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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e349-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967385

ABSTRACT

Background@#The preventable trauma death rate survey is a basic tool for the quality management of trauma treatment because it is a method that can intuitively evaluate the level of national trauma treatment. We conducted this study as a national biennial follow-up survey project and report the results of the review of the 2019 trauma death data in Korea. @*Methods@#From January 1, 2019 to December 31, 2019, of a total of 8,482 trauma deaths throughout the country, 1,692 were sampled from 279 emergency medical institutions in Korea. All cases were evaluated for preventability of death and opportunities for improvement using a multidisciplinary panel review approach. @*Results@#The preventable trauma death rate was estimated to be 15.7%. Of these, 3.1% were judged definitive preventable deaths, and 12.7% were potentially preventable deaths. The odds ratio for preventable traumatic death was 2.56 times higher in transferred patients compared to that of patients who visited the final hospital directly. The group that died 1 hour after the accident had a statistically significantly higher probability of preventable death than that of the group that died within 1 hour after the accident. @*Conclusion@#The preventable trauma death rate for trauma deaths in 2019 was 15.7%, which was 4.2%p lower than that in 2017. To improve the quality of trauma treatment, the transfer of severe trauma patients to trauma centers should be more focused.

2.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 119-125, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874203

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Proper use of antibiotics during emergency abdominal surgery is essential in reducing the incidence of surgical site infection. However, no studies have investigated the type of antibiotics and duration of therapy in individuals with abdominal trauma in Korea. We aimed to investigate the status of initial antibiotic therapy in patients with solitary abdominal trauma. @*Methods@#From January 2015 to December 2015, we retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients with solitary abdominal trauma from 17 institutions including regional trauma centers in South Korea. Both blunt and penetrating abdominal injuries were included. Time from arrival to initial antibiotic therapy, rate of antibiotic use upon injury mechanism, injured organ, type, and duration of antibiotic use, and postoperative infection were investigated. @*Results@#Data of the 311 patients were collected. The use of antibiotic was initiated in 96.4% of patients with penetrating injury and 79.7% with blunt injury. Initial antibiotics therapy was provided to 78.2% of patients with solid organ injury and 97.5% with hollow viscus injury. The mean day of using antibiotics was 6 days in solid organ injuries, 6.2 days in hollow viscus. Infection within 2 weeks of admission occurred in 36 cases. Infection was related to injury severity (Abbreviated Injury Scale of >3), hollow viscus injury, operation, open abdomen, colon perforation, and RBC transfusion. There was no infection in cases with laparoscopic operation. Duration of antibiotics did not affect the infection rate. @*Conclusion@#Antibiotics are used extensively (84.2%) and for long duration (6.2 days) in patients with abdominal injury in Korea.

3.
Journal of Clinical Nutrition ; : 12-22, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764379

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Nutritional therapy (NT), such as enteral nutrition (EN) or parenteral nutrition (PN), is essential for the malnourished patients. Although the complications related to NT has been well described, multicenter data on symptoms in the patients with receiving NT during hospitalization are still lacking. METHODS: Nutrition support team (NST) consultations, on which NT-related complications were described, were collected retrospectively for one year. The inclusion criteria were patients who were (1) older than 18 years, (2) hospitalized, and (3) receiving EN or PN at the time of NST consultation. The patients' demographics (age, sex, body mass index [BMI]), type of NT and type of complication were collected. To compare the severity of each complication, the intensive care unit (ICU) admission, hospital stay, and type of discharge were also collected. RESULTS: A total of 14,600 NT-related complications were collected from 13,418 cases from 27 hospitals in Korea. The mean age and BMI were 65.4 years and 21.8 kg/m2. The complications according to the type of NT, calorie deficiency (32.4%, n=1,229) and diarrhea (21.6%, n=820) were most common in EN. Similarly, calorie deficiency (56.8%, n=4,030) and GI problem except for diarrhea (8.6%, n=611) were most common in PN. Regarding the clinical outcomes, 18.7% (n=2,158) finally expired, 58.1% (n=7,027) were admitted to ICU, and the mean hospital days after NT-related complication were 31.3 days. Volume overload (odds ratio [OR]=3.48) and renal abnormality (OR=2.50) were closely associated with hospital death; hyperammonemia (OR=3.09) and renal abnormality (OR=2.77) were associated with ICU admission; “micronutrient and vitamin deficiency” (geometric mean [GM]=2.23) and volume overload (GM=1.61) were associated with a longer hospital stay. CONCLUSION: NT may induce or be associated with several complications, and some of them may seriously affect the patient's outcome. NST personnel in each hospital should be aware of each problem during nutritional support.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Body Mass Index , Demography , Diarrhea , Enteral Nutrition , Hospitalization , Hyperammonemia , Intensive Care Units , Korea , Length of Stay , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Nutrition Therapy , Nutritional Support , Parenteral Nutrition , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Vitamins
4.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 1-7, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719662

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A task force appointed by the Korean Society of Acute Care Surgery reviewed previously published guidelines on antibiotic use in patients with abdominal injuries and adapted guidelines for Korea. METHODS: Four guidelines were assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II instrument. Five topics were considered: indication for antibiotics, time until first antibiotic use, antibiotic therapy duration, appropriate antibiotics, and antibiotic use in abdominal trauma patients with hemorrhagic shock. RESULTS: Patients requiring surgery need preoperative prophylactic antibiotics. Patients who do not require surgery do not need antibiotics. Antibiotics should be administered as soon as possible after injury. In the absence of hollow viscus injury, no additional antibiotic doses are needed. If hollow viscus injury is repaired within 12 hours, antibiotics should be continued for ≤ 24 hours. If hollow viscus injury is repaired after 12 hours, antibiotics should be limited to 7 days. Antibiotics can be administered for ≥7 days if hollow viscus injury is incompletely repaired or clinical signs persist. Broad-spectrum aerobic and anaerobic coverage antibiotics are preferred as the initial antibiotics. Second-generation cephalosporins are the recommended initial antibiotics. Third-generation cephalosporins are alternative choices. For hemorrhagic shock, the antibiotic dose may be increased twofold or threefold and repeated after transfusion of every 10 units of blood until there is no further blood loss. CONCLUSION: Although this guideline was drafted through adaptation of other guidelines, it may be meaningful in that it provides a consensus on the use of antibiotics in abdominal trauma patients in Korea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Abdominal Injuries , Advisory Committees , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Cephalosporins , Consensus , Korea , Shock, Hemorrhagic
5.
The Korean Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; : 340-346, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771020

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scoring system and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scoring system are widely used for critically ill patients. We evaluated whether APACHE II score and SOFA score predict the outcome for trauma patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed trauma patients admitted to the ICU in a single trauma center between January 2014 and December 2015. The APACHE II score was figured out based on the data acquired from the first 24 hours of admission; the SOFA score was evaluated based on the first 3 days in the ICU. A total of 241 patients were available for analysis. Injury Severity score, APACHE II score, and SOFA score were evaluated. RESULTS: The overall survival rate was 83.4%. The non-survival group had a significantly high APACHE II score (24.1 ± 8.1 vs. 12.3 ± 7.2, P < 0.001) and SOFA score (7.7 ± 1.7 vs. 4.3 ± 1.9, P < 0.001) at admission. SOFA score had the highest areas under the curve (0.904). During the first 3 days, SOFA score remained high in the non-survival group. In the non-survival group, cardiovascular system, neurological system, renal system, and coagulation system scores were significantly higher. CONCLUSIONS: In ICU trauma patients, both SOFA and APACHE II scores were good predictors of outcome, with the SOFA score being the most effective. In trauma ICU patients, the trauma scoring system should be complemented, recognizing that multi-organ failure is an important factor for mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , APACHE , Cardiovascular System , Complement System Proteins , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Injury Severity Score , Intensive Care Units , Mortality , Multiple Trauma , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Trauma Centers
6.
Korean Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; : 340-346, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-20758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scoring system and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scoring system are widely used for critically ill patients. We evaluated whether APACHE II score and SOFA score predict the outcome for trauma patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed trauma patients admitted to the ICU in a single trauma center between January 2014 and December 2015. The APACHE II score was figured out based on the data acquired from the first 24 hours of admission; the SOFA score was evaluated based on the first 3 days in the ICU. A total of 241 patients were available for analysis. Injury Severity score, APACHE II score, and SOFA score were evaluated. RESULTS: The overall survival rate was 83.4%. The non-survival group had a significantly high APACHE II score (24.1 ± 8.1 vs. 12.3 ± 7.2, P < 0.001) and SOFA score (7.7 ± 1.7 vs. 4.3 ± 1.9, P < 0.001) at admission. SOFA score had the highest areas under the curve (0.904). During the first 3 days, SOFA score remained high in the non-survival group. In the non-survival group, cardiovascular system, neurological system, renal system, and coagulation system scores were significantly higher. CONCLUSIONS: In ICU trauma patients, both SOFA and APACHE II scores were good predictors of outcome, with the SOFA score being the most effective. In trauma ICU patients, the trauma scoring system should be complemented, recognizing that multi-organ failure is an important factor for mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , APACHE , Cardiovascular System , Complement System Proteins , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Injury Severity Score , Intensive Care Units , Mortality , Multiple Trauma , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Trauma Centers
7.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 60-63, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-173767

ABSTRACT

The number of massive transfusions for pediatric patients has risen owing to the increasing number of complex surgeries and trauma centers. However, as there are only a few studies on pediatric massive transfusion, adult massive transfusion protocols are used for pediatric patients in many hospitals and institutions. Although massive transfusion protocols would improve the outcomes and reduce the received blood products during transfusion, pediatric patients differ from adults in the tolerability to transfusion, incidence of coagulopathy, and mechanisms of injuries. Therefore clinical physicians have requested for a pediatric massive transfusion protocol. Herein, we reviewed pediatric massive transfusion protocols that have been used in various clinical settings. To date, only a few single-center studies with a small number of pediatric patients have been performed. Even though these studies did not show improvement in outcomes such as mortality and side effects, they reported a short preparation time for fresh frozen plasma products and a low coagulopathy rate in pediatric massive transfusion groups. Therefore, large, prospective, multicenter studies are needed to identify the empiric ratio of blood products for improving outcomes of pediatric patients who need massive transfusion.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Incidence , Mortality , Plasma , Prospective Studies , Trauma Centers
8.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 8-14, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195680

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The oncologic outcomes after performing laparoscopic surgery (LS) compared to open surgery (OS) are still under debate and a concern when treating patients with colon cancer. The aim of this study was to compare the long-term oncologic outcomes of LS and OS as treatment for stage III colorectal cancer patients. METHODS: From January 2001 to December 2007, 230 patients with stage III colorectal cancer who had undergone LS or OS in this single center were assessed. Data were analyzed according to intention-to-treat. The primary endpoints were disease-free survival and overall survival. RESULTS: A total of 230 patients were entered into the study (114 patients had colon cancer-33 underwent LS and 81 underwent OS; 116 patients had rectal cancer-44 underwent LS and 72 underwent OS). The median follow-up periods for the colon and rectal cancer groups were 54 and 53 months, respectively. The overall conversion rate was 12.1% (n = 4) for colon cancer, and 4.5% (n = 2) for rectal cancer. Disease-free 5-year survival of colon cancer was 84.3% and 90% in LS group (LG) and OS group (OG), respectively, and that of rectal cancer was 83% and 74.6%, respectively (P > 0.05). Overall 5-year survival for colon cancer was 72.2% and 71.3% for LG and OG, respectively, and that for rectal cancer was 67.6% and 59.2%, respectively (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The long-term analyses for oncologic aspects of our study may confirm the safety of LS compared to OS in stage III colorectal cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Laparoscopy , Rectal Neoplasms
9.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 98-102, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23358

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A loop ileostomy is used to protect an anastomosis after anal sphincter-preserving surgery, especially in patients with low rectal cancer, but little information is available concerning risk factors associated with a nonreversal ileostomy. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors of ileostomy nonreversibility after a sphincter-saving resection for rectal cancer. METHODS: Six hundred seventy-nine (679) patients with rectal cancer who underwent sphincter-preserving surgery between January 2004 and December 2011 were evaluated retrospectively. Of the 679, 135 (19.9%) underwent a defunctioning loop ileostomy of temporary intent, and these patients were divided into two groups, that is, a reversal group (RG, 112 patients) and a nonreversal group (NRG, 23 patients) according to the reversibility of the ileostomy. RESULTS: In 23 of the 135 rectal cancer patients (17.0%) that underwent a diverting ileostomy, stoma reversal was not possible for the following reasons; stage IV rectal cancer (11, 47.8%), poor tone of the anal sphincter (4, 17.4%), local recurrence (2, 8.7%), anastomotic leakage (1, 4.3%), radiation proctitis (1, 4.3%), and patient refusal (4, 17.4%). The independent risk factors of the nonreversal group were anastomotic leakage or fistula, stage IV cancer, local recurrence, and comorbidity. CONCLUSION: Postoperative complications such as anastomotic leakage or fistula, advanced primary disease (stage IV), local recurrence and comorbidity were identified as risk factors of a nonreversal ileostomy. These factors should be considered when drafting prudential guidelines for ileostomy closure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anal Canal , Anastomotic Leak , Comorbidity , Disulfiram , Fistula , Ileostomy , Multivariate Analysis , Postoperative Complications , Proctitis , Rectal Neoplasms , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
10.
The Journal of the Korean Society for Transplantation ; : 211-218, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-60451

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation is considered as the most powerful modality for patients with acute on chronic liver failure and fulminant hepatic failure. The aim of this study is to identify potential prognostic factors that may affect survival after emergent liver transplantation. METHODS: A total of 42 patients who underwent emergent liver transplantation at Gachon University Gil Medical Center from June 2005 to May 2013 were enrolled. The clinical scoring system analyzed for this study were as follows: Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP), model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), Model for end-stage liver disease with incorporation of serum sodium (MELD-Na), Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II), and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA). RESULTS: Preoperative SOFA and APACHE scores were closely related with patient's survival after the operation. Also, the changed value of SOFA while patients waited for their transplantation showed to be significant. In a univariate analysis, serum bilirubin and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) showed statistical significance for patient's prognosis. Several factors, such as the use of mechanical ventilator and inotropic agent for treating multiple organ failure were also important. The central nervous system and cardiovascular scores showed an intimate relation with the survival group by a more detailed analysis in SOFA. In a multivariate analysis, SOFA and bilirubin levels affected patient's survival. CONCLUSIONS: In emergent liver transplantation with acute on chronic liver failure and fulminant liver failure, recipient's hepatic function is an important factor along with the donated liver condition l eading to successful operation. Also, it is important to pay attention to the progression of organ failure in predicting the prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , APACHE , Bilirubin , Central Nervous System , End Stage Liver Disease , Glasgow Coma Scale , Liver , Liver Diseases , Liver Failure, Acute , Liver Transplantation , Multiple Organ Failure , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Sodium , Ventilators, Mechanical
11.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 139-143, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-16069

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Colonoscopy is a safe and commonly used method for the screening of colon cancer, but sometimes major complications, such as, colonic perforation or hemorrhage occur during the procedure. The aim of this study was to compare the surgical outcomes of laparoscopic and open surgery for colon perforation after colonoscopy. METHODS: A retrospective review of patient records was performed on 25 patients with iatrogenic colon perforation during colonoscopy during the 7-year period from January 2005 to June 2012. Demographic data, operative procedures, operation times, postoperative complications, hospital course, and morbidities in the laparoscopic surgery group (LG) and open surgery group (OG) were compared. RESULTS: Seventeen of the 25 patients underwent laparoscopic surgery (68%) and 8 patients open surgery (32%). The most common surgical methods were primary repair in the LG, and Hartmann's operation in the OG. Average time to first flatus was 2.9 days in the LG and 4.5 days in the OG, and average times to first meals were 4.5 days and 5 days, respectively. Mean hospital stays were 10.8 days in the LG and 17 days in the OG. After surgery, complications occurred in two patients in the LG, but no complication occurred in the OG. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic repair for iatrogenic colonic perforation during colonoscopy seems to be useful and safe surgical method in early period after perforation. However, open surgery is also needed for the delayed cases after perforation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Colonoscopy , Flatulence , Hemorrhage , Intestinal Perforation , Laparoscopy , Length of Stay , Mass Screening , Meals , Postoperative Complications , Retrospective Studies , Surgical Procedures, Operative
12.
The Korean Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; : 101-107, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-643719

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis usually resulted in admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) during hospitalization. When admitted to the ICU, the mortality was high. The aim of this study is to identify multiple prognostic factors for mortality and to analyze the significance of prognostic survival model with each scoring system in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis who was admitted to the ICU. METHODS: From January 2008 to December 2008, 60 consecutive patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis were admitted in the ICU and retrospectively reviewed. Prognostic models used were Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP), model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), model for end-stage liver disease with incorporation of serum sodium (MELD-Na), acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II, and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA). The predictive prognosis was analyzed using the area under the receiver's operating characteristics curve (AUC). RESULTS: The median follow up period was 20 months, and ICU mortality was 17% (n = 10). A total of 24 patients (40%) died during the study period. The average survival of five prognostic models was related with the severity of the disease. All of the five systems showed significant differences in the cumulative survival rate, according to the scores on admission, and the MELD-Na had the highest AUC (0.924). Multivariate analysis showed that bilirubin and albumin were significantly related to mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The CPT, MELD, MELD-Na, APACHE II, and SOFA may predict the prognosis of patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis. The MELD-Na could be a better prognostic predictor than other scoring systems.


Subject(s)
Humans , APACHE , Area Under Curve , Bilirubin , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization , Critical Care , Intensive Care Units , Liver , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Diseases , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Sodium , Survival Rate
13.
Journal of Minimally Invasive Surgery ; : 161-164, 2012.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-178026

ABSTRACT

Laparoscopic repair using mesh is a standard technique for ventral hernia repair. Complications of laparoscopic ventral hernia repair increase according to the increment of laparoscopic repair. Subcutaneous emphysema and mesh infection are major complications of laparoscopic repair of ventral hernia. The principle of management of infection is removal of a foreign body. However, in the case of repair with mesh, removal of infected mesh induces recurrence of hernia. Preservation of mesh is the best option for treatment of infected mesh. We have experienced treatment without removal of mesh in a case of infected subcutaneous emphysema after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair. The infection spread slowly to mesh and seroma. Drainage and debridement of infected tissue and evacuation of infected seroma resulted in healing of the infection without removal of mesh.


Subject(s)
Debridement , Drainage , Foreign Bodies , Hernia , Hernia, Ventral , Herniorrhaphy , Laparoscopy , Recurrence , Seroma , Subcutaneous Emphysema , Surgical Mesh
14.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 87-94, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-59831

ABSTRACT

Amygdalin is known as vitamain B17, and it was called laetrile. Amygdalin is composed of two molecules of glucose, one molecule of benzaldehyde which induces an analgesic action, and one molecule of hydrocyanic acid which is an anti-neoplastic compound. Amygdalin had been used to treat cancers and relieve pain. In order to evaluate whether the analgesic action of amygdalin is related with descending pain control system, we performed patch clamp study. In the present study, the modulatory effects of amygdalin on glycine- and glutamate-induced ion currents in periaqueductal gray (PAG) neurons were investigated using the nystatin-perforated patch clamp method. Continuous application of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on PAG neurons resulted in increased glycine-induced ion current, and in decreased glutamate-induced ion current. In contrast, continuous application of amygdalin with LPS resulted in decreased glycine-induced ion current increased by LPS, and increased glutamate- induced ion current decreased by LPS in concentration- and time-dependent fashion. These results demonstrate that amygdalin modulates neuronal activity of PAG by modulation of glycine and glutamate. Based on the present results, it can be suggested that amygdalin participates in the regulation of the descending pain control system in the level of PAG neurons. The present study demonstrated that activation of the descending pain control system is one of the possible analgesic mechanisms of amygdalin.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Amygdalin , Benzaldehydes , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Glucose , Glutamic Acid , Glycine , Hydrogen Cyanide , Lipopolysaccharides , Neurons , Periaqueductal Gray
15.
Journal of the Korean Society of Coloproctology ; : 373-379, 2008.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-31926

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to assess the oncologic safety of laparoscopic colorectal surgery compared to that of conventional open surgery and to compare the disease-free survival (DFS) rates between laparoscopic and open colorectal surgery for radical treatment of colorectal cancer. METHODS: From January 2001 to December 2005, 583 patients underwent laparoscopic or conventional open surgery. To address only radical treatment of colorectal cancer, we excluded subjects who had undergone emergency or palliative operation. Four hundred ninety patients were identified for this study. The laparoscopic (LG) and open group (OG) had 74 and 166 patients, respectively, for colon cancer, and 92 and 158 patients, respectively, for the rectal cancer. RESULTS: No difference was noted in the lengths of the distal margins of the resected bowels between the LG and the OG for rectal cancer (P>0.05). In addition, no significant difference was found in DFS rates between the LG and the OG for both colon and rectal cancer (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The laparoscopic technique does not seem to present any disadvantages and is safe and feasible for the treatment of colorectal cancer. No difference was found between laparoscopic and open surgery in terms of DFS for colorectal cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Colorectal Surgery , Disease-Free Survival , Emergencies , Laparoscopy , Rectal Neoplasms
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