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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981716

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the early clinical efficacy of robot-assisted percutaneous short-segment bone cement-augmented pedicle screw fixation in the treatment of stageⅡ-Ⅲ Kümmell disease.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 20 patients with stageⅡ-Ⅲ Kümmell's disease who underwent robot-assisted percutaneous bone cement-augmented pedicle screw fixation between June 2017 and January 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 4 males and 16 females, aged from 60 to 81 years old with an average age of (69.1±8.3) years. There were 9 cases of stageⅡand 11 cases of stage Ⅲ, all of which were single vertebral lesions, including 3 cases of T11, 5 cases of T12, 8 cases of L1, 3 cases of L2, and 1 case of L3. These patients did not exhibit symptoms of spinal cord injury. The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, and complications were recorded. The position of pedicle screws and the filling and leakage of bone cement in gaps were observed using postoperative CT 2D reconstruction. The data of the visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI), kyphosis Cobb angle, wedge angle of the diseased vertebra, and anterior and posterior vertebral height on lateral radiographs were statistically analyzed preoperatively, 1 week postoperatively, and at the final follow-up.@*RESULTS@#Twenty patients were followed up for 10 to 26 months, with an average follow-up of (16.0±5.1) months. All operations were successfully completed. The surgical duration ranged from 98 to 160 minutes, with an average of (122±24) minutes. The intraoperative blood loss ranged from 25 to 95 ml, with an average of (45±20) ml. There were no intraoperative vascular nerve injuries. A total of 120 screws were inserted in this group, including 111 screws at grade A and 9 screws at grade B according to the Gertzbein and Robbins scales. Postoperative CT indicated that the bone cement was well-filled in the diseased vertebra, and cement leakage occurred in 4 cases. Preoperative VAS and ODI were (6.05±0.18) points and (71.10±5.37)%, respectively, (2.05±0.14) points and (18.57±2.77)% at 1 week after operation, and (1.35±0.11) points and (15.71±2.12) % at final follow-up. There were significant differences between postoperative 1 week and preoperative, and between final follow-up and postoperative 1 week(P<0.01). Anterior and posterior vertebral height, kyphosis Cobb angle, and wedge angle of the diseased vertebra were(45.07±1.06)%, (82.02±2.11)%, (19.49±0.77) °, and (17.56±0.94) ° preoperatively, respectively, (77.00±0.99)%, (83.04±2.02)%, (7.34±0.56) °, and (6.15±0.52) ° at 1 week postoperatively, and (75.13±0.86)%, (82.39±0.45)%, (8.38±0.63) °, and (7.09±0.59) ° at the final follow-up.@*CONCLUSION@#Robot-assisted percutaneous short-segment bone cement-augmented pedicle screw fixation demonstrates satisfactory short-term efficacy in treating stageⅡ-Ⅲ Kümmell's disease as an effective minimally invasive alternative. However, longer operation times and strict patient selection criteria are necessary, and long-term follow-up is required to determine its lasting effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pedicle Screws , Bone Cements , Robotics , Blood Loss, Surgical , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Fractures/surgery , Lumbar Vertebrae/injuries , Treatment Outcome , Kyphosis , Thoracic Vertebrae/injuries , Fracture Fixation, Internal
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990052

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory infections are the most common infectious diseases in children.Among them, respiratory viruses are the main pathogens that cause many respiratory diseases, system damages or even death.As the first line of defense against pathogens like respiratory viruses, the innate immune system recognizes the structural components of viruses and endogenous danger signals with the pattern recognition receptors on immune cells and epithelial cells.During this process, inflammasomes are assembled and activated, and they participate in the recognition of viruses, inflammatory and immune response against viruses.The present study aims to describe the composition and function of inflammasomes, as well as the activation and negative regulation mechanisms of inflammasomes during common respiratory infections.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990034

ABSTRACT

Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) comprises a group of rare primary immunodeficiencies, which are characterized by extremely high serum IgE levels, eczema, recurrent skin and pulmonary infections.Signal transduction and activator of transcription 3( STAT3)-HIES is the most common type, which is caused by dominant-negative mutations in STAT3.STAT3-HIES confers broad innate and acquired immune defects, defects in skeletal, connective tissue, and vascular functions, causing a clinical phenotype including eczema, staphylococcal and fungal skin and pulmonary infections, scoliosis and minimal trauma fractures, vascular tortuosity and aneurysm.In this article, the advance in diverse clinical manifestations and management strategies of STAT3-HIES was summarized.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-989986

ABSTRACT

China has classified the Corona Virus Disease 2019(COVID-19) as a statutory category B infectious disease and managed it according to Category B since January 8, 2023.In view that Omicron variant is currently the main epidemic strain in China, in order to guide the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) infection in children with the times, refer to the Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for Novel Coronavirus Infection (Trial 10 th Edition), Expert Consensus on Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Novel Coronavirus Infection in Children (Fourth Edition) and the Diagnosis and Treatment Strategy for Pediatric Related Viral Infections.The Expert Consensus on the Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Novel Coronavirus Infection in Children (Fifth Edition) has been formulated and updated accordingly on related etiology, epidemiology, pathogenic mechanism, clinical manifestations, auxiliary examination, diagnosis and treatment, and added key points for the treatment of COVID-19 related encephalopathy, fulminating myocarditis and other serious complications for clinical reference.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-989122

ABSTRACT

Asthma is one of the most common respiratory disease in children.Maintaining normal activity level(exercise ability) is the goal of treatment in children with asthma.However, when children with asthma do exercise, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) may occur.EIB is a situation that needs urgent recognition and treatment, and its severity can be determined through exercise challenge testing.But exercise challenge testing needs the equipment that expensive and difficult to implement.And it has not been widely used in clinical practice.Therefore, we need to find a more convenient method to identify EIB in children with asthma and apply it to clinical practice.This article introduces the definition and pathogenesis of EIB in children with asthma, summarizes the diagnostic methods and the prevention and treatment of EIB, so as to help pediatricians understand EIB more deeply and instruct children with asthma to do exercise better.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-989099

ABSTRACT

Pendrin is an electroneutral anion exchanger transporter, residing in the apical region of airway epithelium cells.It is responsible for the reabsorption of chloride(Cl -) and the exchange of bicarbonate(HCO 3-)or thiocyanate(SCN -) to the lumen.It is mainly involved in regulating the pH and thickness of airway surface liquid(ASL), mucin secretion, and airway defense, which is of great significance for maintaining the stability of the airway surface microenvironment.The expression of pendrin is significantly up-regulated in bronchial asthma, which is closely related to the pathological processes of the lung in bronchial asthma, such as airway hyperresponsiveness, neutrophil infiltration, and increased mucin secretion.Inhibiting the function of pendrin may be a new target for the treatment of bronchial asthma.

7.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 681-683, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986193

ABSTRACT

Recent studies suggest that recompensation of liver function appears in decompensated cirrhosis after effective treatment. However, liver function recompensation degree, recompensation evaluation diagnostic criteria, how to predict recompensation from the perspective of liver function, and others still need to be further explored. Therefore, functional recompensation is explored here from the perspective of decompensated-stage cirrhosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , Treatment Outcome
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930494

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the therapeutic timing and dosage of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in children with severe adenovirus pneumonia.Methods:Clinical data of children with severe adenovirus pneumonia treated with IVIG at the Department of Respiratory, Guangzhou Women and Children′s Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University from January 2019 to January 2020 were retrospectively analyzed.Participants were classified as early presenters (5-10 days of illness course) and later presenters (11-15 days of illness course) according to the timing of IVIG treatment.They were further subdivided into plan 1 group[1 g/(kg·d) IVIG for 2 days] and plan 2 group [0.4-0.5 g/(kg·d) IVIG for 3-5 days]. Continuous variables and categorical variables between groups were analyzed by the nonparametric Mann- Whitney U test and the Fisher′ s exact test, respectively. Results:A total of 202 patients with the median age of 12 (12, 36) months were recruited, involving 128 early presenters (63.37%) and 74 later presen-ters (36.63%). Later presenters had a longer duration of fever [18.00(14.00, 23.25) days vs.11.00(9.00, 14.00) days], more demands for mechanical ventilation (33.78% vs.20.31%), and higher incidence of bronchiectasis (9.46% vs.1.56%) than those of early presenters (all P<0.05). For early presenters, no significant differences were detected in the demand for advanced life support, outcomes and sequelae between plan 1 group and plan 2 group (all P>0.05). For later presenters, a shorter duration of fever [18.00(14.00, 21.00) days vs.21.00(15.50, 30.75) days] and lower usage of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO, 2.13% vs.18.52%) were observed in the plan 1 group than that of plan 2 group (all P<0.05). The incidence of post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans and bronchiectasis as pulmonary sequelae was comparable between plan 1 group and plan 2 group ( P>0.05). The incidence of adverse events was 5.77% during IVIG infusion, showing no significant difference between plan 1 group and plan 2 group ( P>0.05). Conclusions:Early treatment of IVIG are very important to improve the prognosis of children with severe adenovirus pneumonia.For later presenters, a high dosage of IVIG is effective in reducing the ECMO use and shortening the duration of fever, thus providing clinical benefits.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930491

ABSTRACT

Antipyretic-analgesics are currently one of the most prescribed drugs in children.The clinical application of antipyretic-analgesics for children in our country still have irrational phenomenon, which affects the therapeutic effect and even poses hidden dangers to the safety of children.In this paper, suggestions were put forward from the indications, dosage form/route, dosage suitability, pathophysiological characteristics of children with individual differences and drug interactions in the symptomatic treatment of febrile children, so as to provide reference for the general pharmacists when conducting prescription review.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930463

ABSTRACT

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and hospitalizations in infants under 1 year of age, seriously jeopardizing infants′ health.Most hospitalizations (up to 80%) due to RSV-LRTI occur in otherwise healthy infants born at term.At present, no effective treatment and preventative measure against RSV is available domestically.Passive immunization with fully human long-acting monoclonal antibody Nirsevimab offers immediate protection for all infants experiencing their first RSV season with one shot, thus ushering in a new era of prevention of RSV infection among infants.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930461

ABSTRACT

Penicillium marneffei (PM) is the only thermally dimorphic species as a Penicillium that causes the transmitted penicilliosis marneffei (PSM). PM infection is more common in immunodeficient children.Due to the lack of specific clinical manifestations, PSM is easily misdiagnosed as pulmonary plasmacycosis, tuberculosis or pulmonary aspergillosis.Because of the rapid progress and multiple complications of transmitted PSM, its mortality remains high without timely and effective treatment.Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are of great significance, and the diagnosis of PSM mainly relies on the immune function examination, measurement of serum markers, pathogen detection and imaging examinations.There is no standard antifungal regimen, and Amphoterus B and Itraconazole are used as the first-line treatment.This study aims to review the progress of diagnosis and treatment of PM infection in children.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930430

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory tract infection is the most common infectious disease in children, which seriously threatens children′s health.Rapid and accurate etiological diagnosis is of great significance for the clinical treatment and control of these diseases.Pathogen nucleic acid test was applied and became the main method of respiratory tract infection diagnosis for its high sensitivity and specificity.To regulate the application of pathogen nucleic acid amplification test in respiratory tract infection in children, improve the diagnosis level, expert consensus on nucleic acid amplification test of respiratory pathogens in children was prepared to guide the application and promote pathogens diagnosis ability.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929841

ABSTRACT

Human adenovirus(HAdV)is a double-stranded DNA virus with multiple serotypes.Owing to their genetic heterogeneity, HAdVs display broad tissue tropism and can infect several organs or tissues.Besides the most common respiratory system, different types of HAdV can enter into multi-tissue and cells of the whole body through different receptors and mechanisms, directly destroy the host cells and also trigger immune response that course further damages.Then a variety of extrapulmonary manifestations would appear, such as gastroenteritis, encephalitis, myocarditis, hemorrhagic cystitis, hemophagocytosis and conjunctivitis, which seriously threaten the health of children.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929821

ABSTRACT

Bronchial asthma is one of the most common chronic respiratory diseases in children.One of the important reasons for its recurrent exacerbations is respiratory virus infection.Coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19), caused by 2019 novel coronavirus(2019-nCoV), has induced a large global outbreak.However, the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on asthmatic children remain unclear.This article summarizes the susceptibility of children with asthma to 2019-nCoV, the severity of asthma combined with COVID-19, treatment and management recommendations, asthma control, and the changes of mental health conditions during the uptrend period of COVID-19 epidemic.It may provide helpful evidence for clinical practice.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-954838

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of pulse oximetry among pediatric healthcare providers in China and analyze the factor influencing the KAP.Methods:A self-developed questionnaire was used for an online research on the KAP of 11 849 pediatric healthcare providers from 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities of China from March 11 to 14, 2022.The factors influencing the KAP of pulse oximetry among pediatric healthcare providers were examined by Logistic regression. Results:The scores of KAP, of pulse oximetry were 5.57±0.96, 11.24±1.25 and 11.19±4.54, respectively.The corresponding scoring rates were 69.61%, 74.95%, and 55.99%, respectively. Logistic regression results showed that the gender and working years of pediatric healthcare providers, the region they were located, and whether their medical institution was equipped with pulse oximeters were the main factors affecting the knowledge score (all P<0.05). Main factors influencing the attitude score of pediatric healthcare providers included their knowledge score, gender, educational background, working years, region, medical institution level, and whether the medical institution was equipped with pulse oximeters (all P<0.05). For the practice score, the main influencing factors were the knowledge score, gender, age, and whether the medi-cal institution was equipped with pulse oximeters (all P<0.05). Conclusions:Chinese pediatric healthcare providers need to further improve their knowledge about and attitudes towards pulse oximetry.Pulse oximeters are evidently under-used.It is urgent to formulate policies or guidelines, strengthen education and training, improve knowledge and attitudes, equip more institutions with pulse oximeters, and popularize their application in medical institutions.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-954833

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the clinical features of bronchiectasis in children after severe adenovirus pneumonia and to provide clinical clues for the early diagnosis of bronchiectasis in children after severe adenovirus pneumonia.Methods:A retrospective study was made to analyze the clinical data of 26 children with bronchiectasis after severe adenovirus pneumonia treated in Guangzhou Women and Children′s Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University from May 2016 to May 2021.Results:A total of 26 cases were reported, including 18 males and 8 females.The median onset age of severe adenovirus pneumonia was 23.0 (15.0, 48.0) months.A total of 23 cases suffered concurrent infections, and bacterial co-infection was the most common (16 cases). High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) showed multiple lobar solids in the lung with/without pleural effusion.During the acute phase, most of the cases were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (21 cases), mechanical ventilation (20 cases), and systemic glucocorticoids (19 cases). The median age at diagnosis of bronchiectasis was 29.5 (21.0, 56.8) months, and the median time that the patients took to develop into acute adenovirus pneumonia was 6.0 (3.3, 13.0) months.Six cases suffered bronchiectasis alone, and 20 cases had bronchiectasis combined with post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans (PIBO). Of these 20 cases, 3 cases developed bronchiectasis and PIBO simultaneously, and the remaining 17 cases developed bronchiectasis after PIBO.In the included 26 cases, diffuse bronchiectasis predominated (24 cases), most frequently involving the left lower lobes (21 cases) and right lower lobes (21 cases). Cylindrical bronchiectasis was the most common type (23 cases). All the patients had recurrent cough and wheezing during follow-up, and only 3 cases coughed up pus sputum without hemoptysis.All children had acute exacerbations, which were mostly caused by bacteria (21 cases). Nineteen cases combined with PIBO and 1 case with only bronchiectasis were rehospitalized.There was no cases of surgical resection or death.Conclusions:Bronchiectasis after severe adenovirus pneumonia mostly occurs in patients with or without PIBO.Multiple lobe involvement and co-infection may be a risk factor for PIBO patients to develop bronchiectasis.The clinical manifestations are mostly recurrent cough and wheezing, while sputum and hemoptysis are less common.Pediatricians should promptly perform chest HRCT for early diagnosis of the disease.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-954830

ABSTRACT

Hypoxemia is a common complication of pneumonia, asthma, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in children.Rapid identification of hypoxemia is of great significance for the disposal and management of critical children.Pulse oximetry is recognized by the World Health Organization as the best way to monitor hypoxemia in children, and it can monitor pulse oxygen saturation noninvasively and continuously.Based on the related literature at home and abroad, combined with the clinical needs of pediatrics, the " Expert consensus on clinical application of pulse oximetry in children" is formulated to improve the understanding of pediatricians and nurses on the application in pediatric clinical practice, principle, operation techniques, and limitations of pulse oximetry.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-954801

ABSTRACT

Group A Streptococcus (GAS), also known as Streptococcus pyogenes, is one of the key pathogenic bacteria leading to bacterial infection in children.GAS infection can result in both non-invasive and invasive infections.GAS plays a crucial role in contributing to childhood respiratory tract infections, including pharyngitis, tonsillitis and pneumonia.In order to improve clinical understanding of GAS, the relationship between GAS and respiratory tract infections were introduced from the aspects of epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-954799

ABSTRACT

Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a very important pathogen, especially for children.On a global scale, GAS is an important cause of morbidity and mortality.But the burden of disease caused by GAS is still unknown in China and also has not obtained enough attention.For this purpose, the expert consensus is comprehensively described in diagnosis, treatment and prevention of GAS diseases in children, covering related aspects of pneumology, infectiology, immunology, microbiology, cardiology, nephrology, critical care medicine and preventive medicine.Accordingly, the consensus document was intended to improve management strategies of GAS disease in Chinese children.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-954691

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the patterns of antibacterial agents in Chinese children surveyed by the China multi-center monitoring network for the application of antibacterial agents in children and neonates in 2019 by using World Health Organization (WHO) Access, Watch, Reserve and Not-recommended (AWaRe) and typical anatomical/therapeutic/chemical (ATC) in this study.Methods:The cross-sectional method was adopted.A multi-center cross-sectional survey was conducted on one day from September to December 2019.The information of all inpatients taking antibiotics was uploaded to the network-based data collection system (https: //garpec-31.mobilemd.cn/login.aspx? relogin=true). This study covered 13 hospitals from 10 provinces and cities in China.All hospitalized children in the Respiratory Department, Infectious Disease Department, General Surgery Department, Pediatric Intensive Care Units, Neonatal Intensive Care Units and Neonatology joined in this survey.The clinically used antibacterial agents were classified by AWaRe and ATC, and the AWaRe and ATC distributions of antibacterial agents prescribed for Chinese children and neonates were described.Results:Of the 2 644 antibiotic prescriptions included from 13 hospitals, 2 134 (80.71%) were for children and 510 (19.29%) were for neonates.Of all antibiotic prescriptions, there were 368 (13.92%) Access antibiotics prescriptions, 1 973 (74.62%) Watch prescriptions, 60 (2.27%) Reserve prescriptions and 243 (9.19%) Not-recommended prescriptions.The top-five antibiotics prescribed for children and neonates were third-generation cephalosporins (1 056, 39.94%), macrolides (492, 18.61%), carbapenems (275, 10.40%), beta lactam-beta lactamase inhibitors (246, 9.30%), and second-generation cephalosporins (136, 5.14%). The use ratios of Access, Watch, Reserve and Not-recommended antibiotics in each center ranged from 0 to 30.00%, 36.67% to 97.20%, 0 to 17.02% and 0 to 33.33%, respectively.In 1 360 antibiotic prescriptions for children and neonates with pneumonia, there were 152 (11.18%) Access antibiotics, 1 051 (77.28%) Watch antibiotics, 37 (2.72%) Reserve antibiotics, and 120 (8.82%) Not-recommended antibiotics.The top-five antibiotics prescribed for children with pneumonia were third-generation cephalosporins (522, 38.38%), macrolides (388, 28.53%), beta lactam-beta lactamase inhibitors (141, 10.37%), carbapenems (117, 8.6%) and penicillins (49, 3.60%).Conclusions:Watch antibiotics and broad spectrum antibiotics such as third-generation cephalosporins and macrolides prone to induce resistance are the main antibacterial agents used in Chinese children and neonates with pneumonia.Broad-spectrum antibiotics may be overused in Chinese children and neonates.

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