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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986887

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the composition, incidence and clinical characteristics of oral and maxillofacial infections in oral emergency.@*METHODS@#A retrospective study on patients with oral and maxillofacial infections who visited the Department of Oral Emergency in Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology from January 2017 to December 2019 was conducted. General characteristics, such as disease composition, gender, age distribution and position of involved teeth were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#A total of 8 277 patients with oral and maxillofacial infections were finally collected, including 4 378 male patients (52.9%) and 3 899 female patients (47.1%), with gender ratio of 1.12:1. The common diseases were periodontal abscess (3 826 cases, 46.2%), alveolar abscess (3 537 cases, 42.7%), maxillofacial space infection (740 cases, 9.0%), sialadenitis (108 cases, 1.3%), furuncle & carbuncle (56 cases, 0.7%) and osteomyelitis (10 cases, 0.1%). Male patients were more easily affected by periodontal abscess, space infection and furuncle & carbuncle than female patients with the gender ratios 1.24:1, 1.26:1, 2.50:1 individually, while the incidence of alveolar abscess, sialadenitis, furuncle & carbuncle had no significant gender difference. Different diseases were prone to occur at different ages. The peak ages of alveolar abscess were 5-9 and 27-67 years, while the peak age of periodontal abscess was 30-64 years. Space infection tended to occur between 21-67 years. There were 7 363 patients with oral abscess (3 826 patients with periodontal abscess and 3 537 patients with alveolar abscess), accounting for 88.9% of all the patients with oral and maxillofacial infections, involving 7 999 teeth, including 717 deciduous teeth and 7 282 permanent teeth. Periodontal abscess usually occurred in permanent teeth, especially the molar teeth. Alveolar abscess may occur in both primary teeth and permanent teeth. In primary teeth, the most vulnerable sites were primary molar teeth and maxillary central incisors while in permanent teeth the most vulnerable sites were first molar teeth.@*CONCLUSION@#Understanding the incidence of oral and maxillofacial infection was conducive to the correct diagnosis and effective treatment of clinical diseases, as well as targeted education for patients of different ages and genders to prevent the occurrence of diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Animals , Adult , Middle Aged , Abscess , Retrospective Studies , Periodontal Abscess , Carbuncle , Furunculosis , Incisor , Sialadenitis/epidemiology
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969594

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo establish a high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) fingerprint of Yanghetang benchmark sample, and evaluate its quality with chemometric methods, so as to provide a reference for the quality control of this benchmark sample. MethodHPLC was used to establish the fingerprint of Yanghetang benchmark sample with ZORBAX SB-C18 column(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm), the mobile phase was consisted of acetonitrile(A) -0.05% phosphoric acid aqueous solution (containing 0.05% triethylamine solution)(B) for gradient elution(0-5 min, 2%-3%A; 5-15 min, 3%-5%A; 15-65 min, 5%-30%A; 65-90 min, 30%-70%A), the flow rate was 1.0 mL·min-1, the column temperature was 35 ℃, and the detection wavelength was 210, 260 nm. Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCM) Chromatographic Fingerprint Similarity Evaluation System (2012 edition) combined with cluster analysis, principal component analysis(PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis(PLS-DA) were used to evaluate the quality differences between different batches of Yanghetang benchmark samples, and to find the main chemical components responsible for the quality differences. ResultHPLC fingerprint of Yanghetang benchmark sample was established, 13 common peaks were identified and attributed to each common peak, including peaks 2 and 8 from Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata, peaks 10 and 11 from Cinnamomi Cortex, peaks 1, 3-6 from fried Sinapis Semen, peak 13 from Ephedrae Herba, and peaks 7, 9, 12 from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. Eight of them were identified by comparing with control substance, which were 5-hydroxymethylfurfural(peak 2), sinapine thiocyanate(peak 4), glycyrrhizin(peak 7), verbascoside(peak 8), cinnamic acid(peak 10), cinnamaldehyde(peak 11), glycyrrhizic acid(peak 12) and ephedrine hydrochloride(peak 13). The similarities of the HPLC fingerprints of 15 batches of Yanghetang benchmark samples with the control fingerprint were all greater than 0.80. The three chemometric methods could classify the samples into two categories. Eight differential components were screened out, among which 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, sinapine thiocyanate, verbascoside and ephedrine hydrochloride were identified. ConclusionThe established fingerprint analysis method is accurate, stable and reproducible, which basically reflects the overall chemical composition of Yanghetang benchmark sample, and can provide a basis for establishment of quality standards for compound preparations of this famous classical formula.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-996421

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics and meteorological factors of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) in Qinghai Plateau area, and to provide a theoretical basis for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with chronic heart failure. Methods A total of 356 patients with CHF admitted to our hospital in Qinghai Plateau area from 2019 to 2020 were selected, and the number of cases, age, gender, comorbidity, NYHA cardiac function classification of CHF patients in Qinghai Plateau area from 2019 to 2020 were counted. To compare NYHA cardiac function classification and underlying diseases in CHF patients at different ages and altitudes in Qinghai Plateau area. The daily average temperature (℃), daily temperature and daily range (℃), daily average wind speed (m/s), daily average air pressure (kPa) and daily average relative humidity (%) in Qinghai Plateau from 2019 to 2020 were collected. According to the general clinical data of patients, the changes of the monthly incidence of CHF patients were analyzed. Pearson correlation analysis was used to compare the correlation between the monthly incidence of CHF patients and meteorological factors, and to explore the influence of meteorological factors on the incidence of CHD in Qinghai Plateau. Results Among the 356 CHF patients, there were 181 males and 175 females, with an average age of (72.47 ±6.49) years old. The NYHA classification of cardiac function was grade II in 103 cases, grade ⅲ in 198 cases, and grade ⅳ in 55 cases. NYHA cardiac function classification increased with age, and there was significant difference in NYHA cardiac function classification among CHF patients of different ages (P<0.05). Among 356 CHF patients, 91 cases (25.56%) were complicated with hypertension, 63 cases (17.70%) were complicated with coronary heart disease, 57 cases (16.01%) were complicated with diabetes, and 40 cases (11.24%) were complicated with hypergenic heart disease. 25 cases (7.02%) were complicated with heart valve disease. Hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, hypergenic heart disease and valvular heart disease increased with age, and there were statistically significant differences between CHF patients with different ages and underlying diseases (P<0.05). CHF patients in Qinghai Plateau region were mainly concentrated in January-March and October-December. Taking the number of CHD admissions as the dependent variable and each meteorological factor as the independent variable, the correlation between each factor was compared. The results showed that the number of CHF cases was positively correlated with the daily temperature range and daily mean air pressure, and negatively correlated with the average daily temperature (P<0.05). Daily temperature range (OR=2.61) and daily mean air pressure (OR=1.89) were independent risk factors for CHF in Qinghai Plateau area (P<0.05). Conclusion CHF is more prevalent in elderly people in high altitude areas in Qinghai Plateau. For months with high temperature changes, wind speed, we should pay attention to weather changes and take preventive measures in advance.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-991409

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the application of analogical thinking combined with situational teaching method to create a happy learning situation in ophthalmic nursing practice teaching.Methods:A total of 90 nursing students who had practice in Department of Ophthalmology, Xijing Hospital, Air Force Medical University, from October 2020 to January 2022 were selected as the research objects. According to different teaching methods, they were divided into control group and observation group. The control group ( n=45) adopted conventional teaching, while the observation group ( n=45) adopted analogical thinking combined with situational teaching method. The two groups of nursing students were evaluated by comprehensive examination results, teaching effect questionnaire and students' overall satisfaction with their teachers. SPSS 22.0 was used for t-test and Chi-square test. Results:The test scores of theoretical knowledge [(85.39±1.57) vs. (84.41±1.34)] and nursing skills [(87.52±0.04) vs. (82.64±0.05)] of observation group were both higher than those of control group. In the observation group, the students' awareness of medication safety, professional interest and independent learning, cooperation and organization ability, independent thinking and independent learning ability, the purpose of multi-disciplinary knowledge integration, information and knowledge range improvement, clinical thinking communication ability enhancement, flexible application of theoretical knowledge, practical operation ability enhancement, and the cultivation of innovation consciousness were all improved. And all the scores were better than those of the control group. The satisfaction of teachers in the observation group on students' learning attitude, language expression, calling communication ability and independent problem-solving ability was higher than that in the control group ( P < 0.05). Conclusion:The combination of analogical thinking and the situational teaching method to create a happy learning situation can improve the average scores of nursing students and nursing skills, and significantly improve the satisfaction of students to the teachers.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990708

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the influencing factors of textbook outcomes in liver surgery (TOLS) after radical resection of gallbladder carcinoma.Methods:The retrospective case-control study was conducted. The clinicopathological data of 530 patients who underwent radical resection of gallbladder carcinoma in 15 medical centers, including the First Affiliated Hospital of Army Medical University et al, from January 2014 to January 2020 were collected. There were 209 males and 321 females, aged (61±10)years. Patients underwent radical resection of gallbladder carcinoma, including cholecystectomy, hepatectomy, invasive bile duct resection, and lymph node dissection. Observation indicators: (1) situations of TOLS; (2) influencing factors of TOLS. Measure-ment data with normal distribution were represented as Mean± SD, and comparison between groups was conducted using the independent sample t test. Measurement data with skewed distribution were represented as M( Q1, Q3), and comparison between groups was conducted using the Mann-Whitney U test. Count data were described as absolute numbers or percentages, and comparison between groups was conducted using the chi-square test. Comparison of ordinal data between groups was conducted using the Mann-Whitney U test. The univariate analysis was conducted using the corresponding statistical methods based on data type, and variables with P<0.10 were included in multivariate analysis. Multivariate analysis was conducted using the Logistic stepwise regression model. Results:(1) Situations of TOLS. All 530 patients underwent radical resection of gallbladder carcinoma, and there were 498 cases achieving R 0 resection, 508 cases without ≥grade 2 intra-operative adverse events, 456 cases without postoperative grade B and grade C biliary leakage, 513 cases without postoperative grade B and grade C liver failure, 395 cases without severe com-plications within postoperative 90 days, 501 cases did not being re-admission caused by severe com-plications within postoperative 90 days. Of the 530 patients, 54.53%(289/530) of patients achieved postoperative TOLS, while 45.47%(241/530) of patients did not achieve postoperative TOLS. (2) Influencing factors of TOLS. Results of multivariate analysis showed that American Society of Anesthesiologists classification >grade Ⅱ, preoperative jaundice, T staging as T3?T4 stage, N staging as N2 stage, liver resection as right hemi-hepatectomy, and neoadjuvant therapy were independent factors influencing TOLS in patients undergoing radical resection of gallbladder carcinoma ( odds ratio=2.65, 1.87, 5.67, 5.65, 2.55, 3.34, 95% confidence interval as 1.22?5.72, 1.18?2.95, 2.51?12.82, 2.83?11.27, 1.41?4.63, 1.88?5.92, P<0.05). Conclusion:American Society of Anesthesiologists classification >grade Ⅱ, preoperative jaundice, T staging as T3?T4 stage, N staging as N2 stage, liver resection as right hemi-hepatectomy, and neoadjuvant therapy are independent factors influencing TOLS in patients undergoing radical resection of gallbladder carcinoma.

6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4635-4646, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008047

ABSTRACT

Insufficient catalytic efficiency of flavonoid 6-hydroxylases in the fermentative production of scutellarin leads to the formation of at least about 18% of by-products. Here, the catalytic mechanisms of two flavonoid 6-hydroxylases, CYP82D4 and CYP706X, were investigated by molecular dynamics simulations and quantum chemical calculations. Our results show that CYP82D4 and CYP706X have almost identical energy barriers at the rate-determining step and thus similar reaction rates, while the relatively low substrate binding energy of CYP82D4 may facilitate product release, which is directly responsible for its higher catalytic efficiency. Based on the study of substrate entry and release processes, the catalytic efficiency of the L540A mutation of CYP82D4 increased by 1.37-fold, demonstrating the feasibility of theoretical calculations-guided engineering of flavonoid 6-hydroxylase. Overall, this study reveals the catalytic mechanism of flavonoid 6-hydroxylases, which may facilitate the modification and optimization of flavonoid 6-hydroxylases for efficient fermentative production of scutellarin.


Subject(s)
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/metabolism , Apigenin , Glucuronates
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971335

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the mechanisms of Buyang Huanwu Decoction (BYHWD) modulating the gut microbiome and trimethylamine oxide (TAMO) to exert cardioprotective effects.@*METHODS@#Ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery was performed in rats to induce heart failure (HF). Except for the sham-operation group (n=10), 36 operation-induced models were randomized into 3 groups using a random number table (n=12 in each group): the model group, the BYHWD group (15.02 g/kg BYHWD), and the positive group (4.99 g/kg metoprolol succinate). After 4-week treatment (once daily by gavage), echocardiography was applied to evaluate the cardiac function and the Tei index (the ratio of ventricular isovolumic contraction time (IVCT) and isovolumic diastolic time (IVRT) to ejection time (ET)) was calculated; hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was observed to characterize the pathology of the myocardium and small intestinal villi. D-lactic acid was detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Expressions of occludin, claudin-1, and zonula occludens (ZO-1) were detected by Western blot. 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (16S rRNA) sequencing was used to explore the changes in the intestinal flora. TMAO was detected via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).@*RESULTS@#In the echocardiography, the Tei index was considerably lower in the positive and BYHWD groups compared with the model group (P<0.05). Besides, BYHWD improved the pathology of myocardium and small intestine of HF rats and lowered the D-lactic acid content in the serum, when compared with the model group (P<0.05). BYHWD also improved the expression of occludin and claudin-1 (P<0.05); in the gut microbiota analysis, BYHWD slowed down modifications in the structure distribution of gut microbiota and regulated the diversity of intestinal flora in HF rats. The content of TMAO in the serum was significantly lowered by BYWHT compared with the model group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#BYHWD may delay progression of HF by enhancing the intestinal barrier structure, and regulating intestinal flora and TAMO.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Chromatography, Liquid , Claudin-1 , Occludin , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Heart Failure
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970811

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical efficacy of full endoscopic lamina fenestration discectomy (Endo-LOVE) with full endoscopic transforaminal approach discectomy in the treatment of degenerative lumbar lateral recess stenosis.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis of 48 patients with degenerative lumbar lateral recess stenosis between March 2018 and March 2019 was performed. There were 32 males and 16 females, aged from 60 to 83 years old with an average of (72.9±6.5) years, course of disease ranged from 5 to 16 years with an average of (8.0±2.8) years. The patients were divided into observation group and control group according to surgical approaches. There were 28 cases in observation group, underwent Endo-LOVE surgery;and 20 cases in control group, underwent full endoscopic foraminal approach discectomy. The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, hospitalization day and complications were observed between two groups. Visual analgue scale (VAS), Japanese Orthopaedic Association(JOA), Oswestry Disability Index(ODI), lateral crypt angle were compared between two groups. And clinical effects were evaluated by modified Macnab standard.@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in follow-up and operation time between two groups (P>0.05). Intraoperative blood loss was from 5 to 15 ml with an average of (8.4±3.6) ml in observation group and 5 to 25 ml with an average of (11.5±5.4) ml in control group. The hospitalization day was from 5 to 8 days with an average of (6.0±1.0) days in observation group and 6 to 9 days with an average (7.2±1.1) days in control group. Intraoperative blood loss and hospitalization day were significantly lower in observation group(P<0.05). There were no serious complications in both groups. The VAS, JOA scores, and ODI at 3-month and final follow-up were significantly improved in both groups (P<0.05), and observation group was significantly better than control group (P<0.05). The skeletal lateral crypt angle and soft lateral crypt angle were significantly greater than the preoperative angle at 3 days postoperatively(P<0.05), and observation group was significantly better than control group(P<0.05). At the final follow-up, the modified Macnab criteria was used to assess clinical efficacy, in observation group, 22 patients obtained excellent results, 5 good and 1 fair;while 11 excellent, 4 good and 5 fair in control group;the clinical efficacy of observation group was significantly better than that of control group(P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Both surgical methods are performed under direct vision, with high safety and good clinical efficacy. However, Endo-LOVE enlarged the lateral crypt more fully.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Retrospective Studies , Blood Loss, Surgical , Constriction, Pathologic/surgery , Lumbar Vertebrae/surgery , Endoscopy/methods , Diskectomy/methods , Treatment Outcome , Spinal Stenosis/surgery , Intervertebral Disc Displacement/surgery , Diskectomy, Percutaneous/methods
9.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 626-632, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984695

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the prognostic value of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) reserve assessed by gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT G-MPI) for major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study. From January 2017 to December 2019, patients with coronary artery disease and confirmed myocardial ischemia by stress and rest SPECT G-MPI, and underwent coronary angiography within 3 months were enrolled. The sum stress score (SSS) and sum resting score (SRS) were analyzed by the standard 17-segment model, and the sum difference score (SDS, SDS=SSS-SRS) was calculated. The LVEF at stress and rest were analyzed by 4DM software. The LVEF reserve (ΔLVEF) was calculated (ΔLVEF=stress LVEF-rest LVEF). The primary endpoint was MACE, which was obtained by reviewing the medical record system or by telephone follow-up once every twelve months. Patients were divided into MACE-free and MACE groups. Spearman correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between ΔLVEF and all MPI parameters. Cox regression analysis was used to analyze the independent factors of MACE, and the optimal SDS cutoff value for predicting MACE was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). Kaplan-Meier survival curves were plotted to compare the difference in the incidence of MACE between different SDS groups and different ΔLVEF groups. Results: A total of 164 patients with coronary artery disease [120 male; age (58.6±10.7) years] were included. The average follow-up time was (26.5±10.4) months, and a total of 30 MACE were recorded during follow-up. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that SDS (HR=1.069, 95%CI: 1.005-1.137, P=0.035) and ΔLVEF (HR=0.935, 95%CI: 0.878-0.995, P=0.034) were independent predictors of MACE. According to ROC curve analysis, the optimal cut-off to predict MACE was a SDS of 5.5 with an area under the curve of 0.63 (P=0.022). Survival analysis showed that the incidence of MACE was significantly higher in the SDS≥5.5 group than in the SDS<5.5 group (27.6% vs. 13.2%, P=0.019), but the incidence of MACE was significantly lower in the ΔLVEF≥0 group than in theΔLVEF<0 group (11.0% vs. 25.6%, P=0.022). Conclusions: LVEF reserve (ΔLVEF) assessed by SPECT G-MPI serves as an independent protective factor for MACE, while SDS is an independent risk predictor in patients with coronary artery disease. SPECT G-MPI is valuable for risk stratification by assessing myocardial ischemia and LVEF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Stroke Volume , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging , Retrospective Studies , Ventricular Function, Left , Myocardial Ischemia
10.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 343-349, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009365

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#The artificial intelligence-aided diagnosis model of rib fractures based on YOLOv3 algorithm was established and applied to practical case to explore the application advantages in rib fracture cases in forensic medicine.@*METHODS@#DICOM format CT images of 884 cases with rib fractures caused by thoracic trauma were collected, and 801 of them were used as training and validation sets. A rib fracture diagnosis model based on YOLOv3 algorithm and Darknet53 as the backbone network was built. After the model was established, 83 cases were taken as the test set, and the precision rate, recall rate, F1-score and radiology interpretation time were calculated. The model was used to diagnose a practical case and compared with manual diagnosis.@*RESULTS@#The established model was used to test 83 cases, the fracture precision rate of this model was 90.5%, the recall rate was 75.4%, F1-score was 0.82, the radiology interpretation time was 4.4 images per second and the identification time of each patient's data was 21 s, much faster than manual diagnosis. The recognition results of the model was consistent with that of the manual diagnosis.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The rib fracture diagnosis model in practical case based on YOLOv3 algorithm can quickly and accurately identify fractures, and the model is easy to operate. It can be used as an auxiliary diagnostic technique in forensic clinical identification.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rib Fractures/diagnostic imaging , Artificial Intelligence , Thoracic Injuries , Algorithms , Radiography , Retrospective Studies
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008777

ABSTRACT

Based on the concept of quality by design(QbD), the Box-Behnken design-response surface methodology combined with standard relation(SR) and analytic hierarchy process(AHP)-entropy weight method(EWM) was applied to optimize the extraction process of the classic prescription Yihuang Decoction. The content of geniposidic acid, phellodendrine hydrochloride, and berberine hydrochloride in Yihuang Decoction, the extract yield, and fingerprint similarity were used as the critical quality attributes(CQAs) of the extraction process. The extraction time, water addition, and extraction times were used as the critical process parameters(CPPs). After determining the levels of each factor and level through single-factor experiments, response surface experiments were designed according to the Box-Behnken principle, and the experimental results were analyzed. The SR between each sample and the reference sample under various evaluation indicators of different extraction parameters was calculated. The weights of the five evaluation indicators were determined using AHP-EWM, followed by comprehensive evaluation. A function model between CPPs and CQAs characterized by comprehensive scores was established to predict the optimal extraction process parameters. In the final comprehensive weight coefficients, the yield rate accounted for 43.1%, and the content of berberine hydrochloride, phellodendrine hydrochloride, and geniposidic acid accounted for 35.1%, 6.3%, and 15.5%, respectively. After comprehensive score analysis with SR, the established second-order polynomial model was statistically significant(P<0.01, and the lack of fit was not significant). The predicted optimal extraction conditions for Yihuang Decoction were determined as follows: 8-fold volume of water, extraction time of 1.5 h, and extraction once. The mean comprehensive score of the validation experiment was 85.77, with an RSD of 0.99%, and it met the quality control stan-dards for the reference sample of Yihuang Decoction. The results indicate that the optimized extraction process for Yihuang Decoction is stable and reliable, and the water extract is close in quality attributes to the reference sample. This can serve as a foundation for the research and development of granules in the future. Box-Behnken design-response surface methodology combined with SR and AHP-EWM can provide references for the modern extraction process research of other classic prescriptions.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Analytic Hierarchy Process , Berberine , Entropy , Water
12.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 190-195, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-965458

ABSTRACT

Objective @#To investigate the effects of the exposure of sludge from sewage treatment plants and microplastic extracted from sludge on the oxidative stress levels in zebrafish, so as to put insights into the research into the impact of sludge and microplastics on human health. @*Methods @#Adult wild AB zebrafish were exposed to five groups of sludge (0, 12.5, 25, 50 and 75 g/L) and four groups of microplastics extract from sludge (0, 240, 480, 960/L), with 24 zebrafish in each group. The color, activity and death of zebrafish were observed every day. The contents of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected 0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h and 7 d post-exposure. A two-factor ANOVA was used to analyze the effects of different concentrations and time of exposure on the indicators above. @*Results @#Under 75 g/L sludge exposure, zebrafish began to show mortality at 72 h and all died after 7 d. The zebrafish in the other sludge groups and all microplastic groups had normal color and activity, and no mortality was observed. Sludge concentration interacted with exposure time to affect SOD, CAT, GSH and MDA (P<0.05). With increasing sludge concentration and exposure time, SOD decreased, MDA increased, CAT increased first and then decreased, GSH decreased first and then increased, and GSH continued to decrease since 24 h in the 75 g/L group. The microplastic concentration interacted with exposure time to affect SOD and GSH (P<0.05), but not CAT or MDA (P>0.05). With increasing microplastic concentration and exposure time, SOD and MDA increased, CAT increased first and then decreased, the GSH was slightly increased at 24 h and decreased after 72 h.@*Conclusion @#Both sludge and microplastics extracted from sludge can induce oxidative stress damage in zebrafish, and exposure time and concentration can interact to affect oxidative stress levels. The microplastics extracted from sludge have less effect on oxidative stress levels in zebrafish than sludge.

13.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 397-401, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920892

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the differences in UGT1A1 gene mutation sites, haplotypes, and diplotypes between patients with Gilbert syndrome (GS) and those with Crigler-Najjar syndrome type Ⅱ (CN-2). Methods A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 138 patients with GS or CN-2 who attended Beijing YouAn Hospital, Capital Medical University, from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2019, with 109 patients in the GS group and 29 patients in the CN-2 group, and the differences in mutation sites were analyzed between the two phenotypes. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of continuous data between two groups, and the chi-square test or the Fisher's exact test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. SNPStats software was used to perform linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotype analyses of mutation sites. Strong LD was defined as both | D ′| and r 2 > 0.8, and moderate LD was defined as | D ′| > 0.8 and r 2 > 0.4. Results UGT1A1 gene detection was performed for all patients, and mutations mainly included -3279T > G mutation (104 patients, 75.36%) and -3152G > A mutation (82 patients, 59.42%) in the upstream promoter PBREM region, a promoter TATA box TA insertion mutation (88 patients, 63.77%), and c.211G > A mutation in Exon 1 of the coding region (66 patients, 47.83%). Compared with the CN-2 group, the GS group had a significantly higher proportion of PBREM region -3279T > G mutation (82.57% vs 48.28%, χ 2 =14.508, P A mutation (68.81% vs 24.14%, χ 2 =18.955, P (TA) 7 mutation (72.48% vs 31.03%, χ 2 =17.027, P 0.8, r 2 > 0.8) between (TA) 6 > (TA) 7 and -3152G > A and moderate LD (| D ′| > 0.8, r 2 > 0.4) between (TA) 6 > (TA) 7 and -3279T > G, between -3152G > A and -3279T > G, between (TA) 6 > (TA) 7 and c.211G > A, and between -3279T > G and c.211G > A. Haplotype frequency analysis showed that compared with the CN-2 group, the GS group had a significantly higher frequency of haplotype -3279G—-3152A—(TA) 7 (45.72% vs 17.24%, χ 2 =7.833, P =0.005) and significantly lower frequencies of c.1456G (4.10% vs 16.48%, χ 2 =4.873, P =0.027) and c.211A—c.1456G (1.86% vs 24.90%, χ 2 =15.210, P < 0.001). The diplotype analysis showed that diplotypes consisting of haplotype c.1456G or c.211A—c.1456G were associated with a higher level of total bilirubin (TBil). Conclusion There are differences in common mutation sites and major haplotypes of the UGT1A1 gene between patients with GS and those with CN-2, and the common diplotypes of CN-2 correspond to a higher level of TBil.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928181

ABSTRACT

This study aims to establish a method for determination of paeonol(Pae), eugenol(Eug), and piperine(Pip) content in receptor liquid and research on the permeability and pharmacokinetics of Huoxue Zhitong gel patch and microemulsion gel. The Franz diffusion experiment was conducted to assess the percutaneous permeability, and the microdialysis method was employed to assess pharmacokinetics of Huoxue Zhitong gel patch and microemulsion gel. The content of Pae, Eug, and Pip in receptor liquid in vitro and in vivo was determined by HPLC and UPLC-MS. The Q_n and J_(ss) of Pae, Eug, and Pip in the gel patch were significantly higher than those in the microemulsion gel, indicating that the drug release was faster in the gel patch. The C_(max), AUC_(0-760), and MRT of Pae, Eug, and Pip in the gel patch were higher than those in the microemulsion gel, indicating that the gel patch can promote the penetration and prolong the skin residence of the drug. The results of this study provide reference for improving the dosage form of Huoxue Zhitong patch.


Subject(s)
Administration, Cutaneous , Chromatography, Liquid , Emulsions , Permeability , Skin/metabolism , Skin Absorption , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928150

ABSTRACT

According to the polarity of different components in Sanpian Decoction, two fingerprints were established. Then the substance benchmark freeze-dried powder of 15 batches of Sanpian Decoction was prepared, followed by the determination of the fingerprints, index component content, and dry extract rates, the identification of attribution of characteristic peaks, and the calculation of similarities between these fingerprints and the reference(R), the content and transfer rate ranges of ferulic acid, sinapine thiocyanate, liquiritin, and glycyrrhizic acid, and the dry extract rate range. The results showed that the similarities of 15 batches of the substance benchmark fingerprints with R were all greater than 0.900.Further summarization of the characteristic peaks revealed that there were a total of 20 characteristic peaks in fingerprint 1, among which, eight were from Sinapis Semen, four from Paeoniae Radix Alba, six from Chuanxiong Rhizoma, and two from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. A total of 16 characteristic peaks were observed in fingerprint 2, including one from Sinapis Semen, three from Paeoniae Radix Alba, eight from Chuanxiong Rhizoma, and four from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. The average dry extract rate of 15 batches of substance benchmarks was 18.25%, with a dry extract rate range of 16.28%-20.76%. The index component content and transfer rate ranges were listed as follows: 0.15%-0.18% and 38.81%-58.05% for ferulic acid; 0.26%-0.42% and 36.51%-51.02% for sinapine thiocyanate; 0.09%-0.15% and 48.80%-76.61% for liquiritin; 0.13%-0.24% and 23.45%-35.61% for glycyrrhizic acid. The fingerprint, dry extract rate, and index component content determination was combined for analyzing the quality value transfer of substance benchmarks in the classic prescription Sanpian Decoction.The established quality evaluation method for the substance benchmarks was stable and feasible, which has provided a basis for the quality control of Sanpian Decoction and the follow-up development of related preparations.


Subject(s)
Benchmarking , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glycyrrhizic Acid/analysis , Paeonia , Quality Control , Thiocyanates
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927977

ABSTRACT

Taste is an important factor affecting the medicinal properties of oral preparations and patient compliance with medication, and also an important evaluation index for oral preparation design and clinical application. How to characterize the taste objectively, accurately, simply, and efficiently is a bottleneck problem that restricts the taste design, development, and utilization of oral preparations. At present, the commonly used taste assessment methods for oral preparations are traditional human taste panel, electronic tongue, animal preference test, in vitro release study, and electrophysiological test. The traditional human taste panel is the first choice for taste evaluation, but it is limited by poor subjectivity and reproducibility. Therefore, despite some limitations, the other four taste assessment methods have been applied in the pharmaceutical industry as auxiliary methods. This study reviewed the detection principles, applicability, advantages, and disadvantages of the above methods to provide references for the taste correction research and taste assessment of oral preparations, improve patient compliance and the competitiveness of oral preparation products in the industry, and promote the development of oral preparation technologies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Administration, Oral , Electronic Nose , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Reproducibility of Results , Taste
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926044

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: The surgical management of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) caused by petrous apex meningioma (PAM) is still a challenge because of the lesion’s deep location and the surrounding complex structures. The authors describe the intradural anterior transpetrosal approach (ATPA) and its effect on the treatment of TN secondary to PAM. @*Methods@#: A retrospective analysis of 15 patients with TN secondary to PAM who underwent surgery via the intradural ATPA was conducted. The key techniques, which included drilling off the petrosal apex (PA) and opening the upper wall of Meckel’s cave (MC), are described in detail. @*Results@#: Total removal of the tumor and complete pain relief (Barrow Neurological Institute I) were achieved in all 15 patients without significant morbidity. Five patients developed new facial numbness postoperatively, which disappeared within three months after surgery. The postoperative magnetic resonance imaging showed temporal lobe swelling in three patients, but no clinical symptoms. One patient had cerebrospinal fluid leakage and was managed with bed rest and temporary lumbar drainage. One patient had an intracranial infection and was treated with antibiotics. By the last follow up, no patients had pain relapse or/and tumor recurrence. It is worth noting that the vascular compression at the root of the trigeminal nerve was found in one patient during the operation. @*Conclusion@#: Our experience suggests that drilling off the PA and opening the upper wall of the MC are key elements for a good outcome of the treatment of TN secondary to PAM. The intradural ATPA has the advantages for both tumor resection and pain relief.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939692

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To screen differentially expressed gene (DEG) related to myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) based on Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, and explore the core genes and pathogenesis of MDS by analyzing the biological functions and related signaling pathways of DEG.@*METHODS@#The expression profiles of GSE4619, GSE19429, GSE58831 including MDS patients and normal controls were downloaded from GEO database. The gene expression analysis tool (GEO2R) of GEO database was used to screen DEG according to | log FC (fold change) |≥1 and P<0.01. David online database was used to annotate gene ontology function (GO). Metascape online database was used to enrich and analyze differential genes in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). The protein-protein interaction network (PPI) was constructed by using STRING database. CytoHubba and Mcode plug-ins of Cytoscape were used to analyze the key gene clusters and hub genes. R language was used to diagnose hub genes and draw the ROC curve. GSEA enrichment analysis was performed on GSE19429 according to the expression of LEF1.@*RESULTS@#A total of 74 co-DEG were identified, including 14 up-regulated genes and 60 down regulated genes. GO enrichment analysis indicated that BP of down regulated genes was mainly enriched in the transcription and regulation of RNA polymerase II promoter, negative regulation of cell proliferation, and immune response. CC of down regulated genes was mainly enriched in the nucleus, transcription factor complexes, and adhesion spots. MF was mainly enriched in protein binding, DNA binding, and β-catenin binding. KEGG pathway was enriched in primary immunodeficiency, Hippo signaling pathway, cAMP signaling pathway, transcriptional mis-regulation in cancer and hematopoietic cell lineage. BP of up-regulated genes was mainly enriched in type I interferon signaling pathway and viral response. CC was mainly enriched in cytoplasm. MF was mainly enriched in RNA binding. Ten hub genes and three important gene clusters were screened by STRING database and Cytoscape software. The functions of the three key gene clusters were closely related to immune regulation. ROC analysis showed that the hub genes had a good diagnostic significance for MDS. GSEA analysis indicated that LEF1 may affect the normal function of hematopoietic stem cells by regulating inflammatory reaction, which further revealed the pathogenesis of MDS.@*CONCLUSION@#Bioinformatics can effectively screen the core genes and key signaling pathways of MDS, which provides a new strategy for the diagnosis and treatment of MDS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Computational Biology , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Gene Ontology , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/genetics
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942330

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of pulsatilla saponin A (PSA) on proliferation and apoptosis of human Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cell line Raji cells and expression of related pathway proteins. MethodWith Raji cells as the research object, the cell proliferation was detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) method, and the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 24 h, 48 h and 72 h were calculated to be 19.77, 18.31, 16.70 μmol·L-1, respectively. In subsequent related experiments, 0, 8, 16, 32 μmol·L-1 PSA were selected according to the IC50 value of Raji cells treated with PAS for 72 h. After 0, 8, 16, 32 μmol·L-1 PSA acted on Raji cells for 24, 48, 72 h, the optical density values of cell growth curve were detected by CCK-8 method. The zymogen activities of cysteine aspartate-specific protease (Caspase)-3, Caspase-8 and Caspase-9 in Raji cells treated with 0, 8, 16 and 32 μmol·L-1 PSA for 24 h were measured by Caspase-3, Caspase-8 and Caspase-9 colorimetric assay kit. The apoptosis rate and cell cycle of Raji cells treated with different concentrations of PSA after 24 h were detected by flow cytometry. The expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (cleaved PARP), cleaved cysteinyl aspartate-specific protease-3 (cleaved Caspase-3) apoptosis related protein and Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), phosphorylated-JAK2 (p-JAK2), and phosphorylated- STAT3 (p-STAT3) pathway proteins in Raji cells after 24 h of treatment with 0, 8, 16 and 32 μmol·L-1 PSA were tested by Western blot. ResultCompared with control group, decreased cell survival rate, inhibited cell proliferation, activated zymogens of Caspase-3, Caspase-8 and Caspase-9 (P<0.01), increased apoptosis (P<0.05, P<0.01), and enhanced cell cycle arrest in Gap phase 2 (G2) were observed in 8, 16 and 32 μmol·L-1 PSA groups(P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with control group, cells treated with 8, 16 and 32 μmol·L-1 PSA had lower expression of Bcl-2, p-JAK2, p-STAT3 proteins (P<0.05, P<0.01), and higher expression of Bax, cleaved PARP and cleaved Caspase-3 protein (P<0.01), while no significant change was found in the expression of JAK2 and STAT3 proteins. ConclusionPSA could inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of Raji cells, and its potential mechanism might be related to the regulation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940808

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo predict the potential targets and possible related signaling pathways of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma against bladder cancer (BC) based on network pharmacology and verify the potential molecular mechanism through in vitro cell experiment. MethodActive components of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma were retrieved from Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP) and BC-related targets were searched from GeneCards and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM). Via Venny2.1, the potential targets of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma against BC were screened out and the Venn diagram was plotted. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed by STRING, followed by Gene Ontology (GO) term enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Gnomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment with DAVID. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was employed to detect the inhibitory effect of tanshinone ⅡA (Tan ⅡA), cryptotanshinone (CPT), and luteolin (LUT) at different concentration (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 μmol·L-1) on the proliferation of BC T24 and 5637 cells, propidium iodide (PI) staining to analyze the apoptosis of 5637 cells induced by Tan ⅡA, CPT, and LUT (0, 4, 8 μmol·L-1), and Western blotting to detect the regulatory effect of Tan ⅡA (0, 4, 8, 16 μmol·L-1) on the expression of key target proteins. ResultA total of 65 active components and 39 anti-BC targets of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma were screened out. The anti-BC targets were mainly involved in the KEGG pathways of neuron-ligand-receptor interaction, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance, and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1 signaling pathway. As for the CCK-8 assay, compared with the blank group, Tan ⅡA, CPT, and LUT significantly inhibited the proliferation of T24 and 5637 cells, particularly the 5637 cells. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of Tan ⅡA on 5637 cells was significantly lower than that of CPT and LUT. Moreover, compared with the blank group, Tan ⅡA, CPT, and LUT all induced the apoptosis of 5637 cells, and the effect followed the order of Tan ⅡA>CPT>LUT (P<0.05). Western blot showed that Tan ⅡA significantly reduced the expression of EGFR, p-PI3K, and p-Akt in 5637 cells in a concentration-dependent manner compared with the blank group (P<0.05). ConclusionSalviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma exerts therapeutic effect on BC through multiple components, multiple targets, and multiple pathways. The mechanism is the likelihood that it down-regulates the expression of EGFR, p-PI3K, and p-Akt proteins, thus further inhibits cell proliferation, and induces apoptosis.

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