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Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 818-824, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993927


Objective:To investigate the etiological spectrum, clinical features, and surgical treatment of patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) who underwent adrenal surgery.Methods:From August 2002 to August 2022, the clinical data of 985 patients with Cushing's syndrome who underwent surgical treatment in the department of urology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. There were 210 males and 775 females. The average age was 43.33±13.49 years old. The age of males was older than that of females (45.53±14.39 vs. 42.68±13.16 years, P=0.016). The principle of preoperative surgical method selection for patients in this group was described as follow. For adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) independent CS, adrenal tumor resection was considered for unilateral solitary lesions and unilateral adrenalectomy was considered for unilateral multiple lesions. For bilateral lesions, the larger tumor was removed first, and the contralateral operation was decided according to the follow-up results. Patients with suspicion of cortical cancer are subjected to R0 resection, and open surgery was performed if the tumor diameter is≥6 cm. The clinical characteristics of CS patients were summarized. The clinical symptom characters, etiology spectrum and the corresponding selection principles of surgical methods were analyzed. Results:Among the 985 cases, ACTH-independent CS accounted for 92.8% (914/985), and ACTH-dependent CS accounted for 7.2% (71/985). According to the postoperative pathological results, ACTH-independent CS was the most common, among which adrenal adenoma was the most common 75.94% (748/985), PBMAH 11.37% (112/985), Cushing's disease 4.26% (42/985), PPNAD 3.25% (32/985), EAS 2.94 (29/985), cortical carcinoma 2.23% (22/985). In terms of clinical manifestations, full moon face, bloody face, buffalo back, central obesity and weight gain were more common. The incidence of the above single symptoms was >30%. In terms of hormone secretion, the cortisol level of ACTH-dependent CS patients was significantly higher than that of ACTH-independent CS ( P<0.001). Cortisol [(16.61±6.78) μg/dl] and 24h-UFC [103.65 (59.83, 175.70) μg/24h] in patients with subclinical cortical adenoma were lower than those in other types of patients ( P<0.001). Among the patients with bilateral adenomas, 4 patients underwent simultaneous resection of bilateral adrenal tumors due to severe CS symptoms, and the remaining 74 patients underwent two-stage simple tumor resection, total adrenalectomy or subtotal adrenalectomy according to the size and number of tumors. Of the 22 patients with cortical carcinoma, 2 patients underwent R0 resection after neoadjuvant therapy with mitotane after being diagnosed by needle biopsy due to local infiltration of the tumor. In patients with EAS and Cushing's disease, 62.07% (18/29) and 23.81% (10/42) were treated with simultaneous bilateral target gland resection due to severe CS symptoms, respectively. In 112 cases of PBMAH and 32 cases of PPNAD, the initial treatment was unilateral adrenalectomy or subtotal adrenalectomy, and the follow-up was continued to decide whether to perform contralateral adrenalectomy or subtotal adrenalectomy. Conclusions:The etiological spectrum of CS patients admitted to the urology department is different from that of the overall CS, and is dominated by adrenal disease, and Cushing's disease is rare. Due to the different etiological spectrum, the patient's symptom spectrum is different, and difficulty in squatting and fracture are rare. The main treatment for unilateral adrenal disease is tumor resection or unilateral adrenalectomy. For ACTH-dependent CS in bilateral lesions, bilateral adrenalectomy is recommended, and hormone supplementation is recommended after surgery. For ACTH-independent CS, unilateral adrenalectomy is recommended first, and individualized treatment plans are formulated based on the results of follow-up.

Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 751-757, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993915


Objective:To explore the feasibility of deep learning technology for renal artery recognition in retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal surgery videos.Methods:From January 2020 to July 2021, the video data of 87 cases of laparoscopic retroperitoneal nephrectomy, including radical nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy, and hemiurorectomy, were retrospectively analyzed. Two urological surgeons screened video clips containing renal arteries. After frame extraction, annotation, review, and proofreading, the labeled targets were divided into training set and test set by the random number table in a ratio of 4∶1. The training set was used to train the neural network model. The test set was used to test the ability of the neural network to identify the renal artery in scenes with different difficulties, which was uniformly transmitted to the YOLOv3 convolutional neural network model for training. According to the opinion of two senior doctors, the test set was divided into high, medium, and low discrimination of renal artery and surrounding tissue. High identification means a clean renal artery and a large exposed area. For middle recognition degree, the renal artery had a certain degree of blood immersion, and the exposed area was medium. Low identification means that the exposed area of the renal artery was small, often located at the edge of the lens, and the blood immersion was severe, which may lead to lens blurring. In the surgical video, the annotator annotated the renal artery truth box frame by frame. After normalization and preprocessing, all images were input into the neural network model for training. The neural network output the renal artery prediction box, and if the overlap ratio (IOU) with the true value box was higher than the set threshold, it was judged that the prediction was correct. The neural network test results of the test set were recorded, and the sensitivity and accuracy were calculated according to IOU.Results:In the training set, 1 149 targets of 13 videos had high recognition degree, 1 891 targets of 17 videos had medium recognition degree, and 349 targets of 18 videos had low recognition degree. In the test set, 267 targets in 9 videos had high recognition degree, 519 targets in 11 videos had medium recognition degree, and 349 targets in 18 videos had low recognition degree. When the IOU threshold was 0.1, the sensitivity and accuracy were 52.78% and 82.50%, respectively. When the IOU threshold was 0.5, the sensitivity and accuracy were 37.80% and 59.10%, respectively. When the IOU threshold was 0.1, the sensitivity and accuracy of high, medium and low recognition groups were 89.14% and 87.82%, 45.86% and 78.03%, 32.95%, and 76.67%, respectively. The frame rate of the YOLOv3 algorithm in real-time surgery video was ≥15 frames/second. The false detection rate and missed detection rate of neural network for renal artery identification in laparoscopic renal surgery video were 47.22% and 17.49%, respectively (IOU=0.1). The leading causes of false detection were similar tissue and reflective light. The main reasons for missed detection were image blurring, blood dipping, dark light, fascia interference, or instrument occlusion, etc.Conclusions:Deep learning-based renal artery recognition technology is feasible. It may assist the surgeon in quickly identifying and protecting the renal artery during the operation and improving the safety of surgery.

Chinese Journal of Endocrine Surgery ; (6): 756-759, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-989882


Paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma (PPGL) is an uncommon neuroendocrine tumor with variable metastatic potential which is related to multiple factors, and has a clear genetic background. Metastatic PPGL requires systemic intervention after failure of surgical treatment, but the overall efficacy is poor. In this review, the related literatures were reviewed to describe PPGL from the histological origin and name evolution, genetic background and metastasis risk, metastasis risk prediction and prognosis assessment, challenges in the clinical staging and progress in the systemic treatment.

Journal of Sun Yat-sen University(Medical Sciences) ; (6): 118-121,132, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-605982


Objective]To compare the efficacy and safety of retroperitoneal laparoscopic intrasinusal pyelolithotomy (RLIP) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy(PCNL)in the treatment of solitary renal pelvic stone.[Methods]From March 2012 to September 2016,101 patients with solitary renal pelvic stone,divided into RLIP group(n=46)and PCNL group(n=55),were retrospectively analyzed to compare the difference between the two groups in clinical curative effect.[Results]There was no difference between the two groups regarding age,sex,stone side and stone size. Although the operative time was significantly longer,the stone-free rate in the RLIP group was significantly higher than that in the PCNL(P 38.5℃)and the decrease values of hemoglobin and glomerular filtration rate.[Conclusion]Compared to PCNL,RLIP was more efficient and slight safer in the management of solitary renal pelvic stone ,and had a certain value for generalization in clinic.

Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 499-503, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-427247


Objective To construct and evaluate a nomogram for predicting the risk of peri-operative complications after radical retro-pubic prostatectomy (RRP) with standard classification criteria.Methods The peri-operative complications and clinicopathological data of 240 patients (50-82 years old) who had undergone RRP for prostate cancer from June 2006 to June 2011 were retrospectively collected.Gleason score:95 cases < 7; 145 patients ≥ 7;Clinical staging:cT1 is 1 case (0.4%),T2a 5 cases (2.1%),T2b 7 cases (2.9%),T2c 162 cases (67.5%),T3a 26 cases (10.8%),T3b 39 cases (16.3%).The peri-operative complications (in 30 days after surgery) were classified by Clavien-Dindo Classification system (the occurrence rates are as follows:rectum injury 1.6%,wound infection 2.0%,deep venous thrombosis 1.2%,urinary leak 5.0%,lymphocele 4.5%,myocardial infarction 5.8%,second look operation 1.6%),and a logistic regression model was used to construct the nomogram.Results BMI,N staging and Blood loss more than 200ml during surgery were independent prognostic factors of RRP morbidity in multivariate logistic regression.The nomogram predicting the risk of peri-operative complications showed relative good concordance index (0.633) and good calibration. Conclusions Based on the clinicopathological factors,a nomogram to predict the probability of peri-operative complications in patients undergone RRP was constructed.This statistical tool may be beneficial in judging operation risk and help consulting with patient before or after surgery.