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1.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 46-56, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006267

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the mechanism of Baihuan Xiaoyao Decoction (Xiaoyaosan added with Lilii Bulbus and Albiziae Cortex) in alleviating depression-like behaviors of juvenile rats by regulating the polarization of microglia. MethodSixty juvenile SD rats were randomized into normal control, model, fluoxetine, and low-, medium-, and high-dose (5.36, 10.71, 21.42 g·kg-1, respectively) Baihuan Xiaoyao decoction groups. The rat model of juvenile depression was established by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). The sucrose preference test (SPT) was carried out to examine the sucrose preference of rats. Forced swimming test (FST) was carried out to measure the immobility time of rats. The open field test (OFT) was conducted to measure the total distance, the central distance, the number of horizontal crossings, and the frequency of rearing. Morris water maze (MWM) was used to measure the escape latency and the number of crossing the platform. The immunofluorescence assay was employed to detect the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, the polarization marker of M1 microglia) and CD206 (the polarization marker of M2 microglia). Real-time polymerase chain reaction was employed to determine the mRNA levels of iNOS, CD206, pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6] and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) in the hippocampus. Western blotting was employed to determine the protein levels of iNOS and CD206 in the hippocampus. The levels of IL-4 and IL-6 in the hippocampus were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. ResultCompared with the normal control group, the model rats showed a reduction in sucrose preference (P<0.05), an increase in immobility time (P<0.05), decreased motor and exploratory behaviors (P<0.05), and weakened learning and spatial memory (P<0.05). In addition, the model rats showed up-regulated mRNA and protein levels of iNOS and mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, Baihuan Xiaoyao decoction increased the sucrose preference value (P<0.05), shortened the immobility time (P<0.01), increased the motor and exploratory behaviors (P<0.05), and improved the learning and spatial memory (P<0.01). Furthermore, the decoction down-regulated the positive expression and protein level of iNOS, lowered the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 (P<0.01), promoted the positive expression of CD206, and elevated the levels of IL-4 and IL-10 (P<0.01) in the hippocampus of the high dose group. Moreover, the high-dose Baihuan Xiaoyao decoction group had higher sucrose preference value (P<0.01), shorter immobility time (P<0.01), longer central distance (P<0.01), stronger learning and spatial memory (P<0.01), higher positive expression and protein level of iNOS (P<0.01), lower levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 (P<0.05, P<0.01), lower positive expression and mRNA level of iNOS (P<0.05), and higher levels of IL-4 and IL-10 (P<0.05, P<0.01) than the fluoxetine group. ConclusionBaihuan Xiaoyao decoction can improve the depression-like behavior of juvenile rats by inhibiting the M1 polarization and promoting the M2 polarization of microglia in the hippocampus.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 198-201, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005430

ABSTRACT

To establish and optimize a method for the detection of recombinant human midkine (rhMK) activity and verify its methodology, cell counting kit-8 (cck-8) method was used to measure the proliferation activity of rat knee chondrocytes. The specificity, accuracy, precision, linearity and robustness of the method were also verified in this study. The established method was proven to have good specificity because the buffer of rhMK and recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist have no obvious active effect; the recoveries of the samples with relative activities of 50%, 75%, 100%, 125%, 150% were in the range of 80.0% to 124.0% by statistical analysis, the relative standard deviations (RSD) of relative potency were all within 20%, the linear correlation coefficient, R2 ≥ 0.98, suggesting that the accuracy, precision and linearity of the method were good; the robustness correlation coefficient, R2 ≥ 0.92 and the ratio of maximum to minimum of sigmoidal dose-response were no less than 1.5, indicating that robustness of the methods was good. In conclusion, a bioactivity measurement method for rhMK was established and fully validated in this study and it provides a reliable method for the bioactivity analysis of rhMK routine samples during the development. This study was approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of Shanghai Model Organisms Center, Inc. (approval number: 2019-0008-06).

3.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 391-396, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-962479

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness, safety, economy, innovation, suitability and accessibility of recombinant Mycobacterium tuberculosis fusion protein (EC), and to provide evidence for selecting skin detection methods for tuberculosis infection diagnosis and auxiliary diagnosis of tuberculosis. METHODS The effectiveness and safety of EC compared with purified protein derivative of tuberculin (TB-PPD) were analyzed by the method of systematic review. Cost minimization analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis and cost-utility analysis were used to evaluate the short-term economy of EC compared with TB-PPD, and cost-utility analysis was used to evaluate the long-term economy. The evaluation dimensions of innovation, suitability and accessibility were determined by systematic review and improved Delphi expert consultation, and the comprehensive score of EC and TB-PPD in each dimension were calculated by the weight of each indicator. RESULTS The scores of effectiveness, safety, economy, innovation and suitability of EC were all higher than those of TB-PPD. The affordability scores of the two drugs were consistent, while the availability score of EC was lower than those of TB-PPD. After considering dimensions and index weight, the scores of effectiveness, safety, economy, innovation, suitability, accessibility and the comprehensive score of EC were all higher than those of TB-PPD. CONCLUSIONS Compared with TB-PPD, EC performs better in all dimensions of effectiveness, safety, economy, innovation, suitability and accessibility. However, it is worth noting that EC should further improve its availability in the dimension of accessibility.

4.
Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 993-999, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-994416

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the correlation of cognitive dysfunction with intracranial lesions and symptoms of depression and anxiety in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD).Methods:Thirty-one NMOSD patients (7/24 males/females) were enrolled in the Department of Neurology of the Sixth Medical Center of the PLA General Hospital from August 2019 to August 2022. The average age was 42±13 years, and the average education level was 12 (9, 12) years. There were 30 healthy controls, 11/19 males/females, with an average age of 47±9 years and an average education of 12 (9, 15) years. The general clinical data and imaging data were collected, and the subjects were assessed on their cognition, anxiety and depression using the assessment scale approved at home and abroad. A cross-sectional study was conducted on them. The t-test or Wilcoxon test was used for inter-group comparison, and Pearson test or Spearman test was used to explore the correlation between the cognition of NMOSD patients and their intracranial lesions, depression and anxiety. Results:Compared with the healthy control group, NMOSD patients had significantly lower scores on MoCA ( Z=-3.10, P=0.002), CRAVLT-N7 ( Z=-5.12, P<0.001), CRAVLT-N8 ( t=-4.40, P<0.001), ROCF-R ( t=-3.10, P<0.01), ROCF-C ( Z=-2.72, P<0.01), PASAT-3 ( Z=-2.71, P<0.01), PASAT-2 ( Z=-3.14, P<0.01), and CWT-A ( Z=-3.10, P<0.01)scales. Frontal lobe lesions were negatively correlated with PASAT-2 ( r=-0.448, P=0.012) scores, temporal lobe lesions were negatively correlated with CRAVLT-N9 ( r=-0.564, P=0.001), and parietal lobe lesions were negatively correlated with MoCA ( r=-0.374, P=0.038), PASAT-3 ( r=-0.426, P=0.017), and PASAT-2 ( r=-0.459, P=0.009) scores; The scores of MoCA ( r=-0.392, P=0.029), CRAVLT-N6 ( r=-0.396, P=0.028), CRAVLT-N7 ( r=-0.415, P=0.020), CRAVLT-N8 ( r=-0.406, P=0.023), PASAT-3 ( r=-0.537, P=0.002) and PASAT-2 ( r=-0.495, P=0.005) scales were negatively correlated with the scores of HAMD assessment, and the scores of PASAT-3 ( r=-0.499, P=0.004) and PASAT-2 ( r=-0.452, P=0.011) were negatively correlated with the scores of HAMA. Conclusions:The cognitive function of patients with NMOSD is significantly reduced, involving multiple cognitive domains. The cognitive function is affected by the distribution of intracranial lesions and the degree of depression and anxiety.

5.
Journal of Chinese Physician ; (12): 378-381, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992312

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the relationship between change of serum D-dimer (D-D), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1), P-selectin and thrombosis after limb fracture surgery.Methods:289 patients with limb fractures who were treated in the emergency department of Shulan (Hangzhou) Hospital from January 2021 to January 2022 were selected as the study subjects. They were divided into deep vein thrombosis (DVT) group ( n=62) and non-DVT group ( n=227) according to whether DVT occurred after operation. The levels of prothrombin time (PT), activated partial prothrombin time (APTT), D-D, sVCAM-1 and P-selectin were measured before and after operation in all patients. The levels of PT, APTT, D-D, sVCAM-1 and P-selectin were compared between DVT group and non-DVT group. Logistic sequential stepwise regression analysis was used to analyze the risk factors of postoperative thrombosis in patients with limb fractures. Results:There was no statistically significant difference in PT and APTT between 289 patients with limb fractures after operation and before operation (all P>0.05), while the levels of serum D-D, sVCAM-1 and P-selectin after operation were higher than that before operation (all P<0.05). There was no significant difference in general data between DVT group and non-DVT group (all P>0.05); There was no statistically significant difference in PT and APTT before and after operation between DVT group and non-DVT group (all P>0.05). The levels of serum D-D, sVCAM-1 and P-selectin before and after operation in DVT group were higher than those in non-DVT group (all P<0.05). Logistic sequential stepwise regression analysis showed that high levels of D-D, sVCAM-1 and P-selectin were risk factors for thrombosis after limb fracture surgery (all P<0.05). Conclusions:High levels of D-D, sVCAM-1 and P-selectin are risk factors for thrombosis after limb fracture surgery.

6.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 1457-1463, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013741

ABSTRACT

Aim To study the therapeutic effect of helicid on osteoarthritis (OA) of joint instability model, and explore the mechanism of helicid in the treatment of OA. Methods A rat knee model of OA was established by the medial meniscectomy (MMx) method. After treatment with helicid, HE and safranin O/fast green staining methods were used to observe the his-topathological changes of rat knee articular cartilage; Western blot was used to detect the protein expression level of Trpvl in rat synovial tissue. Immunohistochemical staining was used to examine the expression of Trpvl in rat knee articular cartilage and synovial tissues. Results Helicid significantly slowed down the degeneration of rat knee articular cartilage as shown by HE and safranin O/fast green staining. Western blot results showed that helicid down-regulated the expression of Trpvl in rat synovial tissue examined. Immunohistochemical results showed that helicid significantly reduced the expression of Trpvl in both of knee articular cartilage and synovial tissues. Conclusions Helicid prominently decreases MMx-induced articular cartilage damage and cartilage matrix loss, thereby exerting a therapeutic effect on OA.

7.
Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 705-710, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985978

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the misdiagnosis of area postrema syndrome (APS) manifesting as intractable nausea, vomiting and hiccups in neuromyelitis optic spectrum disease (NMOSD) and reduce the risk of misdiagnosis. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from NMOSD patients attending the Department of Neurology at the First Medical Center of PLA General Hospital between January 2019 and July 2021. SPSS25.0 was then used to analyze the manifestations, misdiagnosis, and mistreatment of APS. Results: A total of 207 patients with NMOSD were included, including 21 males and 186 females. The mean age of onset was 39±15 years (range: 5-72 years). The proportion of patients who were positive for serum aquaporin 4 antibody was 82.6% (171/207). In total, 35.7% (74/207) of the NMOSD patients experienced APS during the disease course; of these patients, 70.3% (52/74) had APS as the first symptom and 29.7% (22/74) had APS as a secondary symptom. The misdiagnosis rates for these conditions were 90.4% (47/52) and 50.0% (11/22), respectively. As the first symptom, 19.2% (10/52) of patients during APS presented only with intractable nausea, vomiting and hiccups; 80.8% (42/52) of patients experienced other neurological symptoms. The Departments of Gastroenterology and General Medicine were the departments that most frequently made the first diagnosis of APS, accounting for 54.1% and 17.6% of patients, respectively. The most common misdiagnoses related to diseases of the digestive system and the median duration of misdiagnosis was 37 days. Conclusions: APS is a common symptom of NMOSD and is associated with a high rate of misdiagnosis. Other concomitant symptoms often occur with APS. Gaining an increased awareness of this disease/syndrome, obtaining a detailed patient history, and performing physical examinations are essential if we are to reduce and avoid misdiagnosis.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Neuromyelitis Optica/diagnosis , Area Postrema , Retrospective Studies , Hiccup/complications , Vomiting/etiology , Nausea/etiology , Inflammation , Syndrome , Autoantibodies , Diagnostic Errors , Aquaporin 4
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4147-4155, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008611

ABSTRACT

Based on the androgen receptor(AR)/mammalian target of rapamycin(mTOR)signaling pathway, the effects of Xihuang Pills-medicated serum on the proliferation and apoptosis of prostate cancer LNCaP cells were investigated. The drug-containing serum of SD rats was prepared by intragastric administration of Xihuang Pills suspension. The effects of low-, medium-, and high-dose Xihuang Pills-containing serum on the in vitro proliferation of LNCaP cells were detected by cell counting kit-8(CCK-8). Flow cytometry was used to detect the apoptosis level of LNCaP cells after intervention with different concentrations of Xihuang Pills. Protein expression of cleaved cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase caspase-3(cleaved caspase-3), B-cell lymphoma-2(Bcl-2), and AR as well as the phosphorylation level of mTOR protein were detected by Western blot. The results showed that compared with the blank serum, the drug-medicated serum could blunt the activity of LNCaP cells. Low-, medium-, and high-dose Xihuang Pills-containing serum could significantly increase the cell apoptosis rate, increase the expression of cleaved caspase-3 protein, decrease the expression of Bcl-2 protein, reduce the expression of AR protein, and down-regulate the level of phosphorylated mTOR(p-mTOR). To study the effect of Xihuang Pills on the growth of LNCaP cells in vivo, different doses of Xihuang Pills were used to intervene in the subcutaneous graft model in nude mice inoculated with LNCaP cells. The expression levels of AR, mTOR, p-mTOR, Bcl-2, and cleaved caspase-3 were detected by Western blot. The results showed that the volumes of subcutaneous graft tumor in the low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose Xihuang Pills groups significantly decreased compared with that in the model group. The weight of subcutaneous transplanted tumor in each group with drug intervention was significantly lower than that in the model group. Compared with the model group, the low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose Xihuang Pills groups showed increased cleaved caspase-3 protein expression, decreased Bcl-2 and AR protein expression, and reduced p-mTOR protein expression. Further experiments showed that AR agonist R1881 could block the anti-proliferation and pro-apoptotic effects of Xihuang Pills. The mechanism of Xihuang Pills against prostate cancer is related to the inhibition of the AR/mTOR signaling pathway, inhibition of LNCaP cell proliferation, and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Mice , Rats , Animals , Caspase 3/metabolism , Mice, Nude , Cell Line, Tumor , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Cell Proliferation , Apoptosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Mammals/metabolism
9.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 126-131, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970991

ABSTRACT

This study explored a new model of Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PIRADS) and adjusted prostate-specific antigen density of peripheral zone (aPSADPZ) for predicting the occurrence of prostate cancer (PCa) and clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa). The demographic and clinical characteristics of 853 patients were recorded. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), PSA density (PSAD), PSAD of peripheral zone (PSADPZ), aPSADPZ, and peripheral zone volume ratio (PZ-ratio) were calculated and subjected to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The calibration and discrimination abilities of new nomograms were verified with the calibration curve and area under the ROC curve (AUC). The clinical benefits of these models were evaluated by decision curve analysis and clinical impact curves. The AUCs of PSA, PSAD, PSADPZ, aPSADPZ, and PZ-ratio were 0.669, 0.762, 0.659, 0.812, and 0.748 for PCa diagnosis, while 0.713, 0.788, 0.694, 0.828, and 0.735 for csPCa diagnosis, respectively. All nomograms displayed higher net benefit and better overall calibration than the scenarios for predicting the occurrence of PCa or csPCa. The new model significantly improved the diagnostic accuracy of PCa (0.945 vs 0.830, P < 0.01) and csPCa (0.937 vs 0.845, P < 0.01) compared with the base model. In addition, the number of patients with PCa and csPCa predicted by the new model was in good agreement with the actual number of patients with PCa and csPCa in high-risk threshold. This study demonstrates that aPSADPZ has a higher predictive accuracy for PCa diagnosis than the conventional indicators. Combining aPSADPZ with PIRADS can improve PCa diagnosis and avoid unnecessary biopsies.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prostate/pathology , Prostate-Specific Antigen/analysis , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Biopsy , Nomograms , Retrospective Studies
10.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1769-1775, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934963

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To evalu ate relat ed researches about the cost- benefit of pharmaceutical care in medical institutions with cost- benefit analysis,in order to provide evidence-based basis for related policy decisions and provide methodological reference for the cost- benefit evaluation of pharmaceutical care in the future. METHODS Retrieved from PubMed ,Embase,the Cochrane Library ,CBM,Wanfang database ,VIP and CNKI ,cost-benefit analysis was used to evaluate the researches about the cost-benefit of pharmaceutical care in medical institutions. Two researchers independently screened the research and extracted data according to the “Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards Checklist ”. The quality of included studies was scored and evaluated systematically. RESULTS A total of 46 studies from 17 countries were included. Most of them came from the United States (21.74%),China(19.57%)and France (8.70%). Average score of 46 literature was 14.30,of which 1 literature was excellent ,5 literature were good ,25 literature were qualified and 14 literature were unqualified. There were 25 research protocols of prospective study type ;the type of pharmaceutical care involved mostly was pharmaceutical monitoring (60.87%), followed by prescription review (23.91%),medication reconciliation (8.70%)and outpatient pharmacy (6.52%)were less. The median cost-benefit ratio of pharmaceutical care was 5.05 (3.08,11.28). CONCLUSIONS Pharmaceutical care shows good economic value ,and pharmacists have played an important role in saving medical resources ,but the design level and report quality of the existing studies need to be improved.

11.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 604-611, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-943042

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the mid-term efficacy of laparoscopic-assisted natural orifice specimen extraction surgery (NOSES) colectomy using the Cai tube in the treatment of left colorectal cancer. Methods: A prospective randomized control trial (China Clinical Trials Registration Number: ChiCTR-OOR-15007060) was performed. Sixty patients with left colorectal cancer at Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery of Zhongshan Hospital from September 2015 to August 2017 were prospectively enrolled. Case inclusion criteria: (1) left colorectal adenocarcinoma (rectal cancer with distance ≥ 8 cm from tumor low margin to anal edge, sigmoid colon cancer, descending colon cancer and left transverse colon cancer) confirmed by preoperative pathology; (2) satisfactory conditions of conventional laparoscopic surgery; (3) maximum diameter of the tumor < 4.5 cm confirmed by preoperative abdominal and pelvic CT or MRI; (4) BMI < 30 kg/m2. Case exclusion criteria: (1) benign lesions, mucinous adenocarcinoma, signet-ring cell carcinoma and other special pathological types of tumors confirmed by preoperative pathological examination; (2) multiple or recurrent cancers; (3) with a history of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy; (4) obvious regional infiltration or distant metastasis indicated by preoperative imaging examination; (5) intestinal obstruction, intestinal perforation, etc. Participants were randomly assigned to NOSES group (using the Cai tube) and conventional laparoscopy (CL) group by random number table method. Clinical data between two groups were compared and analyzed, including perioperative conditions, tumor exfoliation cell detection and bacterial culture results of intraperitoneal lavage fluid, postoperative complications (Clavien-Dindo grading), postoperative pain [visual simulation scoring (VAS) assessment], anal function (Kirwan anal function grading assessment), and postoperative 3-year disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), overall recurrence rate, and local recurrence rate. Results: A total of 60 patients were enrolled, with 30 in the NOSES group and 30 in the CL group. All the patients in the NOSES group successfully completed operation with Cai tube. Baseline data between the two groups were not significantly different (all P>0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between two groups in conversion rate to open surgery, number of lymph node harivested, proximal and distal resection margin of tumor, negative rate of circumferential margin, operation time, blood loss, inflammatory indexes, postoperative anal function, postoperative hospital stay, hospitalization cost, morbidity of postoperative complications (Clavien-Dindo grade II or above) (all P>0.05). Compared to the CL group, the NOSES group had lower maximum postoperative VAS score (2.5±0.3 vs. 5.1±0.4, t=3.187, P<0.01), and fewer use of additional postoperative analgesia [6.7% (2/30) vs. 33.3% (10/30),χ2=6.670, P=0.02]. The postoperative time to gas passage was shorter in the NOSES group [(2.2±1.4) days vs. (3.1±1.2) days,P=0.026]. No tumor cells and bacterial contamination were found in abdominal lavage fluid before and after operation in either group. The anal function at postoperative 3-month of all the patients in the NOSES group was Kirwan grade I to II, while in the CL group, anal function of 2 cases (6.7%) was Kirwan grade III, and of 28 cases was also Kirwan grade I to II, whose difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). In the NOSES group and the CL group, 3-year DFS was 96.7% and 83.3% (P=0.090), OS was 100% and 90% (P=0.096), overall recurrence rate was 3.3% and 10.0% (P=0.166), and local recurrence rate was 3.3% and 3.3% (P=0.999), respectively, whose differences were not statistically significant (all P>0.05). Conclusions: In the treatment of left colorectal cancer, compared with conventional laparoscopic colectomy, NOSES colectomy using Cai tube exhibits less scar, less postoperative pain, shorter recovery of gastrointestinal function, and similar mid-term outcomes. Given proper surgical indications, the surgical procedure is safe and feasible.


Subject(s)
Humans , Follow-Up Studies , Laparoscopy , Pain, Postoperative , Postoperative Complications/surgery , Prospective Studies , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Sigmoid Neoplasms/surgery , Treatment Outcome
12.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 523-527, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935421

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the distribution of HIV-1 genetic subtypes and pretreatment drug resistance (PDR) among men who have sex with men (MSM) from 19 cities of 6 provinces in China. Methods: From April to November 2019, 574 plasma samples of ART-naive HIV-1 infected MSM were collected from 19 cities in Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, and Guangdong provinces, total ribonucleic acid (RNA) was extracted and amplified the HIV-1 pol gene region by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after reverse transcription. Then sequences were used to construct a phylogenetic tree to determine genetic subtypes and submitted to the Stanford drug resistance database for drug resistance analysis. Results: A total of 479 samples were successfully amplified by PCR. The HIV-1 genetic subtypes included CRF01_AE, CRF07_BC, B, CRF55_01B, CRF59_01B, CRF65_cpx, CRF103_01B, CRF67_01B, CRF68_01B and unrecognized subtype, which accounted for 43.4%, 36.3%, 6.3%, 5.9%, 0.8%, 0.8%, 0.4%, 0.4%, 0.2% and 5.5%, respectively. The distribution of genetic subtypes among provinces is statistically different (χ2=44.141, P<0.001). The overall PDR rate was 4.6% (22/479), the drug resistance rate of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and protease inhibitors were 3.5% (17/479), 0.8% (4/479) and 0.2% (1/479), respectively. The PDR rate of recent infections was significantly higher than that of long-term infections (χ2=4.634, P=0.031). Conclusions: The HIV-1 genetic subtypes among MSM infected with HIV-1 from 19 cities of 6 provinces in China are diverse, and the distribution of subtypes is different among provinces. The overall PDR rate is low, while the PDR rate of recent infections was significantly higher than that of long-term infections, suggesting the surveillance of PDR in recent infections should be strengthened.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , China/epidemiology , Cities , Drug Resistance , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Genotype , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Seropositivity/drug therapy , HIV-1/genetics , Homosexuality, Male , Phylogeny , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sexual and Gender Minorities
13.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 72-77, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935352

ABSTRACT

Objective: To estimate the incidence of HIV-1 infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) in key areas of China through HIV-1 limiting antigen avidity enzyme immunoassay (LAg-Avidity EIA), analyze the deviation from the actual results and identify influencing factors, and provided reference for improving the accuracy of estimation results. Methods: Based on the principle of the cohort randomized study design, 20 cities were selected in China based on population size and the number of HIV-positive MSM. The sample size was estimated to be 700 according to the HIV-1 infection rate in MSM. MSM mobile phone app. was used to establish a detection appointment and questionnaire system, and the baseline cross-sectional survey was conducted from April to November 2019. LAg-Avidity EIA was used to identify the recent infected samples. The incidence of HIV-1 infection was calculated and then adjusted based on the estimation formula designed by WHO. The influencing factors were identified by analyzing the sample collection and detection processes. Results: Among the 10 650 blood samples from the participants, 799 were HIV-positive in initial screening, in which 198 samples (24.78%) missed during confirmation test. Only 621 samples were received by the laboratory. After excluding misreported samples, 520 samples were qualified for testing. A total of 155 samples were eventually determined as recent infection through LAg-Avidity EIA; Based on the estimation formula , the incidence of HIV-1 infection in MSM in 20 cities was 4.06% (95%CI:3.27%-4.85%), it increased to 5.53% (95%CI: 4.45%-6.60%)after the adjusting for sample missing rate. When the sample missing rate and misreporting rate were both adjusted, the incidence of HIV-1 infection in the MSM increased to 5.66% (95%CI:4.67%-6.65%). The actual incidence of HIV-1 infection in MSM in the 20 cities might be between 4.06% and 5.66%. Conclusions: Sample missing and misreporting might cause the deviation of the estimation of HIV-1 infection incidence. It is important to ensure the sample source and the quality of sample collection and detection to reduce the deviation in the estimation of HIV-1 infection incidence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV-1 , Homosexuality, Male , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Incidence , Sexual and Gender Minorities
14.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 285-289, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928601

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the efficacy and safety of domestic generic levetiracetam in replacement of brand-name levetiracetam in the treatment of children with epilepsy.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 154 children with epilepsy who received domestic generic levetiracetam in the inpatient or outpatient service of Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital from May 2019 to December 2020. Domestic generic levetiracetam and brand-name levetiracetam were compared in terms of efficacy and safety.@*RESULTS@#For these 154 children, the epilepsy control rate was 77.3% (119/154) at baseline. At 6 months after switching to domestic generic levetiracetam, the epilepsy control rate reached 83.8% (129/154), which showed a significant increase (P<0.05). There was no significant change in the frequency of seizures from baseline to 6 months after switching (P>0.05). The incidence of refractory epilepsy in children with no response after switching treatment was significantly higher than that in children with response (P<0.05). Before switching, only 1 child (0.6%) experienced somnolence, while after switching, 3 children (1.9%) experienced mild adverse drug reactions, including dizziness, somnolence, irritability, and bad temper.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Switching from brand-name to generic levetiracetam is safe and effective and holds promise for clinical application, but more prospective randomized controlled trials are required in future.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Levetiracetam , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Seizures
15.
Chinese Herbal Medicines ; (4): 289-289, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-953674

ABSTRACT

When this paper was first published the following ethical statement was omitted in error: The studies were approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The animals were cared according to the regulations of the Animal Ethics Committee. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused.

16.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 242-250, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906229

ABSTRACT

Sojae Semen Germinatum was firstly recorded in Shennong Bencaojing, and it has a long history of edible and medicinal use. Most ancient medical practitioners described that Sojae Semen Germinatum was processed with black soya bean, while some others recorded that Sojae Semen Germinatum was processed with black soya bean and soybean or with soybean only. In modern times, black soya bean and soybean are both used. Before the Northern and Southern dynasties, the germination process of Sojae Semen Germinatum was mostly soil culture, and then changed into water culture later. The medicinal part of Sojae Semen Germinatum may also change from the initial aboveground part to the whole processed products including the soybean and the bud. The bud length was used to control the processing ending of Sojae Semen Germinatum, but there were different views of the bud length in ancient and modern times. Before the Tang dynasty, Sojae Semen Germinatum was mostly used directly. Since the Tang dynasty, various subsequent processed products of Sojae Semen Germinatum appeared. Most ancient medical practitioners confirmed that Sojae Semen Germinatum was sweet flavor, neutral in nature and non-toxic, and the mainstream believed that it belonged to the spleen, lung and stomach meridians. However, there were different opinions on its efficacy of relieving exterior syndrome by diaphoresis. In this paper, the evolution of Sojae Semen Germinatum was explored after consulting all kinds of ancient books, its historical name, processing history, quality evaluation and others were systematically summarized in order to clarify its historical development and lay a good foundation for the clinical use and further development of Sojae Semen Germinatum.

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Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 739-743, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911435

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the correlation between collateral flow compensation mode and interventional treatment decision in patients with severe bilateral internal carotid artery stenosis/occlusion.Methods:According to the location of internal carotid artery lesions, patients with severe stenosis/occlusion of bilateral internal carotid artery were selected at the Second Affiliated Hospital, Qiqihar Medical University and the Sixth Medical Center of PLA General Hospital from May 2017 to June 2020.Results:A total of 42 patients were finally enrolled and divided into 4 types, including 34 males and 8 females with median age 61±8(48-82)years. The collateral circulation pathways manifested as following modes: anterior communicating artery collateral, posterior communicating artery collateral, ophthalmic artery collateral, posterior cerebral middle cerebral artery pial anastomosis collateral, posterior choroidal artery anterior choroidal artery collateral, external carotid internal carotid artery C4 segment collateral, pericallosal artery anastomosis collateral, dural and pial collateral and neovascularization. Type Ⅰ severe stenosis/occlusion of C1 segment was found in 20 cases (47.6%). There were 5 cases (11.9%) of type Ⅱ severe stenosis/occlusion from C2 to C6 prior to ophthalmic artery branch. Type Ⅲ severe stenosis/occlusion occurred in 2 cases (4.8%) after the split of ophthalmic artery. Type Ⅳ was mixed type in 15 cases (35.7%).Conclusions:The compensatory pathway of collateral circulation is closely related to the lesion location. To explore the compensatory pattern of collateral circulation is helpful for clinicians to accurately analyze the lesion characteristics and guide individualized interventional therapy.

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Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 734-738, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911434

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the collateral circulation compensation model in patients with favorable prognosis of basilar artery occlusion/severe stenosis treated with drugs or endovascular therapy.Methods:Clinical data of patients with basilar artery occlusion/severe stenosis and good clinical outcome were retrospectively collected in the Department of Neurology, Sixth Medical Center of PLA General Hospital from January 2019 to January 2020. They were divided into intensive drug therapy group and combined endovascular therapy group. The number and ways of collateral compensation pathway described by digital substraction angiography (DSA) were analyzed, and the characteristics of the collateral compensation model were summarized. SPSS22.0 software was used for statistical analysis, and the constituent ratio (%) was used for statistical description of the enumeration data.Results:A total of 32 eligible patients were included, including 27 males and 5 females, with an average age 45-76 (59±10) years. The compensation model included posterior communicating artery-posterior cerebral artery (13 cases, 40.6%), posterior communicating artery-posterior cerebral artery-basilar artery (10 cases, 31.2%), cerebellar artery-anastomotic branches of superior cerebellar artery (8 cases, 25.0%), anterior choroid artery-anastomotic branches of posterior choroid artery (2 cases, 6.2%), collateral circulation not established (11 cases, 34.4%).In drug treatment group, collateral compensation was found in the majority (14/15), with mainly posterior communicating artery (10/14).Most patients in combined treatment group did not develop collateral compensation (10/17), anastomotic branches of PICA-SCA were the main routes (6/7).Conclusion:In patients with basilar artery occlusion/severe stenosis, favorable clinical outcome can be achieved in both groups of patients treated with intensive drug therapy or endovascular therapy.

19.
International Journal of Cerebrovascular Diseases ; (12): 583-588, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907367

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the predictive value of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) for hemorrhagic transformation (HT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS).Methods:Consecutive patients with AIS without performing intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy admitted to the Cerebrovascular Disease Treatment Center, the Affiliated Brain Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from December 2015 to December 2020 were enrolled. The clinical, imaging and laboratory examination data were collected. HT was defined as the first imaging examination of AIS patients without finding bleeding signs, but the imaging reexamination after hospitalization found intracranial hemorrhage. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the independent correlation between NLR and HT. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to analyze the predictive value of NLR for HT. Results:A total of 805 patients with AIS were included. The median age was 67 years (interquartile range, 63-71 years), the median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score was 4 (interquartile range, 2-9), the median NLR was 3.84 (interquartile range, 2.66-5.30). Seventy-ywo patients (8.9%) had HT. There were significant differences in age, baseline systolic blood pressure, baseline NIHSS score, time from onset to admission, time from onset to blood collection, time from onset to imaging reexamination, NLR, atrial fibrillation, history of previous stroke and transient ischemic attack and stroke etiology between the HT group and the non-HT group (all P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that NLR was an independent risk factor for HT in patients with AIS after adjusting for confounding factors (odds ratio 1.355, 95% confidence interval 1.099-1.672; P=0.005). The ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the curve of NLR predicting HT was 0.852, and the optimal cut-off value was 4.75. Its sensitivity and specificity of predicting HT were 88.3% and 71.8% respectively. Conclusion:High NLR is an independent risk factor for HT in patients with AIS during hospitalization, and had better predictive value for HT risk.

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Chinese Journal of Hepatobiliary Surgery ; (12): 367-370, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-884673

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the role of indocyanine green(ICG)fluorescence imaging in laparoscopic partial splenectomy (LPS).Methods:The data of 4 patients who underwent ICG fluorescence imaging technology for LPS at Beijing Luhe Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University from May 2017 to May 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 3 females and 1 male, aged 46, 41, 27 and 12 years respectively. The extents of spleen preservation were compared between ICG fluorescence imaging with ordinary white light during operation. The residual splenic remnants were tested with fluorescence imaging after splenectomy, which showed fluorescence fading indicating good vascular perfusion.Results:ICG fluorescence imaging was performed on 4 patients. The operation time ranged from 180.0 to 250.0 min, and the intraoperative blood loss ranged from 40.0 to 200.0 ml. The postoperative hospital stay ranged from 4 to 14 days. There were no serious complications. Postoperative histopathology showed: splenic cyst ( n=1), splenic hemangioma ( n=2), and splenic laceration ( n=1). Conclusions:ICG fluorescence imaging technology had a significant role to play in partial splenectomy. This study showed this technique to improve safety of laparoscopic partial splenectomy.

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