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1.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 85-95, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007910

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study explored the potentially modifiable factors for depression and major depressive disorder (MDD) from the MR-Base database and further evaluated the associations between drug targets with MDD.@*METHODS@#We analyzed two-sample of Mendelian randomization (2SMR) using genetic variant depression ( n = 113,154) and MDD ( n = 208,811) from Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS). Separate calculations were performed with modifiable risk factors from MR-Base for 1,001 genomes. The MR analysis was performed by screening drug targets with MDD in the DrugBank database to explore the therapeutic targets for MDD. Inverse variance weighted (IVW), fixed-effect inverse variance weighted (FE-IVW), MR-Egger, weighted median, and weighted mode were used for complementary calculation.@*RESULTS@#The potential causal relationship between modifiable risk factors and depression contained 459 results for depression and 424 for MDD. Also, the associations between drug targets and MDD showed that SLC6A4, GRIN2A, GRIN2C, SCN10A, and IL1B expression are associated with an increased risk of depression. In contrast, ADRB1, CHRNA3, HTR3A, GSTP1, and GABRG2 genes are candidate protective factors against depression.@*CONCLUSION@#This study identified the risk factors causally associated with depression and MDD, and estimated 10 drug targets with significant impact on MDD, providing essential information for formulating strategies to prevent and treat depression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Depressive Disorder, Major/genetics , Depression , Genome-Wide Association Study , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Risk Factors , Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins
2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 35-42, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005437

ABSTRACT

Sesquiterpenoids are widely found in nature, while nitrobenzoyl sesquiterpenoids are relatively rare. Twelve natural nitrobenzoyl sesquiterpenoids were all derived from marine Aspergillus fungi, which are typical natural products with marine characteristics. These natural products exhibit good antitumor, antiviral, and inhibition of osteoclast differentiation activity, especially in the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases, showing good medicinal development value. This article reviews the natural product sources, chemical structure, chemical synthesis, biosynthesis, bioactivity, and pharmacological mechanisms of nitrobenzoyl sesquiterpenoids and predicts and discusses their absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity (ADME/T), and drug-likeness, providing a comprehensive understanding of the natural products of nitrobenzoyl sesquiterpenoids from marine sources and their potential for pharmaceutical development.

3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 775-783, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016625

ABSTRACT

Tropane alkaloids (TAs) are a class of anticholinergic drugs widely used in clinical practice and mainly extracted from plant, among which Atopa belladonna is the main commercial drug source. It is of great industrial value to obtain TAs in large quantities by plant metabolic engineering. In TAs pathway, cytochrome oxidase CYP82M3 catalyze the synthesis of tropinone and then tropinone reductase I (TRI) compete with TRII for tropinone to form tropine leading to the TAs synthesis (drainage). In this study, based on the "increasing flow and drainage" metabolic engineering strategy, two genes, namely HnCYP82M3 and DsTRI from Hyoscyamus niger and Datura stramonium, respectively, were overexpressed in the hair roots of A. belladonna, with a view to promote the TAs accumulation. The HnCYP82M3 gene was cloned from the root of H. niger, and it encoded amino acid with 91.7% sequence identity with AbCYP82M3 from A. belladonna. Overexpression of HnCYP82M3 alone did not affect the content of TAs in hair roots of A. belladonna, indicating that CYP82M3 was not a key enzyme in TAs biosynthesis. Simultaneous overexpression of HnCYP82M3 and DsTRI greatly promoted the accumulation of the three TAs, and the contents of hyoscyamine, anisodamine and scopolamine were 4.97 times, 2.83 times and 2.19 times that of the control, respectively, and the increase amplitude was greater than that of single overexpression of DsTRI. This study showed that the "increasing flow and drainage" strategy of enzyme genes co-expression at branch points was a promising metabolic engineering method to effectively improve the biosynthesis of TAs in A. belladonna, and laid a theoretical and technical foundation for the large-scale industrial acquisition of TAs.

4.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 90-98, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013596

ABSTRACT

Aim To investigate the effect of ellagic acid (EA) on cognitive function in APP/PS 1 double- transgenic mice, and to explore the regulatory mechanism of ellagic acid on the level of oxidative stress in the hippocampus of double-transgenic mice based on the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/glycogen synthase kinase-3 (PI3K/AKT/GSK-3 β) signaling pathway. Methods Thirty-two SPF-grade 6-month-old APP/PS 1 double transgenic mice were randomly divided into four groups, namely, APP/PS 1 group, APP/PS1 + EA group, APP/PS1 + LY294002 group, APP/PS 1 + EA + LY294002 group, with eight mice in each group, and eight SPF-grade C57BL/6J wild type mice ( Wild type) were selected as the blank control group. The APP/PS 1 + EA group was given 50 mg · kg

5.
Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 169-174, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-973436

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo learn the epidemiological features of foodborne diseases, and to provide scientific basis for disease control. MethodsThe monitoring data of foodborne diseases in Minhang from 2016 to 2020 were analyzed. Stool or swab specimens were collected to detect salmonella, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Escherichia coli, Shigella, Campylobacter jejuni and norovirus. ResultsThe information of15 951 foodborne disease cases and 11 176 samples were collected, with the positive rate of 12.03%.The cases with diarrhea accounted for 99.90% of the total. The cases with fever accounted for 14.70% of the total. The cases with water stool accounted for 89.70% of the total. May to October were the epidemic periods of foodborne diseases in Minhang(79.78%). The detection rate was the highest in the 30‒39 age group and cadre staff occupation(13.53%,13.49%). The detection rates of foodborne bacteria and virus were 5.39% (Vibrio parahaemolyticus), 3.25% (salmonella),1.44% (norovirus), 1.06%(Escherichia coli), 0.56% (Campylobacter jejuni), 0.34% (mixed infection) and 0% (Shigella). During this 5-year period, the positive rate of Vibrio parahaemolyticus decreased significantly, while the positive rate of salmonella and Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni increased significantly. The main suspected food were aquatic products (29.44%), meat (25.80%) and fruits (10.78%). The main processing methods of suspected food were family workshop (41.12%) and restaurants (37.55%). The total detection rate of the cases was the highest in the canteen, reaching 20.51%. ConclusionFoodborne disease cases have a seasonal peak. The positive detection of pathogens tends to be similar year by year. The main suspected food is aquatic products. The main resources of suspected food are family workshop, restaurants, and canteen. Targeted health education, supervision and management should be taken to prevent the occurrence of foodborne diseases and the outbreak of food poisoning

6.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 818-825, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971837

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the value of Baveno Ⅶ criteria versus Expanded Baveno Ⅶ criteria in screening for high-risk varices (HRV) in patients with compensated advanced chronic liver disease (cACLD). Methods A total of 146 patients with cACLD who were admitted to Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, from January 2016 to December 2018 were enrolled, and according to the absence or presence of HRV based on gastroscopy, they were divided into HRV group with 68 patients and control group with 78 patients. Clinical data, liver stiffness measurement (LSM), and gastroscopy findings were analyzed, and different Baveno Ⅶ criteria were analyzed in terms of their sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of HRV. The Mann-Whitney U test and the McNemar test were used for comparison of continuous data between groups, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. A univariate logistic regression analysis was performed for the variables used to predict HRV, and a multivariate analysis was performed for the variables with P 20 kPa or PLT 25 kPa or PLT < 110×10 9 /L was associated with HRV (both P < 0.05). LSM and PLT had an area under the ROC curve of 0.797 (95% confidence interval [ CI ]: 0.723-0.859) and 0.789 (95% CI : 0.714-0.852), respectively, in the diagnosis of HRV. There were significant differences in the prevalence rates of esophageal and gastric varices and HRV between the patients who met Baveno Ⅶ criteria and those who did not meet such criteria ( χ 2 =23.14 and 23.14, both P < 0.001), as well as between the patients who met Expanded Baveno Ⅶ criteria and those who did not meet such criteria ( χ 2 =43.51 and 25.71, both P < 0.001). Although a higher proportion of patients were exempted from gastroscopy based on Expanded Baveno Ⅶ criteria (32.9% vs 13.7%), Baveno Ⅶ criteria had higher sensitivity (0.98 vs 0.88) and negative predictive value (0.95 vs 0.83) and could better avoid the missed diagnosis of HRV (1.0% vs 9.3%). Conclusion Baveno Ⅶ criteria are more suitable for the screening for HRV in cACLD patients in China.

7.
Chinese Journal of Digestion ; (12): 40-46, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995424

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the incidences of metachronous advanced adenoma (MAA) in patients with simultaneous multiple primary colorectal cancer (CRC) and patients with sporadic CRC.Methods:From January 1, 2008 to September 30, 2022, at Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, CRC patients who underwent surgery and 3 years follow-up with endoscopy were enrolled. The patients completed colonoscopy at least 2 times during follow-up in 6 to 36 months after surgery, and the interval between the 2 times colonoscopies was over 6 months. Clinical data including age, gender, and tumor location, stage, pathological features, combined underlying diseases, preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen, hemoglobin and other laboratory results, baseline colonoscopy results, and detection of MAA were collected. According to age (±2 years old), gender, location of primary lesion and stage of tumor, patients with simultaneous CRC or sporadic CRC were matched at 1∶1 ratio by propensity score matching. The cumulative risks of MAA in patients with simultaneous multiple primary CRC and patients with sporadic CRC were calculated. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to analyze the influencing factors in the occurrence of MAA.Results:A total of 814 CRC patients were enrolled and matched. After paired matching, there were 36 cases of simultaneous multiple primary CRC (78 lesions) and 78 cases of sporadic CRC (78 lesions). The cumulative incidences of MAA at 1, 2 and 3 years of simultaneous CRC group were 11.1%(4/36), 22.2%(8/36) and 33.3%(12/36), respectively. The cumulative incidences of MAA at 1-, 2- and 3-year of sporadic CRC group were 3.8%(3/78), 12.8%(10/78) and 20.5%(16/78), respectively.Simultaneous CRC was correlated with an increase in the 3-year cumulative incidence of MAA ( HR=4.163, 95% confidence interval(95% CI) 1.032 to 4.721, P=0.047). Especially in left-sided CRC, the risk of MAA in simultaneous CRC increased ( HR=7.186, 95% CI 1.602 to 20.787, P=0.010). The results of multivariate cox-regression analysis indicated that detection of simultaneous advanced adenoma at baseline endoscopy was an independent risk factor of MAA ( HR=3.175, 95% CI 1.411 to 7.142, P=0.005). Conclusion:Colouoscopy follow-up should be strengthened in patients with simultaneous multiple primary CRC and simultaneous advanced adenomas.

8.
Chinese Journal of Nephrology ; (12): 393-397, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-994991

ABSTRACT

Calciphylaxis is a vascular disease caused by a combination of multiple factors, and the calcified ischemic lesion results in the severe skin damage accompanied by unbearable pain. Calciphylaxis tends to occur in patients with end-stage renal disease, and the treatment of this disease faces enormous challenges. Current treatment recommendations are mainly based on clinical experience and observational research reports, and there is still a lack of clinical practice standards or consensus for managing calciphylaxis. Therefore, this paper will review the effective treatment methods and off-label use of calciphylaxis based on literature reports, providing reference for the clinical treatment of the disease.

9.
Chinese Journal of General Practitioners ; (6): 915-920, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-994782

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatments of patients with POEMS syndrome initially diagnosed as pulmonary hypertension (PH).Methods:Clinical data of 7 patients who were initially diagnosed as PH and finally diagnosed as POEMS syndrome in Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital from May 2013 to November 2021 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, echocardiography, hemodynamic findings, treatment and prognosis of patients were analyzed.Results:Seven patients, including 4 males and 3 female, aged (55±9) (44-62) years were presented with elevated pulmonary artery pressure by echocardiography at admission. Chest tightness and shortness of breath (7/7), fatigue (6/7) and lower limb edema (4/7) were the most common symptoms in the first-episode. Meanwhile, patients also presented symptoms associated with POEMS syndrome, including multiple peripheral neuropathy (7/7), multiserosal cavity effusion (6/7), organomegaly (5/7), skin changes (5/7), and endocrine lesions (4/7). Serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were significantly increased in all patients. The pulmonary arterial systolic blood pressure was (66±21)mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa) estimated by echocardiography. Six patients underwent right heart catheterization and significantly increased mean pulmonary artery pressure((35±9) mmHg) was confirmed; and their pulmonary vascular resistance was (4.00±2.10) Wood U. All patients received corresponding treatment for POEMS syndrome. The excise tolerance was improved in 5 patients after successful treatment with stable or reversed WHO functional class. One patient received hemodialysis treatment for uncontrolled POEMS. One patient died during follow-up. The echocardiography was followed up in 4 patients, and 2 of whom had a complete reversal of PH, 1 had a partial reversal, and 1 had not yet reversed.Conclusions:In patients with PH who have multisystem manifestations, such as multiple peripheral neuropathy, multiserosal cavity effusion, organomegaly and skin changes, POEMS syndrome should be considered, and proper and active treatment of POEMS may reverse PH and improve the prognosis of patients.

10.
Chinese Journal of Medical Education Research ; (12): 120-124, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-991266

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the teaching effect of multi-disciplinary integrated training program on the open comprehensive training room to improve the post competency of medical imaging students.Methods:A total of 122 residential students of five-year medical imaging from Batch 2014 of The First Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu Medical College were divided into experimental group and control group. The experimental group carried out the multi-disciplinary open comprehensive training program, and the control group carried out open-ended exercises. The comprehensive discipline theory examination, assessment of clinical thinking and comprehensive skill appraisal, and satisfaction questionnaire results were compared between the two groups. SPSS 23.0 was used for t test. Results:①Comprehensive discipline theory examination scores were higher in experimental group than the control group [(80.33±3.70) vs. (74.56±5.09)], with statistical differences ( P<0.05). ②Experimental group scored higher in clinical thinking and comprehensive skills than the control group did, and the difference was statistically significant [(87.58±3.15) vs. (74.52±3.66), P<0.05]. ③The questionnaire investigation showed that the experimental group students did better in improving autonomous learning ability, expression ability, the team cooperation ability, the ability to find and fix problems and the degree of self-esteem than control group, with statistically significant differences ( P<0.05). Conclusion:The multi-disciplinary open comprehensive training program has a good effect on optimizing the open-ended exercises. Students' knowledge of multi-disciplinary comprehensive theoretical knowledge and imaging skills have been improved, and the ability of teamwork, problem-solving ability, self-learning ability and innovation ability required by the core competence of the profession have been developed and improved, which meets the modern medical treatment of education "to create an educational platform of medical education collaboration and multi-disciplinary integration, and to cultivate students' innovative and autonomous learning."

11.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Ophthalmology ; (12): 730-738, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990906

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the effects of blue light intervention on the development of optical defocus-induced myopia in guinea pigs and investigate its underlying mechanisms.Methods:Forty-eight normal-grade two-week-old tricolor guinea pigs were randomly divided into a blue light group and a white light group, with 24 animals in each group.The right eye of guinea pigs was fitted with a -5.00 D lens to establish an optical defocus model as the experimental eye, while the left eye served as the control without any covering.Before the experiment and after 8-week intervention, the refractive power of guinea pigs was measured by streak retinoscopy.The anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and axial length were measured by A-scan ultrasonography.Corneal curvature radius was determined using a keratometer.After 8-week intervention, the guinea pigs were euthanized through overanesthesia, and the right eyeballs were enucleated and the retinas were isolated.The density of S and M cone cells of the guinea pig retinal sections were observed via immunofluorescence staining.The expression of retinal retinoic acid was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography.The expressions of retinoic acid receptor (RAR-β) in the retina and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), and type Ⅰ collagen in the sclera were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR.Changes in scleral thickness were observed through hematoxylin-eosin staining.The use and care of the animals complied with Regulations for the Administration of Affair Concerning Experimental Animals by State Science and Technology Commission.The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University (No.2022ETKLD10032).Results:After 8 weeks of intervention, guinea pigs in the blue light group showed (0.63±0.12)D of relative hyperopia and a deceleration of axial elongation by (0.08±0.00)mm compared with the white light group in the right eye.In the left eye, guinea pigs in the blue light group showed (0.42±0.09)D of relative hyperopia and a deceleration of axial elongation by (0.08±0.00)mm compared with the white light group.The guinea pigs in blue light group showed (1.52±0.09)D of myopia in the right eye compared with the left eye, with an increase in axial elongation of (0.06±0.00)mm.The guinea pigs in white light group showed (1.66±0.07)D of myopia in the right eye compared with the left eye, with an increase in axial elongation of (0.13±0.00)mm, and the differences were statistically significant (all at P<0.05). The density of M cone cells was lower and density of S cone cells was higher in the blue light group in the dorsal and ventral sides of the retinal sections compared with the white light group, showing statistically significant differences ( t=32.33, 52.23, 42.09, 25.02; all at P<0.05). The deceleration of myopia progression in the blue light group was strongly positively correlated with the increase in S cone cell density on the ventral side ( r=0.95, P<0.01). The expression levels of retinoic acid, RAR-β, and MMP-2 were decreased, and expression levels of TIMP-2 and type Ⅰ collagen were increased in blue light group compared with the white light group, showing statistically significant differences ( t=18.73, 7.45, 3.72, 6.19, 9.03; all at P<0.05). The scleral thickness in the blue light group was (125.0±7.8)μm, which was significantly thicker than (102.0±6.3)μm in the white light group ( t=26.93, P<0.05). Conclusions:Blue light intervention can inhibit the progression of defocus-induced myopia in guinea pigs.Refractive power changes in guinea pigs may be influenced by alterations in retinal cone cell density, retinoic acid expression, and scleral collagen expression.

12.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Ophthalmology ; (12): 55-62, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990809

ABSTRACT

Objective:To detect the concentration of various cytokines in aqueous humor of patients with diabetes retinopathy (DR) with Luminex liquid chip, and analyze the relationship between the cytokines and the occurrence and development of DR.Methods:A cross-sectional study was conducted.Sixty-three DR patients (97 eyes) treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from March 1, 2019 to December 31, 2019 were enrolled as DR group, including 38 nonproliferative DR (NPDR) eyes in NPDR group and 59 proliferative DR (PDR) eyes in PDR group, 39 eyes in photocoagulation group and 58 eyes in non-photocoagulation group.Twenty-seven patients (31 eyes) hospitalized for cataract surgery at the same time were collected as the control group.Aqueous humor was extracted during the operation, and Luminex liquid chip was used to detect the concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), placental growth factor (PLGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA, PDGF-BB, angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-1β, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in aqueous humor.The concentrations of various cytokines of different groups were compared, and the correlation among various aqueous humor cytokines was analyzed by Spearman rank correlation analysis.This study adhered to the Declaration of Helsinki.The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine (No.Y[2019]230). Written informed consent was obtained from each patient.Results:The concentrations of VEGF-A, PLGF, PDGF-AA, ANGPTL4, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and ICAM-1 in DR group were significantly higher and the concentration of IL-1β was significantly lower than those of control group ( Z=-4.747, -5.164, -3.373, -8.062, -4.535, -5.954, -5.098, -3.228, -5.954, all at P<0.01). The concentrations of VEGF-A, PLGF, PDGF-AA, ANGPTL4, IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 of the photocoagulation and non-photocoagulation groups were higher and the concentration of IL-1β was significantly lower than those in the control group (all at P<0.017). The concentration of ICAM-1 in the photocoagulation group was significantly higher than that in the control group ( P<0.017). The concentrations of PLGF, PDGF-AA and ANGPTL4 of PDR group were higher than those of NPDR group, and the differences were statistically significant ( Z=-2.291, -3.396, -2.276, all at P<0.05). VEGF-A was positively correlated with the other cytokines except ICAM-1 ( rs=0.237-0.540, all at P<0.05). ANGPTL4 was positively correlated with the other cytokines except IL-1β ( rs=0.361-0.733, all at P<0.01). Conclusions:The occurrence and development of DR are closely related to VEGF family, PDGF family, ANGPTL family and inflammatory factors.The concentrations of PLGF, PDGF-AA and ANGPTL4 are higher in PDR eyes.There are close and complex relationships among a variety of cytokines in the eyes of DR patients.

13.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1229-1234, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007470

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To compare the effect of different frequency of acupoint thread-embedding on weight loss in subjects with overweight/obesity of spleen deficiency and dampness retention.@*METHODS@#A total of 126 subjects with overweight/obesity of spleen deficiency and dampness retention were randomized into a 2-week group(63 cases, 13 cases dropped out)and a 3-week group(63 cases, 11 cases dropped out, 1 case was eliminated). The two groups were treated with acupoint thread-embedding once every 2 weeks and once every 3 weeks respectively, Zhongwan(CV 12), Shuifen(CV 9), Qihai(CV 6), Guanyuan(CV 4) and bilateral Zhangmen(LR 13), Tianshu(ST 25), Liangmen(ST 21), Daheng(SP 15), Fujie(SP 14), Pishu(BL 20), Yinlingquan(SP 9)were selected. Four times were required in the two groups. Before and after treatment, follow-up after 2 months of treatment completion, the body mass index(BMI), body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, obesity degree, fat percentage(F%), skin fold thickness were observed in the two groups.@*RESULTS@#After treatment and in follow-up, the BMI, body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, obesity degree, F%, skin fold thickness in the two groups were decreased compared with those before treatment (P<0.001, P<0.01), the changes of BMI, body weight, obesity degree, F%, skin fold thickness in the 2-week group were larger than those in the 3-week group(P<0.05, P<0.01, P<0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The effect of acupoint thread-embedding once every 2 weeks on weight loss in subjects with overweight/obesity of spleen deficiency and dampness retention is superior to that once every 3 weeks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acupuncture Points , Overweight/therapy , Spleen , Obesity/therapy , Body Weight , Acupuncture Therapy , Weight Loss
14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 3528-3538, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1004654

ABSTRACT

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the leading chronic liver disease worldwide. NASH is commonly associated with metabolic risk factors, including obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. Hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism disorder, bile acid toxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, fibrosis, intestinal dysbacteriosis, and susceptibility gene variation are involved in the pathogenesis of NASH. Drug development for NASH has been slow, this article focuses on the clinical research and development of several promising NASH drugs and their mechanisms, such as drugs targeting gut-liver axis, improving metabolism, inhibiting inflammation and fibrosis.

15.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 2968-2974, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003531

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To analyze the effects of the national centralized drug procurement (NCDP) policy on drug availability and the structure of drug use in public hospitals. METHODS Using hypoglycemic, lipid-lowering, antiviral drugs, and psychiatric drugs for the treatment of mental illness and depression as objects, the interrupted time series model was used to quantitatively evaluate the changes in consumption sum of drugs, consumption amount and daily cost of the target drugs in national sample hospitals as well as the changes in per capita medication frequency, outpatient prescription amount, and medical insurance surplus of target drugs in a third grade class A hospital before and after the implementation of NCDP policy. RESULTS After the implementation of the NCDP policy, the volume for the four bid-winning drugs increased significantly (P<0.01 for the remaining three categories except for hypoglycemic drugs), but DDDc (P<0.01) and the amount of related drugs (P<0.001) decreased significantly. The volume for the non-winning drugs (except for lipid-lowering drugs) decreased significantly (P<0.05), and DDDc also decreased significantly (P<0.05 for other 3 categories except for psychiatric drugs); the volume (P<0.01) and DDDc (P<0.01 only for psychiatric drugs) for alternative drugs all increased except for antiviral drugs. The structure of drug use for different drugs was affected differently by the NCDP policy,and that of hypoglycemic drugs was affected obviously; the proportion of alternative drugs increased after centralized procurement. The outpatient prescription amount of each hospital significantly decreased after centralized procurement,and the decrease in the cost paid by the patients using lipid-lowering and antiviral drugs related to centralized procurement was greater than 0.60; the remaining medical insurance amount for bid-winning drugs was approximately 1.252 5 million yuan. CONCLUSIONS NCDP policy effectively alleviates the burden of medical expenditure and also drives the structure changes of drug use such as the substitution of generic drugs for original drugs, the growth of the volume of alternative drugs.

16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2300-2310, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999147

ABSTRACT

Brain delivery of drugs remains challenging due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). With advances in nanotechnology and biotechnology, new possibilities for brain-targeted drug delivery have emerged. Biomimetic nano drug delivery systems with high brain-targeting and BBB-penetrating capabilities, along with good biocompatibility and safety, can enable 'invisible' drug delivery. In this review, five different types of biomimetic strategies are presented and their research progress in central nervous system disorders is reviewed. Finally, the challenges and future prospects for biomimetic nano drug delivery systems in intracerebral drug delivery are summarized.

17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 3321-3329, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999074

ABSTRACT

Magnolol, a hydroquinone containing an allyl side chain, is one of the major active components of magnolia for antioxidation and anti-aging. To enhance the anti-aging activity and improve the intramolecular hydrogen bonding of magnolol, magnolol was reacted with cinnamic acid to obtain 2-O-cinnamic acid magnolol by esterification. The anti-aging activity of magnolol 2-O-cinnamate was investigated based on Caenorhabditis elegans model. The results showed that 2-O-cinnamic acid magnolol can reduce lipofuscin accumulation in the nematode body, and the effect is better than that of magnolol. 2-O-Cinnamic acid magnolol can extend nematode lifespan, reduce ROS levels in nematodes during normal aging and oxidative stress and improve nematode stress resistance under heat stress and oxidative stress. 2-O-Cinnamic acid magnolol could induce DAF-16 translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and upregulate the expression of the sod-3 gene encoding superoxide dismutase in the nematode TJ356 expressing DAF-16 fused with GFP. 2-O-Cinnamic acid magnolol did not improve the survival rate of hsp-16.2 gene deficient nematodes under oxidative stress, indicating that 2-O-cinnamic acid magnolol improves stress resistance of nematodes under oxidative stress may be associated with sod-3 and hsp-16.2. Moreover, 2-O-cinnamic acid magnolol did not extend the lifespan of daf-16 and age-1 mutants, indicating that age-1 and daf-16 are required for 2-O-cinnamic acid magnolol to delay aging. It showed that magnolol 2-O-cinnamic acid has the potential to improve antioxidant capacity and delay aging, and the mechanism may be related to the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway.

18.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 660-666, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012209

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the effects of two administration time strategies for rabbit antihuman thymocyte immunoglobulin (rATG) of 5mg/kg total dose in matched sibling donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (MSD-HSCT) . Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 32 patients who received MSD-HSCT with 5 mg/kg rATG conditioning regimen at the Department of Hematology of the First Medical Center of the People's Liberation Army General Hospital from October 2020 to April 2022. The patients were classified into two groups: the 4d-rATG group (16 cases), who received antithymocyte globulin (ATG) from day -5 to day -2, and the 2d-rATG group (16 cases), who received ATG from day -5 to day -4. Between the two groups, the transplantation outcomes, serum concentrations of active antithymocyte globulin (ATG) in patients from -4 days to 28 days after graft infusion (+28 days), and the reconstitution of lymphocyte subsets on days +30, +60, and +90 were compared. Results: The cumulative incidences of acute graft-versus-host disease at 100 days after graft infusion were 25.0% (95% CI 7.8% -47.2% ) and 18.8% (95% CI 4.6% -40.2% ) (P=0.605) in the 4d-rATG group and 2d-rATG group, respectively. The 1-year cumulative incidences of chronic graft-versus-host disease were 25.9% (95% CI 8.0% -48.6% ) and 21.8% (95% CI 5.2% -45.7% ) (P=0.896). The 1-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 37.5% (95% CI 18.9% -65.1% ) and 14.6% (95% CI 3.6% -46.0% ) (P=0.135), and the 1-year probabilities of overall survival were 75.0% (95% CI 46.3% -89.8% ) and 100% (P=0.062). The total area under the curve (AUC) of serum active ATG was 36.11 UE/ml·d and 35.89 UE/ml·d in the 4d-rATG and 2d-rATG groups, respectively (P=0.984). The AUC was higher in the 4d-rATG group than that in the 2d-rATG group (20.76 UE/ml·d vs 15.95 UE/ml·d, P=0.047). Three months after graft infusion, the average absolute count of CD8(+) T lymphocytes in the 4d-rATG group was lower than that in the 2d-rATG group (623 cells/μl vs 852 cells/μl, P=0.037) . Conclusion: The efficiencies of GVHD prophylaxis in MSD-PBSCT receiving 4d-ATG regimen and the 2d-rATG regimen were found to be similar. The reconstruction of CD8(+)T lymphocytes in the 2d-rATG group was better than that in the 4d-rATG group, which is related to the lower AUC of active ATG after transplantation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Humans , Antilymphocyte Serum/therapeutic use , Siblings , Retrospective Studies , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Tissue Donors , Graft vs Host Disease/drug therapy , Transplantation Conditioning
19.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 4918-4933, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011221

ABSTRACT

As a novel and promising antitumor target, AXL plays an important role in tumor growth, metastasis, immunosuppression and drug resistance of various malignancies, which has attracted extensive research interest in recent years. In this study, by employing the structure-based drug design and bioisosterism strategies, we designed and synthesized in total 54 novel AXL inhibitors featuring a fused-pyrazolone carboxamide scaffold, of which up to 20 compounds exhibited excellent AXL kinase and BaF3/TEL-AXL cell viability inhibitions. Notably, compound 59 showed a desirable AXL kinase inhibitory activity (IC50: 3.5 nmol/L) as well as good kinase selectivity, and it effectively blocked the cellular AXL signaling. In turn, compound 59 could potently inhibit BaF3/TEL-AXL cell viability (IC50: 1.5 nmol/L) and significantly suppress GAS6/AXL-mediated cancer cell invasion, migration and wound healing at the nanomolar level. More importantly, compound 59 oral administration showed good pharmacokinetic profile and in vivo antitumor efficiency, in which we observed significant AXL phosphorylation suppression, and its antitumor efficacy at 20 mg/kg (qd) was comparable to that of BGB324 at 50 mg/kg (bid), the most advanced AXL inhibitor. Taken together, this work provided a valuable lead compound as a potential AXL inhibitor for the further antitumor drug development.

20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3448-3461, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981480

ABSTRACT

A comprehensive analytical method based on ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole/linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry(UFLC-QTRAP-MS/MS) was established for simultaneous determination of the content of 45 bioactive constituents including flavonoids, alkaloids, amino acids, phenolic acids, and nucleosides in Epimedium brevicornum. The multiple bioactive constituents in leaves, petioles, stems and rhizomes of E. brevicornum were analyzed. The gradient elution was performed at 30 ℃ in an XBridge~® C_(18) column(4.6 mm×100 mm, 3.5 μm) with 0.4% formic acid aqueous solution-acetonitrile as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL·min~(-1). Single factor experiment and response surface methodology were employed to optimize the extraction conditions. Multivariate statistical analyses including systematic cluster analysis(SCA), principal component analysis(PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis(PLS-DA), and one-way analysis of variance(One-way ANOVA) were carried out to classify the samples from different parts and identify different constituents. Grey relation analysis(GRA) and entropy weight-TOPSIS analysis were performed to build a multi-index comprehensive evaluation model for different parts of E. brevicornum. The results showed that there was a good relationship between the mass concentrations of 45 constituents and the corresponding peak areas, with the correlation coefficients(r) not less than 0.999 0. The precision, repeatability, and stability of the established method were good for all the target constituents in this study, with the relative standard deviations(RSDs) less than 5.0%(0.62%-4.9%) and the average recovery of 94.51%-105.7%. The above results indicated that the bioactive constituents varied in different parts of E. brevicornum, and the overall quality followed the trend of leaves > petioles > rhizomes > stems. This study verified the rationality of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition) stipulating that the medicinal part of E. brevicornum is the leaf. Moreover, our study indicated that the rhizome had the potential for medicinal development. The established method was accurate and reliable, which can be used to comprehensive evaluate and control the quality of E. brevicornum. This study provides data reference for clarifying the medicinal parts and rationally utilizing the resources of E. brevicornum.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Epimedium , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Chromatography, Liquid , Multivariate Analysis
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