factors that affected outbreaks' scale included the outbreak setting, transmission route, outbreak reporting timeliness and type of living areas (P<0.05). Conclusions: From 2007 to 2021, the number of the norovirus-caused acute gastroenteritis outbreaks increased in China and the more areas were affected. However, the outbreak scale showed a decreasing trend and the outbreak reporting timeliness was improved. It is important to further improve the surveillance sensitivity and reporting timeliness for the effective control of the outbreak scale.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Norovirus , Disease Outbreaks , China , Child Care , Gastroenteritis
2.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 743-750, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985556

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the incidence trend and epidemiological characteristics of typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever in China from 2004 to 2020, understand the high-incidence population and hotspot areas, and provide evidences to develop more targeted prevention and control measures. Methods: The descriptive epidemiological method and spatial analysis method were applied to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever in China during this period by using the surveillance data collected from the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting System of Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Results: A total of 202 991 cases of typhoid fever were reported in China from 2004 to 2020. More cases occurred in men than in women (sex ratio: 1.18∶1). Most cases were reported in adults aged 20-59 years (53.60%). The incidence rate of typhoid fever decreased from 2.54/100 000 in 2004 to 0.38/100 000 in 2020. The highest incidence rate was reported in young children aged <3 years after 2011, ranging from 1.13/100 000 to 2.78/100 000, and during this period the proportion of cases in this age group increased from 3.48% to 15.59%. The proportion of the cases in the elderly aged ≥60 years increased from 6.46% in 2004 to 19.34% in 2020. The hotspot areas existed in Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi and Sichuan Provinces and expanded to Guangdong, Hunan, Jiangxi, and Fujian Provinces. A total of 86 226 paratyphoid fever cases were reported from 2004 to 2020, the male to female ratio of the cases was 1.21∶1. Most cases were reported in adults aged 20-59 years (59.80%). The incidence rate of paratyphoid fever decreased from 1.26/100 000 in 2004 to 0.12/100 000 in 2020. The highest incidence rate of paratyphoid fever was in young children aged <3 years after 2007, ranging from 0.57/100 000 to 1.19/100 000, and during this period the proportion of the cases in this age group increased from 1.48% to 30.92%. The proportion of the cases in the elderly aged ≥60 years increased from 4.52% in 2004 to 22.28% in 2020. The hotspot areas expanded to the east, including Guangdong, Hunan and Jiangxi Provinces, from Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, and Guangxi Provinces. Conclusions: The results showed a low level of incidence of typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever in China with a trend of decreasing per year. The hotspots were mainly in the of Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi and Sichuan Provinces, with an expanding trend to eastern China. It is necessary to strengthen the typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever prevention and control in southwestern China, among young children aged <3 years and the elderly aged ≥60 years.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Middle Aged , China/epidemiology , Paratyphoid Fever/epidemiology , Sex Ratio , Typhoid Fever/epidemiology
3.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 519-524, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984752

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the safety and efficacy of troxatabine in advanced or relapsed malignant tumors resistant to standard therapy in China. Methods: This is a phase Ⅰ prospective study. During dose escalation, patients in Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences received a single-dose intravenous infusion of troxacitabine. The planned dosing groups were 1.8, 3.6, 4.8, 6.4 and 8.0 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks. The data of all patients were collected for safety analyses. Safety and tolerability were evaluated by monitoring adverse events. Results: Nineteen patients were enrolled from April 2018 to May 2019. The major adverse events were fatigue (89.5%, 17/19), leukopenia (84.2%, 16/19) and neutropenia (78.9%, 15/19). The dose limiting toxicity was neutropenia. The maximum tolerated dose was 6.4 mg/m(2). The best effect was stable disease (43.8%). The half-life of elimination phase from 15.91 hours to 76.63 hours in each dose group. Conclusions: The toxicity of troxacitabine is well tolerant. We recommend that the dose for Phase Ⅱ clinical trial should be 6.4 mg/m(2).


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Maximum Tolerated Dose , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neutropenia/chemically induced , Prospective Studies
4.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 428-432, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986147

ABSTRACT

Objective: Glycogen storage disease type IX (GSD-IX) is a rare primary glucose metabolism abnormality caused by phosphorylase kinase deficiency and a series of pathogenic gene mutations. The clinical characteristics, gene analysis, and functional verification of a mutation in a child with hepatomegaly are summarized here to clarify the pathogenic cause of the disease. Methods: The clinical data of a child with GSD-IX was collected. Peripheral blood from the child and his parents was collected for genomic DNA extraction. The patient's gene diagnosis was performed by second-generation sequencing. The suspected mutations were verified by Sanger sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. The suspected splicing mutations were verified in vivo by RT-PCR and first-generation sequencing. Results: Hepatomegaly, transaminitis, and hypertriglyceridemia were present in children. Liver biopsy pathological examination results indicated glycogen storage disease. Gene sequencing revealed that the child had a c.285 + 2_285 + 5delTAGG hemizygous mutation in the PHKA2 gene. Sanger sequencing verification showed that the mother of the child was heterozygous and the father of the child was of the wild type. Software such as HSF3.1 and ESEfinder predicted that the gene mutation affected splicing. RT-PCR of peripheral blood from children and his mother confirmed that the mutation had caused the skipping of exon 3 during the constitutive splicing of the PHKA2 gene. Conclusion: The hemizygous mutation in the PHKA2 gene (c.285 + 2_285 + 5delTAGG) is the pathogenic cause of the patient's disease. The detection of the novel mutation site enriches the mutation spectrum of the PHKA2 gene and serves as a basis for the family's genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Male , Female , Exons , Glycogen Storage Disease/genetics , Hepatomegaly/genetics , Mutation , Phosphorylase Kinase/genetics
5.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 527-532, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985903

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe the gene mutation profile of newly diagnosed pediatric B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and analyze its effect on minimal residual disease (MRD). Methods: A total of 506 newly diagnosed B-ALL children treated in Institute of Hematology & Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from September 2018 to July 2021 were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. The enrolled children were divided into MRD ≥1.00% group and <1.00% group according to MRD results on the 19th day since chemotherapy, and MRD ≥0.01% group and <0.01% group according to MRD results on the 46th day. Clinical characteristics and gene mutations of two groups were compared. Comparisons between groups were performed with chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Independent risk factors of MRD results on the 19th day and the 46th day were analyzed by Logistic regression model. Results: Among all 506 patients, there were 318 males and 188 females. On the 19th day, there were 114 patients in the MRD ≥1.00% group and 392 patients in the MRD <1.00% group. On the 46th day, there were 76 patients in the MRD ≥0.01% group and 430 patients in the MRD <0.01% group. A total of 187 gene mutations were detected in 487 (96.2%) of 506 children. The most common gene mutations were signal transduction-related KRAS gene mutations in 111 cases (22.8%) and NRAS gene mutations in 99 cases (20.3%). Multivariate analysis showed that PTPN11 (OR=1.92, 95%CI 1.00-3.63), KMT2A (OR=3.51, 95%CI 1.07-11.50) gene mutations and TEL-AML1 (OR=0.48, 95%CI 0.27-0.87), BCR-ABL1 (OR=0.27, 95%CI 0.08-0.92) fusion genes and age >10 years (OR=1.91, 95%CI 1.12-3.24) were independent influencing factors for MRD ≥1.00% on the 19th day. BCORL1 (OR=2.96, 95%CI 1.18-7.44), JAK2 (OR=2.99, 95%CI 1.07-8.42) and JAK3 (OR=4.83, 95%CI 1.50-15.60) gene mutations and TEL-AML1 (OR=0.43, 95%CI 0.21-0.87) fusion gene were independent influencing factors for MRD ≥0.01% on the 46th day. Conclusions: Children with B-ALL are prone to genetic mutations, with abnormalities in the RAS signaling pathway being the most common. Signal transduction related PTPN11, JAK2 and JAK3 gene mutations, epigenetic related KMT2A gene mutation and transcription factor related BCORL1 gene mutation are independent risk factors for MRD.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Male , Humans , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Neoplasm, Residual/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Genomics , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
6.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 446-452, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985889

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize the clinical data and prognosis of children with Philadelphia chromosome-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph-like ALL) common genes. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study.Clinical data of 56 children with Ph-like ALL common gene cases (Ph-like ALL positive group) treated from January 2017 to January 2022 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan Children's Hospital, Henan Cancer's Hospital and Henan Provincial People's Hospital were collected, 69 children with other high-risk B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) at the same time and the same age were selected as the negative group. The clinical characteristics and prognosis of two groups were analyzed retrospectively. Comparisons between groups were performed using Mann-Whitney U test and χ2 test. Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival curve, Log-Rank test was used for univariate analysis, and the Cox regression model was used for multivariate prognosis analysis. Results: Among 56 Ph-like ALL positive patients, there were 30 males and 26 females, and 15 cases were over 10 years old. There were 69 patients in Ph-like ALL negative group. Compared with the negative group, the children in positive group were older (6.4 (4.2, 11.2) vs. 4.7 (2.8, 8.4) years), and hyperleukocytosis (≥50×109/L) was more common (25% (14/56) vs. 9% (6/69)), the differences were statistically significant (both P<0.05). In the Ph-like ALL positive group, 32 cases were positive for IK6 (1 case was co-expressed with IK6 and EBF1-PDGFRB), 24 cases were IK6-negative, of which 9 cases were CRLF2 positive (including 2 cases with P2RY8-CRLF2, 7 cases with CRLF2 high expression), 5 cases were PDGFRB rearrangement, 4 cases were ABL1 rearrangement, 4 cases were JAK2 rearrangement, 1 case was ABL2 rearrangement and 1 case was EPOR rearrangement. The follow-up time of Ph-like ALL positive group was 22 (12, 40) months, and 32 (20, 45) months for negative group. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate of positive group was significantly lower than the negative group ((72±7) % vs. (86±5) %, χ2=4.59, P<0.05). Compared with the 24 IK6-negative patients, the 3-year event free survival (EFS) rate of 32 IK6 positive patients was higher, the difference was statistically significant ((88±9) % vs. (65±14) %, χ2=5.37, P<0.05). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the bone marrow minimal residual disease (MRD) not turning negative at the end of first induction (HR=4.12, 95%CI 1.13-15.03) independent prognostic risk factor for patient with Ph-like ALL common genes. Conclusions: Children with Ph-like ALL common genes were older than other high-risk B-ALL patients at diagnosis, with high white blood cells and lower survival rate. The bone marrow MRD not turning negative at the end of first induction were independent prognostic risk factor for children with Ph-like ALL common gene.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Child , Prognosis , Philadelphia Chromosome , Retrospective Studies , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta/genetics , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Neoplasm, Residual
7.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 728-733, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985803

ABSTRACT

Proximal tibial aspect ratio (PTAR) is closely related to age, disease status and cutting parameters with considerable inter-individual variation independent of gender and race, nevertheless the aspect ratio of tibial components from different manufacturers remains relatively constant from smallest to largest size. As a result, component mismatching is an unavoidable dilemma during tibia preparation in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Various prosthesis systems all can achieve more than 80% coverage on proximal tibia, whereas their optimal fit rates are generally not more than 50%. It is difficult for symmetrical components to avoid anteroposterior mismatch, internal malrotation tends to occur when maximum coverage is pursued on the resected surface with a medial dominant plateau or lower PTAR. Although it is easier to achieve a balance of rotation and coverage with anatomical components, significant anteromedial overhang tends to appear on the resected surface with a symmetrical or lateral dominant plateau. Further researches should focus on the law of inter-individual variability of proximal tibial morphology, the quantitative definition of "ideal matching" safety zone of key morphological parameters on different areas of proximal tibia and the methodology of realizing"ideal matching"in the majority patients with the least amount of component sizes. In addition, with the rapid development of additive manufacturing and digital orthopedic technology, individual customized implant is expected to become a breakthrough point in the field of TKA component fitting.

8.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 370-375, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985682

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the distribution and characteristics of gene mutations in osteosarcoma, and to analyze the frequency and types of detectable mutations, and to identify potential targets for individualized treatment of osteosarcoma. Methods: The fresh tissue or paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 64 cases of osteosarcoma that were surgically resected or biopsied and then subject to next generation sequencing, were collected from Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, China from November 2018 to December 2021. The tumor DNA was extracted to detect the somatic and germline mutations using targeted sequencing technology. Results: Among the 64 patients, 41 were males and 23 were females. The patient age ranged from 6 to 65 years with a median age of 17 years, including 36 children (under 18 years old) and 28 adults. There were 52 cases of conventional osteosarcoma, 3 cases of telangiectatic osteosarcoma, 7 cases of secondary osteosarcoma, and 2 cases of parosteosarcoma. The detection rate of gene mutations was overall 84.4% (54/64). There were 324 variations in 180 mutated genes, including 125 genes with copy number variations, 109 single nucleotide variants, 83 insertions or deletions, and 7 gene fusions. The most common mutated genes were TP53, VEGFA, CCND3, ATRX, MYC, RB1, PTEN, GLI1, CDK4 and PTPRD. Among them, TP53 had the highest mutation rate (21/64, 32.8%), single nucleotide variant was the main mutation type (14/23, 60.9%), and 2 cases carried the TP53 germline mutation. VEGFA and CCND3 showed copy number amplification simultaneously in 7 cases. Conclusions: The high-frequency mutation of TP53 suggests that it plays an important role in the pathogenesis and development of osteosarcoma. VEGFA, CCND3 and ATRX are mutated genes in osteosarcoma and worthy of further studies. Combination of pathologic diagnosis and next generation sequencing with clinical practice can guide individualized treatment for patients with refractory, recurrent and metastatic osteosarcoma.


Subject(s)
Adult , Male , Child , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , DNA Copy Number Variations , Osteosarcoma/pathology , Mutation , DNA, Neoplasm , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Bone Neoplasms/pathology , Nucleotides
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3440-3447, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981479

ABSTRACT

With the rapid development of computer technology, numerical simulation has gradually become an important method to study drying process and improve drying equipment. Using computer to simulate the drying process of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) is characterized by intuitiveness, scientificity, and low cost, which serves as an auxiliary means for technical innovation in TCM drying. This paper summarizes the theories of different drying methods and the research status of numerical simulation in drying, introduces the modeling methods and software of numerical simulation, and expounds the significance of numerical simulation modeling in shortening the research and development cycle, improving drying equipment, and optimizing drying parameters. However, the current numerical simulation method for drying process has problems, such as low accuracy, lack of quantitative indicators for the control of simulation results on the process, and insufficient in-depth research on the mechanism of drug quality changes. Furthermore, this paper put forward the application prospect of numerical simulation in TCM drying, providing reference for the further study of numerical simulation in this field.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Desiccation
10.
Chinese Journal of Organ Transplantation ; (12): 283-290, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-994666

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the effect of acute kidney injury(AKI)on near-term survival after lung transplantation(LT)in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis(IPF).Methods:Through consulting electronic medical records, anesthetic modes and Chinese Lung Transplant Registration System, clinical data are retrospectively reviewed for 275 IPF patients undergoing LT at Affiliated Wuxi People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from January 2017 to April 2021.According to the diagnostic criteria of Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes(KDIGO), they are divided into two groups of AKI(169 cases)and non-AKI(106 cases).Perioperative findings of two groups are recorded.Then univariate and multivariate Cox regression models are employed for determining whether or not inter-group differences existed in survival rates post-LT.Also AKI is staged according to the KDIGO.And the effect of stage 1/2/3 AKI on near-term postoperative prognosis is examined.Results:The differences are significantly different in recipient gender, creatinine, 6-minute walking test, forced vital capacity(FVC), lung allocation score, oxygenation index, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide(NT-Pro BNP), preoperative hormone use and volume of crystal infusion( P<0.05).After multivariate Cox regression correcting for covariates, no statistical significance exists in effect of AKI stage 1 on near-term postoperative survival rate( P<0.05).AKI stage 2/3 still has statistical significance in risk of mortality at Day 30/90/180/365 post-operation( P>0.05). Conclusions:As a common complication post-LT, AKI significantly affects near-term postoperative prognosis of transplant IPF patients.Stage 2/3 AKI impacts near-term postoperative survival while stage 1 AKI is not associated with higher mortality.

11.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 102-108, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993984

ABSTRACT

Objective:To determine the impact of body mass index (BMI) on perioperative and oncological outcomes after robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) with intracorporeal urinary diversion.Methods:Clinical data of bladder cancer patients undergoing robot-assisted radical cystectomy with intracorporeal urinary diversion in Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital from January 2017 to January 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into three groups according to BMI, including 61 cases in normal group (<25.0 kg/m2), 52 cases in overweight group (25.0-29.9 kg/m2) and 33 cases in obese group (≥30.0 kg/m2). In the normal group, the median age was 73.6(59, 79), including 45 male(73.8%), with 51 cases(83.6%) of ASA score 0-2, 10 cases (16.4%)of 3 or higher, and 10 cases (16.4%) undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Past medical history included smoking in 34 cases (55.7%), hypertension in 19 cases (31.1%), diabetes in 10 cases (16.4%), heart disease in 12 cases (19.7%), and abdominal surgery in 6 cases (9.8%). In the overweight group, the median age was 69.7(60, 78), including 38 male (73.1%), with 25 cases (48.1%)of ASA score 0-2, 27 cases (51.9%) of 3 or higher, and 9 cases (17.3%) undergoing received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Past medical history included smoking in 30 cases (57.7%), hypertension in 20 cases (38.5%), diabetes in 10 cases (19.2%), heart disease in 9 cases (17.3%), and abdominal surgery in 5 cases (9.6%). In the obses group, the median age was 69.9(61, 78), including 21 male(63.7%), with 20 cases (60.6%)of ASA score 0-2, 13 cases(39.4%) of 3 or higher, 9 cases (27.3%) undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Past medical history included smoking in 18 cases (54.5%), hypertension in 17 cases (51.5%), diabetes in 19 cases (57.6%), heart disease in 7 cases (21.2%), and abdominal surgery in 4 cases (12.1%). After statistical comparison among the three groups, it was found that the proportion of patients with hypertension and diabetes in the obesity group and overweight group was higher than that in the normal group (all P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in other factors (all P>0.05). During the surgical process, robot-assisted radical cystectomy and bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection were performed firstly. The scope of lymph node dissection was divided into standard range and expanded range, and the diversion was divided into orthotopic neobladder and ileal bladder. During the orthotopic neobladder process, 40-50 cm ileum at the distance of 15 cm away from ileocecum was obtained by stapler, and then the U-shaped neobladder was made, and the new bladder was anastomosed with urethra and bilateral ureter. For ileal bladder, the ileum was cut off 15cm away from the ileocecum with stapler to obtain the 15 cm ileum to prepare the ileal conduit and restore the continuity of the ileum. The bilateral ureteral spacing 3cm was implanted on the ileal conduit. In the normal group, standard range lymphatic dissection was performed in 20 cases (32.8%), enlarged dissection in 41 cases (67.2%), orthotopic neobladder in 22 cases(36.1%), and ileal conduit in 39 cases (63.9%). In the overweight group, standard range lymphatic dissection was performed in 12 cases (23.1%), enlarged dissection in 40 cases (76.9%), orthotopic neobladder in 26 cases (49.1%), and ileal conduit in 26 cases (50.9%). In the obesity group, the standard range of lymphatic dissection was performed in 7 cases (21.2%), enlarged dissection in 26 cases (78.7%), orthotopic neobladder in 7 cases (21.2%), and ileal conduit in 26 cases (78.8%). There was no significant difference among the three groups (all P>0.05). Compared the operation time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative exhaust time, postoperative time of taking solid food, postoperative hospital stay, postoperative complications (according to the Clavien-Dindo grading system, postoperative complications are reported inⅠ-Ⅱ grade as mild complications and above Ⅲ grade as serious complications) and pathology results in three groups. Results:All cases successfully underwent robotically without conversion or major intraoperative complications. The operation time in overweight and obsess group were longer than that of normal group with RARC or orthotopic neobladder [310(250, 350) min, 370(310, 420) min, 250(230, 310) min, ( P<0.05)], but there was no significant difference in RARC and ileal conduit[270(220, 300) min, 280(230, 300) min, 240(220, 290)min, P>0.05]. The estimated blood loss in overweight and obsess group was more than that in normal group [230(150, 450)ml, 310(250, 600)ml, 190(100, 350)ml, P<0.05], but there was no difference in blood transfusion rate [4(7.7%), 2(6.1%), 5(8.2%), P>0.05]. The exhaust time [2(1, 3) days, 2(1, 4)days, 2(1, 4)days], postoperative solid food intake time [4(3, 5)days, 4(3, 6)days, 4(3, 6)days] and the hospital stay[10(5, 16)days, 10(6, 17)days, 12(6, 20)days] were not different in three groups(all P>0.05). The mild complication rates in 90 days were significant higher in overweight and obsess groups[28 (53.8%), 16(48.5%), 20(32.8%), P<0.05], but the total and severe complication rates were not significantly different. The incidences of urinary system complications and incision complications in obese and overweight patients were significantly higher than those in normal group ( P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of gastrointestinal complications and ureteral anastomosis-related complications (stricture or urinary leakage)( P>0.05). There was no significant difference in the number of dissected lymph node, positive lymph node, positive rate of incisional margin and postoperative pathological stage among three different BMI groups(all P>0.05). Conclusion:Robot-assisted radical cystectomy combined with intracorporeal urinary diversion is a safe and effective method for the treatment of overweight, obese and even morbidly obese patients with bladder cancer. The recovery of intestinal function and the oncological results are not affected by body mass index. However, laparoscopic radical cystectomy for overweight and obese patients, especially for orthotopic neobladder, has the risk of long operation time, large amount of intraoperative bleeding and increased risk of minor postoperative complications.

12.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 831-840, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993510

ABSTRACT

Objective:Observing the effect of exosomes derived from hypoxic Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on the function of chondrocytes, and exploring the role and mechanism of exosomal miR-196b-5p. Evaluating the application prospects of hypoxic BMSCs exosomes and miR-196b-5p for cartilage regeneration.Methods:Chondrocytes were cultured in the supernatant of BMSCs cultured under normoxia or hypoxia, respectively. The proliferation of chondrocytes was detected by CCK-8 assay and the expressions of Collagen type 2 (Col2), Col1, Aggrecan and SOX9 were detected by qPCR to evaluate the effect of hypoxic BMSCs paracrine on chondrocyte functions. Obtaining normoxic and hypoxic exosomes through ultracentrifugation, and testing their effects on the proliferation and anabolic-related genes of chondrocytes through CCK-8 assay and qPCR. Verifying the expression of miR-196b-5p in hypoxic exosomes based on exosomal miRNA array. Knocking out miR-196b-5p in hypoxic BMSCs, and detecting the effect of hypoxic exosomal miR-196b-5p on the functions of chondrocytes by loss-of-function assay. Predicting the downstream of miR-196b-5p through bioinformatics tools, and exploring the mechanism of hypoxic exosomal miR-196b-5p by gain-of-function assays. Hypoxic exosomes and miR-196b-5p-knockout hypoxic exosomes were loaded on silk fibroin hydrogel and subcutaneously into nude mice. After 4 weeks of culture, histological staining of saffron O, Masson and biochemical content of sGAG and collagen were performed to assess the application prospect of hypoxic exosomes and hypoxic exosomal miR-196b-5p on cartilage regeneration. Results:The results of CCK-8 assay and qPCR indicated that the supernatant of hypoxic BMSCs significantly promoted the proliferation of chondrocytes 1.20±0.07 and the expression of cartilage-related markers (Col2 2.95±0.17, Aggrecan 2.45±0.27, SOX9 2.92±0.29) compared to normoxic BMSCs (0.94±0.04, 1.89±0.09, 1.67±0.21, 1.76±0.16), the differences were statistically significant ( P<0.05). The result of CCK-8 assay showed that hypoxic exosomes (1.28±0.04) promoted the proliferation of chondrocytes compared to normoxic exosomes 1.05±0.06, the differences were statistically significant ( P<0.05). CCK-8 assay revealed that the down-regulation of miR-196b-5p in hypoxic exosomes 0.99±0.06 attenuated the proliferation of chondrocytes compared to control group 1.20±0.07, the differences were statistically significant ( P<0.05); the expression of Col2 0.56±0.04, Aggrecan 0.74±0.09, and SOX9 0.45±0.05 in chondrocytes was reduced in the miR-196b-5p knockdown group compared to the control group (1.00±0.09, 1.00±0.12, 1.00±0.07), the differences were statistically significant ( P<0.05). Co-transfection of pmirGLO-BACH1-WT reporter vector with miR-196b-5p mimics decreased the luciferase activity 0.73±0.06, the differences were statistically significant ( P<0.05). Co-transfection of pmirGLO-BACH1-MUT reporter vector with miR-196b-5p mimics showed no change in luciferase activity. BACH1 is the target of miR-196b-5p. Subcutaneous culture in nude mice showed that hypoxic exosomes significantly promoted the deposition of sGAG 383.2±21.54 and collagen 67.40±3.45, while reducing the expression of miR-196b-5p in hypoxic exosomes weakened the deposition of sGAG 258.4±19.50 and collagen 57.15±4.95, the differences were statistically significant ( P<0.05). Conclusion:Hypoxic exosomes promoted the functions of chondrocytes by inhibiting the expression of BACH1 through miR-196b-5p. Hypoxic exosomes can be applied in cartilage regeneration.

13.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 730-736, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993497

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the effect of patellar tilt angle on postoperative outcomes after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) without patella resurfacing.Methods:A total of 143 patients with end-stage knee osteoarthritis who underwent TKA without patellar replacement in the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from October 2020 to October 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 32 males and 111 females, aged 68.44±6.79 years (range, 52-86 years). Patients were divided into three groups according to the postoperative patellar tilt angle: tilt angle<5° was the mild tilt group (97 cases), 5°≤tilt angle<10° was the moderate tilt group (31 cases), and tilt angle≥10° was the severe tilt group (15 cases). All patients were followed up in the outpatient clinic at 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery, and knee visual analogue score (VAS), Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score and patella Feller score were observed and recorded to compare the postoperative knee pain and function of patients in different patella tilt groups.Results:All patients were followed up for 1.16±0.23 years (range, 1.0-2.0 years). There was no significant difference in baseline data between the groups. There were significant differences in the intra-group comparison of the VAS score before and after surgery among the three groups ( F=51.12, P<0.001; F=36.90, P<0.001; F=15.76, P<0.001). The VAS scores at 3, 6 and 12 months after operation were significantly lower than those before operation ( P<0.05). The knee VAS of the severe group was higher than that of the mild and moderate groups at 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery, and the difference was statistically significant ( P<0.05). There were statistically significant differences in knee HSS scores before and after surgery among the three groups ( F=81.12, P<0.001; F=36.05, P<0.001; F=32.93, P<0.001). The knee HSS scores at 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery were higher than those before surgery, and the difference was statistically significant ( P<0.05). The knee HSS scores of the severe tilt group at 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery were lower than those of the mild and moderate groups, and the difference was statistically significant ( P<0.05). There were statistically significant differences in the intra-group comparison of the patella Feller score before and after surgery among the three groups ( F=88.81, P<0.001; F=49.59, P<0.001; F=37.40, P<0.001). The patellar Feller score at 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery was higher than that before surgery, and the difference was statistically significant ( P<0.05). The patellar Feller score of the severe group at 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery was lower than that of the mild and moderate groups, and the difference was statistically significant ( P<0.05). Conclusion:Patellar tilt angle after TKA without patellar resurfacing will increase knee pain and limit joint function.

14.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma ; (12): 213-218, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992699

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the application of artificial intelligence based on the neural network radiation field in repair of soft tissue defects at lower limbs.Methods:A retrospective analysis was performed of the 23 patients who had been admitted to Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from June 2020 to May 2022 for soft tissue defects at lower limbs. There were 14 males and 9 females, aged (38.6±6.7) years. Causes for soft tissue defects: traffic injury in 9 cases, benign or malignant primary soft tissue tumor in 6 cases, mechanical injury in 4 cases, crush injury in 2 cases, and chronic ulcer in 2 cases. Defect locations: the thigh in 3 cases, the lower leg in 7 cases, and the ankle and distal foot in 13 cases. The areas of soft tissue defect ranged from 6.0 cm×3.8 cm to 14.7 cm×12.8 cm. The defects were repaired and reconstructed by transplantation of an anterolateral femoral free flap in 7 cases and a pedicled flap in 16 cases with the assistance of artificial intelligence based on the neural network radiation field, a cutting-edge artificial intelligence algorithm that can quickly construct and process three-dimensional model images through volume rendering under the radiation field. The flap survival rate, aesthetic satisfaction before and after treatment, time for skin flap harvesting and transplantation, functional recovery of lower limbs and incidence of complications were recorded.Results:All the 23 patients were followed up for 32(28, 36) weeks. All the flaps were harvested smoothly and survived. The time for flap harvesting and transplantation was 65.8(50.0, 76.0) min. The aesthetic satisfaction scored (2.3±0.7) points before treatment and (8.4±1.6) points 4 weeks after treatment, showing a statistically significant difference ( P<0.05). The skin flaps healed well with no complications such as hematoma or infection in all but one patient who suffered from superficial necrosis at the distal skin flap due to venous crisis but healed with a scar. On average, the functional recovery of lower limbs scored 23.7(22.0, 25.0) points at 12 weeks after operation according to the Enneking evaluation system, and the functional recovery of lower limbs was 79% (23.7/30.0). Conclusion:Application of artificial intelligence based on the neural network radiation field can achieve ideal results in repair of soft tissue defects at lower limbs, due to its advantages of rapid and accurate surgical procedures, limited damage to the donor site, and a short learning curve.

15.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma ; (12): 77-82, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992684

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of arthroscopic minimally invasive reduction in the treatment of talus posterior process fractures.Methods:The clinical data were retrospectively studied of the 42 patients with talus posterior process fracture who had been admitted to Department of Orthopedics, The Fourth Hospital of Wuhan from January 2010 to June 2021. There were 25 males and 17 females, aged from 21 to 60 years (average, 40.5 years). They were assigned into 2 groups according to their different treatments. In the arthroscopic group of 15 cases, arthroscopic reduction and internal fixation (ARIF) were conducted via the posteromedial and posterolateral approaches; in the open reduction group of 27 cases, open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) were conducted via the posteromedial para-Achilles approach. The 2 groups were compared in terms of operation time, blood loss, hospital stay, fracture clinical healing time, postoperative complications, and the American Society for Foot and Ankle Surgery (AOFAS) ankle-hindfoot score at one year postoperation.Results:There was no significant difference in the preoperative general data between the 2 groups, showing comparability ( P> 0.05). The arthroscopic group incurred significantly less blood loss [(32.0±11.5) mL], hospital stay [(5.3±1.8) d], and fracture clinical healing time [(4.6±1.0) months], and a significantly lower incidence of postoperative complications [20.0% (3/15)] than the open reduction group did [(80.0±15.2) mL, (8.4±2.4) d, (6.3±2.2) months, and 29.6% (8/27)], but significantly longer operation time [(74.0±8.9) min] than the open reduction group [(62.9±5.1) min] ( P<0.05). The AOFAS ankle-hindfoot scores at one year postoperation in both groups were higher than those before operation. The AOFAS ankle-hindfoot scores in the arthroscopic group [(83.0±13.0) points] were significantly higher than those in the open reduction group [(72.3±16.0) points] ( P<0.05). Conclusion:ARIF is a preferred minimally invasive treatment for talus posterior process fractures, because it leads to a smaller incision, less blood loss, shorter hospital stay, quicker clinical healing, a lower incidence of postoperative complications, and better functional improvement of the ankle and hindfoot than ORIF.

16.
Chinese Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology ; (6): 485-486, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992171

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To reveal the role of the basal forebrain(BF)GABAergic neurons in the regulation of isoflurane anesthesia and to elucidate the underlying neural pathways.METHODS The activity of BF GABAer-gic neurons was monitored during isoflurane anesthesia using a genetically encoded calcium indicator in Vgat-Cre mice of both sexes.The activity of BF GABAer-gic neurons was manipulated by chemogenetic and opto-genetic approaches.Sensitivity,induction time and emer-gence time of isoflurane anesthesia were estimated by righting reflex.The electroencephalogram(EEG)power and burst-suppression were monitored by EEG recording.The effects of activation of GABAergic BF-thalamic reticu-lar nucleus(TRN)pathway on isoflurane anesthesia were investigated with optogenetics.RESULTS The activity of BF GABAergic neurons was generally inhibited during isoflurane anesthesia,obviously decreased during the induction of anesthesia and gradually restored during the emergence from anesthesia.Activation of BF GABAergic neurons with chemogenetics and optogenetics promoted behavioral emergence from isoflurane anesthesia,with decreased sensitivity to isoflurane,delayed induction and accelerated emergence from isoflurane anesthesia.Optogenetic activation of BF GABAergic neurons prom-oted cortical activity during isoflurane anesthesia,with decreased EEG delta power and burst suppression ratio during 0.8%and 1.4%isoflurane anesthesia,respectively.Similar to the effects of activating BF GABAergic cell bod-ies,photostimulation of BF GABAergic terminals in the TRN also strongly promoted cortical activation and behav-ioral emergence from isoflurane anesthesia.CONCLU-SION The GABAergic neurons in the BF is a key neural substrate for general anesthesia regulation that facilitates behavioral and cortical emergence from general anesthe-sia via the BF-TRN pathway.

17.
Chinese Journal of Practical Nursing ; (36): 2075-2081, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990452

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of disposable disinfection cap in preventing catheter-related blood stream infections (CRBSIs).Methods:Literature on the prevention of CRBSIs by disposable disinfection caps were retrieved from CNKI, Wanfang Database, VIP database, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase and Web of Science databases. The retrieval period was from the database construction to June 30, 2022. After literature screening, data extraction and quality evaluation were independently carried out by 2 researchers, RevMan5.4 software was used for analysis.Results:A total of 12 articles were included, including 9 832 patients. Meta-analysis results showed that compared with conventional manual disinfection, disposable disinfection cap could reduce the incidence of CRBSIs, and the difference was statistically significant ( RR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.43-0.79, P<0.01). Disposable disinfection cap could reduce the incidence of CRBSIs in adults, but there was no significant difference in the incidence of CRBSIs in children ( P>0.05). It could reduce the incidence of CRBSIs in patients with indwelling vascular catheters in ICU ( RR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.38-0.89, P<0.05), but there was no statistical difference in the incidence of CRBSIs in patients without indwelling vascular catheters in ICU ( P>0.05). In addition, the compliance of the use of disinfection caps by nursing staff was improved by 80% - 90% and the treatment cost was saved by about 282 - 464 dollars. Conclusions:Disposable disinfection caps can reduce the occurrence of CRBSIs, improve the disinfection compliance of nursing staff, and save the hospitalization cost of patients. It is suggested to be popularized in clinical practice.

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Chinese Journal of Practical Nursing ; (36): 215-221, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990163

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the current situation of expected sadness of family caregivers of first stroke patients and analyze its influencing factors, so as to provide reference for the formulation of psychological decompression intervention program for family caregivers of stroke patients.Methods:Convenience sampling method was used to conduct cross-sectional survey of 212 family caregivers of first stroke patients who were hospitalized in the First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University from March 2020 to May 2021, using general information questionnaires and Anticipatory Grief Scale and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale to investigate and anlalyzed its influencing factors.Results:The scare of anticipatory grief of the caregivers of first stroke patients was 87.93 ± 17.36. The results of multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that the age of family caregivers, psychological elasticity, the degree of relationship with patients, patients′ cognitive ability and self-care ability were the influencing factors of anticipatory grief of family caregivers of first stroke patients ( t values were -6.73 -11.77, P <0.05). Conclusions:The caregivers of first stroke patients have serious anticipatory grief. Staff should pay attention to the psychological conditions of the family caregivers and take effective measures to promote their physical and mental health.

19.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 88-98, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-988184

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo explore the predictive factors for the efficacy of Yiqi Yangxue prescription combined with western medicine in treating aplastic anemia (AA) in non-elderly adults, so as to provide a reference for predicting the prognosis of this therapy. MethodA retrospective study was conducted with the clinical data of non-elderly adult AA patients who visited 19 hospitals including Xiyuan Hospital of the China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences from September 2018 to March 2021 and were treated with Yiqi Yangxue Prescription combined with western medicine. According to the efficacy evaluation results at the 6th month of treatment, the patients were assigned into effective and ineffective groups. The two groups were compared in terms of the gender, age, disease classification [non-severe aplastic anemia (NSAA)/severe aplastic anemia (SAA)], course of disease, family history, complications, history of drug allergy, baseline blood routine examination [hemoglobin (HGB), white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil (ANC), platelet (PLT), and reticulocyte (Ret)], T lymphocyte subsets, degree of proliferation of nucleated cells in bone marrow, and expression of T-bet and GATA-3. ResultA total of 101 non-elderly adult AA patients were enrolled in this study, including 81 in the effective group and 20 in the ineffective group. The effective group had a higher proportion of the patients without a history of drug allergy than the ineffective group (P<0.05). The body height, body weight, gender, age, disease classification, course of disease, family history, and complications showed no significant differences between two groups. The effective group had higher levels of ANC and PLT before treatment (P<0.05) and higher proportion of patients with ANC≥1.6×109/L and PLT≥25×109/L (P<0.05, P<0.01) than the ineffective group. The baseline levels of WBC, HGB, and Ret showed no significant statistical differences between two groups. The levels of CD3+HLA-DR+T cells in the effective group before treatment was higher than that in the ineffective group (P<0.05). The levels of CD3+CD19-T cells, CD4+T cells, CD8+T cells, Th1 cells, Th2 cells, and CD3+CD25+T cells showed no significant statistical differences between two groups before treatment. The proportion of patients with active bone marrow nucleated cells proliferation in the effective group before treatment were significantly higher than that in the ineffective group, while the proportion of patients with reduced or extremely reduced proliferation were significantly lower than that in the ineffective group (P<0.05). The expression levels of T-bet and GATA-3 genes had no significant differences between two groups before treatment. The multivariate binary logistic regression analysis showed that the ANC level before treatment and history of drug allergy were independent influencing factors for efficacy (P<0.05, P<0.01), while other indicators were not influencing factors for efficacy. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was applied to analyze the predictive value of the ANC level before treatment in the treatment of AA in non-elderly adults with Yiqi Yangxue prescription combined with western medicine. The area under the curve was 0.679 (P<0.05), with the critical value of 1.595×109/L, the sensitivity of 0.42, and the specificity of 0.95. ConclusionThe history of drug allergy, pre-treatment ANC, PLT, CD3+HLA-DR+ T cell levels, and proliferation of nucleated cells in bone marrow before treatment are predictive factors for the efficacy of Yiqi Yangxue prescription combined with western medicine in treating AA in non-elderly adults. This therapy tends to be more effective for the patients with no history of drug allergy, higher ANC and PLT levels before treatment, especially those with ANC≥1.6×109/L, PLT≥25×109/L, and higher CD3+ HLA-DR+T cell levels and the more active proliferation of nucleated cells in bone marrow before treatment.

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Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 579-588, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986930

ABSTRACT

Objective: This cross-sectional investigation aimed to determine the incidence, clinical characteristics, prognosis, and related risk factors of olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions related to infection with the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron strain in mainland China. Methods: Data of patients with SARS-CoV-2 from December 28, 2022, to February 21, 2023, were collected through online and offline questionnaires from 45 tertiary hospitals and one center for disease control and prevention in mainland China. The questionnaire included demographic information, previous health history, smoking and alcohol drinking, SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, olfactory and gustatory function before and after infection, other symptoms after infection, as well as the duration and improvement of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction. The self-reported olfactory and gustatory functions of patients were evaluated using the Olfactory VAS scale and Gustatory VAS scale. Results: A total of 35 566 valid questionnaires were obtained, revealing a high incidence of olfactory and taste dysfunctions related to infection with the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron strain (67.75%). Females(χ2=367.013, P<0.001) and young people(χ2=120.210, P<0.001) were more likely to develop these dysfunctions. Gender(OR=1.564, 95%CI: 1.487-1.645), SARS-CoV-2 vaccination status (OR=1.334, 95%CI: 1.164-1.530), oral health status (OR=0.881, 95%CI: 0.839-0.926), smoking history (OR=1.152, 95%CI=1.080-1.229), and drinking history (OR=0.854, 95%CI: 0.785-0.928) were correlated with the occurrence of olfactory and taste dysfunctions related to SARS-CoV-2(above P<0.001). 44.62% (4 391/9 840) of the patients who had not recovered their sense of smell and taste also suffered from nasal congestion, runny nose, and 32.62% (3 210/9 840) suffered from dry mouth and sore throat. The improvement of olfactory and taste functions was correlated with the persistence of accompanying symptoms(χ2=10.873, P=0.001). The average score of olfactory and taste VAS scale was 8.41 and 8.51 respectively before SARS-CoV-2 infection, but decreased to3.69 and 4.29 respectively after SARS-CoV-2 infection, and recovered to 5.83and 6.55 respectively at the time of the survey. The median duration of olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions was 15 days and 12 days, respectively, with 0.5% (121/24 096) of patients experiencing these dysfunctions for more than 28 days. The overall self-reported improvement rate of smell and taste dysfunctions was 59.16% (14 256/24 096). Gender(OR=0.893, 95%CI: 0.839-0.951), SARS-CoV-2 vaccination status (OR=1.334, 95%CI: 1.164-1.530), history of head and facial trauma(OR=1.180, 95%CI: 1.036-1.344, P=0.013), nose (OR=1.104, 95%CI: 1.042-1.171, P=0.001) and oral (OR=1.162, 95%CI: 1.096-1.233) health status, smoking history(OR=0.765, 95%CI: 0.709-0.825), and the persistence of accompanying symptoms (OR=0.359, 95%CI: 0.332-0.388) were correlated with the recovery of olfactory and taste dysfunctions related to SARS-CoV-2 (above P<0.001 except for the indicated values). Conclusion: The incidence of olfactory and taste dysfunctions related to infection with the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron strain is high in mainland China, with females and young people more likely to develop these dysfunctions. Active and effective intervention measures may be required for cases that persist for a long time. The recovery of olfactory and taste functions is influenced by several factors, including gender, SARS-CoV-2 vaccination status, history of head and facial trauma, nasal and oral health status, smoking history, and persistence of accompanying symptoms.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Adolescent , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19 Vaccines , Incidence , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Prognosis
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