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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922196

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for progression to an end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation. We investigated the association of lifestyle behaviors with the initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT) among CKD patients using an employment-based health insurance claims database linked with specific health checkup (SHC) data.@*METHODS@#This retrospective cohort study included 149,620 CKD patients aged 40-74 years who underwent a SHC between April 2008 and March 2016. CKD patients were identified using ICD-10 diagnostic codes and SHC results. We investigated lifestyle behaviors recorded at SHC. Initiation of RRT was defined by medical procedure claims. Lifestyle behaviors related to the initiation of RRT were identified using a Cox proportional hazards regression model with recency-weighted cumulative exposure as a time-dependent covariate.@*RESULTS@#During 384,042 patient-years of follow-up by the end of March 2016, 295 dialysis and no kidney transplantation cases were identified. Current smoking (hazard ratio: 1.87, 95% confidence interval, 1.04─3.36), skipping breakfast (4.80, 1.98─11.62), and taking sufficient rest along with sleep (2.09, 1.14─3.85) were associated with the initiation of RRT.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Among CKD patients, the lifestyle behaviors of smoking, skipping breakfast, and sufficient rest along with sleep were independently associated with the initiation of RRT. Our study strengthens the importance of monitoring lifestyle behaviors to delay the progression of mild CKD to RRT in the Japanese working generation. A substantial portion of subjects had missing data for eGFR and drinking frequency, warranting verification of these results in prospective studies.


Subject(s)
Aged , Cohort Studies , Databases, Factual , Disease Progression , Female , Health Benefit Plans, Employee , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Life Style , Male , Meals , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Renal Replacement Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Sleep , Smoking/epidemiology
2.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811005

ABSTRACT

“Signals are useless until they are read and possibly subjected to intensive study by appropriate investigators in WHO or in national centres”, cited from Finney’s 1974 first article on the theory of signal detection. Recently, freely available large-scale spontaneous reporting systems databases and improved computational power of personal computers have made it easier to perform signal detection in personal researches. However, adequate knowledge for the limitations of source spontaneous reports and understanding the differences with conventional clinical and epidemiological studies are imperatives for valid interpretation of signal indexes. This review describes the basic theory, aims and limitations of the signal detection method using spontaneous reporting systems databases and practical considerations.

3.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-688547

ABSTRACT

Objective:It is necessary to obtain appropriate drug information (DI)so that appropriate medical care is provided for the consumers,patients. Thorough studies have not been done on institutions that offer DI for patients in Japan and the state of its dissemination. The purpose of this study is to find levels of recognition of the institutions providing medical information and the actual state of its usage.Method:In order to find the levels of recognition of the institutions that provide DI to general consumers and the state of usage of the information provided by them,we conducted questionnaire surveys using online panels. We also conducted a study to find subjective comprehension on DI by the panels. The surveys were conducted twice using the same questionnaire in order to robust the outcomes of the study.Results:We received 1,095 valid responses from the first survey and 1,086 from the second survey respectively. No significant differences were found between the two surveys. Although the levels of recognition vary for the four representative public institutions providing DI,DI provided by these institutions has been barely utilized by the respondents. As the sources of DI that have been used most,almost the same numbers of respondents replied that they used Internet search engines to access them in addition to medical doctors and pharmacists. Regarding the levels of comprehension for the provided DI,the respondents tended to have shown high levels of understanding on maintaining medication compliance,but low on safety information. There was a positive correlation between age and the understanding of the DI.Conclusion: The study implies that the environment to provide DI for patients still needs to be improved, and the respondents didnʼt understand DI enoughly. Therefore,it is necessary to study further for the creation and communication of truly user-friendly DI.

4.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-379411

ABSTRACT

Currently, self-medication, including the use of foods with health claims (FHCs), is promoted as means of increasing our health span. However, the functional substance(s) in FHCs and its actions are diverse, and therefore it is difficult to evaluate their safety and efficacy in clinical trials. In this review article, we describe the definition and the history of regulations regarding FHCs. After discussing their types and features, we explain the differences on regulations between FHCs and ethical pharmaceuticals regarding their safety and efficacy in clinical trials, which are required to provide them with scientific evidence. Finally, we believe that transparent standards regarding the evaluation of FHCs would help increase the use of FHCs and their market value in the future.

5.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-376028

ABSTRACT

As mentioned by the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, the risk management planning should start with the development phase and continue to the post-market phase throughout the lifecycle of medicinal products. The post-marketing safety risk management officially started in Japan at last, followed by the notification “On Guidance of Risk Management Plan of Pharmaceuticals” dated April 2012, and a number of the safety risk management plan documents for new medicines have become available in public domain. The evidence body of non-clinical and clinical data to determine a large portion of safety specifications of medicinal products has been derived through the safety evaluation processes of their pre-authorization development phases, however, the discussion on the approaches of developmental safety data collection and assessment has been sparse in Japan. This review outlines the systematic safety evaluation processes for development phases, in reference to the report of CIOMS VI Working Group “Management of Safety Information from Clinical Trials” and the proposal from the PhRMA Safety Planning, Evaluation, and Reporting Team.

6.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-375895

ABSTRACT

A Task Force team consisting of members from pharmaceutical companies --a central player to develop and implement RMP (Risk Management Plan)-- as well as health care professionals and members from academia was established in JSPE. The Task Force developed guidance for scientific approach to practical and ICH-E2E-compliant Pharmacovigilance Plan (PVP) stated in Japanese Risk Management Plan issued in April 2012 by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The guidance contains the following topics.<br>1.Introduction: JSPE's activities and this task force's objectives for pharmacovigilance activities<br>2.How to select Safety Specification (SS) and describe its characteristics<br>・Selection of SS<br>・Characterization of SS<br>・Association with Research Questions (RQ)<br>3.How to define and describe RQ<br>・What is RQ ?<br>・RQ interpretation in other relevant guidelines<br>・Methodology to develop RQ for PVP with examples<br>・Best approach to integrating PVP for whole aspects of safety concern<br>4.How to optimize PVP for specific RQ<br>・Routine PVP or additional PVP ?<br>・Additional PVP design (RQ and study design, RQ structured with PICO or GPP's research objectives, specific aims, and rationale)<br>・Checklist to help develop PVP<br>5.Epilogue:<br>・What can/should be “Drug use investigation” in the context of ICH-E2E-compliant PVP.<br>・Significance of background incidence rate and needs for comparator group<br>・Infrastructure for the future PVP activities<br>6.Appendix: Checklist to help develop PVP activities in RMP<br>The task force team is hoping that this guidance help develop and conduct SS and PVP in accordance with ICH E2E, as stated in Japanese Risk Management Plan Guideline.

7.
General Medicine ; : 92-103, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-375244

ABSTRACT

<b>Background:</b> Re-revision of the Ethical Guidelines for Clinical Study (EGCS) in Japan is planned in 2013. It is important to ascertain the current situation of physicians' understanding to conduct clinical trials. It seems that the difference in regulatory processes between commercial and non-commercial clinical trials has caused significant confusion for physicians in conducting clinical trials in Japan.<br>This survey was undertaken in order to improve awareness of the differences between both types of clinical trials. Furthermore, this survey examined whether it was effective to promote about clinical trials under newly introduced regulatory guidelines and to examine the subsequent willingness of physicians to conduct such clinical trials.<br><b>Methods:</b> From 24<sup>th</sup> March to 24<sup>th</sup> April 2009 inclusive, a questionnaire survey was conducted targeting 286 physicians working at Shiga University of Medical Science Hospital. A follow-up survey was conducted among 109 participants at a lecture about clinical trials on 8<sup>th</sup> July 2009.<br><b>Results:</b> Physicians who had prior knowledge of the regulations, purposes, or support systems for commercial and non-commercial clinical trials responded positively that they were more likely to conduct clinical trials, while physicians who had no prior knowledge of them responded negatively. Both groups reported that their daily working pressures and cumbersome regulatory processes prevented them from conducting clinical trials.<br><b>Conclusion:</b> Japanese physicians lack knowledge and information about clinical trials, leading to negative perceptions and reduced willingness to conduct such studies. Thus, the introduction of any strict and complex regulations should be approached carefully when the environment for clinical trials has not yet been established.

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