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1.
Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 173-178, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016547

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo analyze the interannual fluctuation, seasonal fluctuation, habitat distribution and the correlation of the 3 monitoring indicators of Aedes albopictus in Yangpu District of Shanghai from 2017 to 2021, and to provide a scientific basis for A. albopictus control and rational use of the indicators. MethodsThe density surveillance data of A. albopictus recorded by Breteau index (BI), Path index (PI) and the mosquito ovitrap index (MOI) from 2017 to 2021 in Yangpu District, Shanghai were compared. Microsoft Excel 2019 software was used for data summary and SPSS 25.0 software was used for statistical analysis. ResultsFrom 2017 to 2021, there were two months with BI>5, and the PI were all above the density control level of Class C, and there were nine months with MOI≥5. In 2017, BI was higher than in the other four years, with statistically significant differences (all P≤0.001). MOI in 2017 and 2020 was higher than in 2019 (P=0.029, P=0.004) and 2021 (P=0.005, P=0.001), with statistical significance. MOI for different types of habitats varied significantly, with a statistically significant difference (P=0.004). A linear correlation was observed between BI and PI (r=0.462, P=0.010). ConclusionBI, PI and MOI are used simultaneously to reflect the density of A. albopictus in Yangpu District of Shanghai. However, these three monitoring indicators show poor linear correlation. Comprehensively considering the scientific aspects of monitoring methods and seasonal fluctuations of indicators, it is suggested that MOI should be used as the main index to evaluate the density of A. albopictus. In the MOI, attention should be paid to factors such as the distribution of the habitats, the standardization of operating methods, and quality control, which are essential for enhancing the reliability of the MOI.

2.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 712-719, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016514

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the mechanism of action of Xiayuxue decoction in inhibiting nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) induced by high-fat diet in mice by regulating nucleotide binding oligomerization domain like receptor containing pyrin domain protein 6 (NLRP6). MethodsA total of 15 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into low-fat diet (LFD) group, high-fat diet (HFD) group, and Xiayuxue decoction-HFD group (XYXD group), with 5 mice in each group. Liver function parameters (alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and aspartate aminotransferase [AST]) and blood lipid metabolic indicators (triglycerides [TG] and total cholesterol [TC]) were measured; HE staining and oil red O staining were performed for liver tissue to observe histomorpholoty and lipid droplet deposition; quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure the expression levels of inflammatory factors (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], interleukin-1β [IL-1β], interleukin-18 [IL-18], and NLRP6) in liver tissue; Western blot was used to measure the protein expression levels of NLRP6, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and NF-κB p65; immunohistochemistry was used to measure the expression of NLRP6 and CD68. Mouse Raw264.7 cells were treated with palmitic acid (PA), lipopolysaccharide, and serum containing Xiayuxue decoction to observe inflammation. A one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison of continuous data between multiple groups, and the least significant difference t-test was used for further comparison between two groups. ResultsCompared with the LFD group, the HFD group had significant increases in the serum levels of ALT, AST, TC, and TG (all P<0.05). Liver histopathological examination showed that the HFD group had marked hepatic steatosis and a signficant increase in NAS score (P<0.05), and quantitative real-time PCR showed significant increases in the inflammatory factors such as IL1β and IL-18 and a significant reduction in the expression of NLRP6 (all P<0.05). Immunohistochemistry showed that the expression of NLRP6 showed a similar trend as that of the macrophage marker CD68. Western blot showed that after the downregulation of NLRP6 expression, there was a significant increase in phosphorylated NF-κB p65 (P<0.05). Compared with the HFD group, Xiayuxue decoction effectively improved liver inflammation, upregulated the expression of NLRP6, and downregulated phosphorylated NF-κB p65 in HFD mice (all P<0.05). After Raw264.7 cells were treated with PA, NLRP6 was downregulated to promote the progression of inflammation (P<0.05), and treatment with Xiayuxue decoction could upregulate NLRP6 and inhibit inflammation NF-κB (P<0.05). ConclusionXiayuxue decoction can effectively improve hepatic steatosis and liver inflammation in a mouse model of NAFLD, possibly by regulating NLRP6/NF-κB to alleviate macrophage activation.

3.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 54-61, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016462

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the interventional effects of Shugan Jianpi Yangxin prescription on the expression of orexin-A (OXA), orexin-1 receptor (OX1R), and orexin-2 receptor (OX2R) in the mouse model of insomnia. MethodThe mouse model of insomnia was established by intraperitoneal injection of DL-4-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA). Fifty BALB/c mice were randomized into a blank group, a model group, an eszopiclone (0.13 mg·kg-1) group, and low- and high-dose (8.4 and 33.6 g·kg-1, respectively) Shugan Jianpi Yangxin prescription groups and treated with the corresponding drugs for 14 consecutive days. The weight changes of mice were monitored, and Morris water maze and pentobarbital-induced sleep tests were conducted. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was employed to examine the expression of OXA in the hypothalamus. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the levels of OXA and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the hypothalamus, serum, and spleen. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction was employed to determine the mRNA levels of OXA, OX1R, and OX2R in the hypothalamus. ResultCompared with the blank group, the model group had decreased body weight (P<0.01), increased escape latency (P<0.01), increased sleep latency (P<0.01), shortened sleep duration (P<0.01), elevated OXA level and lowered 5-HT level in the hypothalamus, serum, and spleen (P<0.05), and up-regulated mRNA levels of OXA, OX1R, and OX2R in the hypothalamus (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the low- and high-dose groups of Shugan Jianpi Yangxin prescription showed increased body weight (P<0.05, P<0.01), shortened escape latency (P<0.05), shortened sleep latency and prolonged sleep duration (P<0.01), and lowered OXA level and elevated 5-HT level in the hypothalamus, serum, and spleen (P<0.05, P<0.01). Moreover, the two doses of Shugan Jianpi Yangxin prescription down-regulated the mRNA levels of OXA, OX1R, and OX2R in the hypothalamus (P<0.01). ConclusionShugan Jianpi Yangxin prescription exerts sedative and hypnotic effects in mice by increasing the content of 5-HT in the brain and inhibiting the expression of OXA and its receptors in the hypothalamus.

4.
Acta Anatomica Sinica ; (6): 88-97, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1015151

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the stress change characteristics of the cervical disc after removing different ranges of the uncinate process by establishing a three⁃dimensional finite element model of the C

5.
Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice ; (12): 238-242, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013383

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo explore the effect of core muscles training based on spinal fine-tuning manipulation on lumbar facet joint disorders. MethodsFrom February, 2021 to February, 2022, 80 patients with lumbar facet joint disorders in Huadong Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University were randomly divided into control group (n = 40) and observation group (n = 40) randomly. Both groups received routine treatment and spinal fine-tuning manipulation, while the observation group received core muscles training in addition, for six weeks. They were assessed with Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores, Short-Form of McGill Pain Questionnaire and World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF before and after treatment. The recurrence rate was observed after three months follow-up. ResultsThe scores of all the scales improved after treatment (t > 5.751, P < 0.001), and improved more in the observation group than in the control group (t > 2.051, P < 0.05). After three months follow-up, the recurrence rate was 7.89% (3/38) in the observation group, less than 28.13% (9/32) in the control group (χ2 = 5.005, P = 0.025). ConclusionCombination of core muscles training may improve lumbar function, reduce lumbar pain, reduce recurrence and improve quality of life for patients with lumbar facet joint disorders.

6.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 44-49, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011100

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate long-term auditory changes and characteristics of Alport syndrome(AS) patients with different degrees of renal injury. Methods:Retrospectively analyzing clinical data of patients diagnosed AS from January 2007 to September 2022, including renal pathology, genetic detection and hearing examination. A long-term follow-up focusing on hearing and renal function was conducted. Results:This study included 70 AS patients, of which 33(25 males, 8 females, aged 3.4-27.8 years) were followed up, resulting in a loss rate of 52.9%.The follow-up period ranged from 1.1to 15.8 years, with 16 patients followed-up for over 10 years. During the follow-up, 10 patients presenting with hearing abnormalities at the time of diagnosis of AS had progressive hearing loss, and 3 patients with new hearing abnormalities were followed up, which appeared at 5-6 years of disease course. All of which were sensorineural deafness. While only 3 patients with hearing abnormalities among 13 patients received hearing aid intervention. Of these patients,7 developed end-stage renal disease(ESRD), predominantly males (6/7). The rate of long-term hearing loss was significantly different between ESRD group and non-ESRD group(P=0.013). There was no correlation between the progression of renal disease and long-term hearing level(P>0.05). kidney biopsies from 28 patients revealed varying degrees of podocyte lesion and uneven thickness of basement membrane. The severity of podocyte lesion was correlated with the rate of long-term hearing loss(P=0.048), and there was no correlation with the severity of hearing loss(P>0.05). Among 11 cases, theCOL4A5mutationwas most common (8 out of 11), but there was no significant correlation between the mutation type and hearing phenotype(P>0.05). Conclusion:AS patients exhibit progressive hearing loss with significant heterogeneity over the long-term.. THearing loss is more likely to occur 5-6 years into the disease course. Hearing abnormalities are closely related to renal disease status, kidney tissue pathology, and gene mutations, emphasizing the need for vigilant long-term hearing follow-up and early intervention.


Subject(s)
Male , Child , Female , Humans , Nephritis, Hereditary/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Kidney , Deafness , Hearing Loss/genetics , Kidney Failure, Chronic/pathology , Mutation
7.
Acta Anatomica Sinica ; (6): 87-91, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1015251

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish the spatial course of distal tubule and afferent arterioles after macula densa, and to locate and detect the proteins in the adjacent parts by using three-dimensional visualization technology of microstructure. Methods C57 BL/6J mice were fixed by perfusion and embedded in epon 812. Tissue blocks were cut perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the kidney. And a total of 720, 2. 5 μm-thick consecutive sections were obtained from the renal capsule to the outer stripe of the renal outer medulla. After aligning the digital microscopic images through computer registration procedures, the tubules and vessels were traced by 3D reconstruction program edited by C Language. Selecting the tissue sections of the contact site and applying the improved immunoperoxidase staining method to detect H

8.
Acta Anatomica Sinica ; (6): 593-598, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1015185

ABSTRACT

[Abstract] Objective To investigate the branching pattern of the ureteric bud and the number of the nephron induced by each ureteric bud tip, through the three-dimensional tracing of the ureteric tree, combined with the morphological analysis and measurement of the ureteric tree. Methods The kidneys were obtained from three mice at various developing time points and prepared for paraffin and epoxy sections. Then the microscopic images were digitized and aligned from these sections. Based on the computer-assisted tracing and visualization of ureteric tree, the number of branches and the nephron induced by each ureteric bud tip were obtained by counting. In addition, paraffin sections were stained with HE staining for morphological observation of nephrogenic zone and ureteric bud, while in order to reflect the density of the ureteric bud tips at nephrogenic zone, the distance between two neighboring ureteric bud tips was measured aided with the Claudin-7 immunohistochemical staining. Results The ureteric bud branching tree revealed that the initial bifid iterative branching formed the framework of renal medulla, the branching became complicated and dense in cortex and nephrogenic zone, while the distance between ureteric bud tips were also decreasing. The number of the nephron induced by each ureteric bud tip increased from one (E14. 5) to two (E17. 5), and occasionally to three. Conclusion Threedimeasional Visualization of ureteric bud branching tree reveals regional complication, suggesting molecules in different regions drive different branching patterns; While the density of the ureteric bud tips at nephrogenic zone increases corresponding to decreasing of thickness of the nephrogenic zone, and the disappearance of the ureteric bud tips after birth is also consistent with the gradual consumption of nephron progenitor cells.

9.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics ; (12): 876-886, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1014610

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the 21st century, with the continuous development of anti-HER2-targeted drugs, more treatment options have been provided for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer and the survival prognosis has been significantly improved. At present, anti-HER2 targeted drugs mainly include monoclonal antibody drugs such as trastuzumab and pertuzumab, small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as lapatinib and neratinib, and antibody-drug conjugates such as TDM1 and T-DXd, which play an extremely important role in different disease processes. The treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer is based on targeted therapy with trastuzumab. Early-stage patients with high risk factors can be treated with intensive targeted therapy to further improve the prognosis, while advanced patients need a reasonable arrangement of targeted therapy to overcome drug resistance and prolong survival. This article will review the current status, the latest research progress and the future prospects of anti-HER2 targeted therapy in different stages of the disease.

10.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 1417-1421, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013953

ABSTRACT

Methamphetamine abuse and HIV infection are extremely serious public health and social problems facing the world today. Methamphetamine and HIV-1 Tat protein can induce neurotoxicity in an individual and synergistic way, and neuroinflammation is one of the most important mechanisms for ca-using neurotoxicity. Neuroinflammation can be mediated by glial cells, cytokines, NLRP3 inflammasomes, etc. This paper reviews the research progress of neuroinflammation induced by methamphetamine and HIV-1 Tat protein in recent years, with the aim of providing reference and basis for further exploration of the mechanisms of neuroinflammation caused by them and effective drug intervention targets in the future.

11.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 917-925, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013935

ABSTRACT

Aim To investigate the inhibitory effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on sodium palmitate induced fibrosis in human glomerullar mesangial cells (HMCs) and its mechanism. Methods (1) HMCs were treated with different concentrations of PA for 24 h, the intracellular lipid accumulation was observed by oil red staining, and the intracellular ROS production was detected by H2DCFDA kit; (2) HMCs were divided into control, PA (160 μmol·L

12.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 1068-1073, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013899

ABSTRACT

Aim To analyze the genotype-phenotype characteristics of voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv) associated genetic epilepsy and evaluate the efficacy of anti-seizure medications(ASMs). Methods PubMed database was searched and patients meeting the inclusion criteria were included for analysis. We divided the patients into “benign”, “encephalopathic” and other phenotypes according to the clinical characteristics. We performed descriptive statistical analysis of patients' mutated genes, clinical phenotype and drug efficacy, and used logistic regression to explore the influencing factors of treatment outcome. Results Data of 474 children were included for analysis. There were significant differences among different phenotypes in mutated genes, source of mutations and so on. In terms of clinical characteristics, there were also significant differences between patients with different phenotypes in age of onset, combined developmental delay and so on. In terms of monotherapy, phenobarbital was the most common treatment choice for children with “benign” phenotype, and sodium channel blockers (SCBs) were the most common treatment choice for children with “encephalopathy” phenotype, and the efficacy of SCBs monotherapy was superior to that of other ASMs. Multivariate Logistic analysis of the children receiving monotherapy showed that whether the children were combined with developmental delay and whether SCBs were used were significant factors influencing the efficacy of drug therapy. Conclusions Patients with the “benign” and “encephalopathic” phenotypes differ in several aspects of genetic variation, clinical characteristics, and drug selection. These results suggest that SCBs may be one of the recommended options for monotherapy.

13.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 1566-1576, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013745

ABSTRACT

Aim To investigate the mechanism of corn silk decoction on diabetic nephropathy (DN) rats using metabolomics technology. Methods DN rat model was established by feeding with high-sugar and high-fat diet, combined with intraperitoneal injection of low dose streptozotocin. Renal organ index, fasting blood glucose, albumin creatinine ratio, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol indexes were measured, and the pathological changes of renal tissues were also observed to evaluate the intervention effect of corn silk on DN model rats. Further, UPLC/Q-TOF-MS technology was used to screen potential biomarkers in renal tissues and urine, combined with principal component analysis (PC A) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). After identification by HM-DB and KEGG database, the biomarkers were imported into MetaboAnalyst for metabolic pathway analysis. Results All indexes and pathological damage of kidneys were improved in groups with different doses of corn silk, indicating that corn silk had a good intervention effect on DN. Metabolomic analysis showed that 18 biomarkers could be significantly called back by corn silk, and it involved 18 metabolic pathways mainly including phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, riboflavin metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, and tyrosine metabolism. Conclusions The mechanism of corn silk decoction intervention on DN may be related to amino acid metabolism, riboflavin metabolism, and arachidonic acid metabolism.

14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 4945-4962, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011213

ABSTRACT

The bacterial ATP-competitive GyrB/ParE subunits of type II topoisomerase are important anti-bacterial targets to treat super drug-resistant bacterial infections. Herein we discovered novel pyrrolamide-type GyrB/ParE inhibitors based on the structural modifications of the candidate AZD5099 that was withdrawn from the clinical trials due to safety liabilities such as mitochondrial toxicity. The hydroxyisopropyl pyridazine compound 28 had a significant inhibitory effect on Gyrase (GyrB, IC50 = 49 nmol/L) and a modest inhibitory effect on Topo IV (ParE, IC50 = 1.513 μmol/L) of Staphylococcus aureus. It also had significant antibacterial activities on susceptible and resistant Gram-positive bacteria with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of less than 0.03 μg/mL, which showed a time-dependent bactericidal effect and low frequencies of spontaneous resistance against S. aureus. Compound 28 had better protective effects than the positive control drugs such as DS-2969 ( 5) and AZD5099 ( 6) in mouse models of sepsis induced by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. It also showed better bactericidal activities than clinically used vancomycin in the mouse thigh MRSA infection models. Moreover, compound 28 has much lower mitochondrial toxicity than AZD5099 ( 6) as well as excellent therapeutic indexes and pharmacokinetic properties. At present, compound 28 has been evaluated as a pre-clinical drug candidate for the treatment of drug-resistant Gram-positive bacterial infection. On the other hand, compound 28 also has good inhibitory activities against stubborn Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli (MIC = 1 μg/mL), which is comparable with the most potent pyrrolamide-type GyrB/ParE inhibitors reported recently. In addition, the structure-activity relationships of the compounds were also studied.

15.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1469-1480, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010613

ABSTRACT

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interactions and repetitive behaviors. Although hundreds of ASD risk genes, implicated in synaptic formation and transcriptional regulation, have been identified through human genetic studies, the East Asian ASD cohorts are still under-represented in genome-wide genetic studies. Here, we applied whole-exome sequencing to 369 ASD trios including probands and unaffected parents of Chinese origin. Using a joint-calling analytical pipeline based on GATK toolkits, we identified numerous de novo mutations including 55 high-impact variants and 165 moderate-impact variants, as well as de novo copy number variations containing known ASD-related genes. Importantly, combined with single-cell sequencing data from the developing human brain, we found that the expression of genes with de novo mutations was specifically enriched in the pre-, post-central gyrus (PRC, PC) and banks of the superior temporal (BST) regions in the human brain. By further analyzing the brain imaging data with ASD and healthy controls, we found that the gray volume of the right BST in ASD patients was significantly decreased compared to healthy controls, suggesting the potential structural deficits associated with ASD. Finally, we found a decrease in the seed-based functional connectivity between BST/PC/PRC and sensory areas, the insula, as well as the frontal lobes in ASD patients. This work indicated that combinatorial analysis with genome-wide screening, single-cell sequencing, and brain imaging data reveal the brain regions contributing to the etiology of ASD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autism Spectrum Disorder/metabolism , Autistic Disorder , Exome Sequencing , DNA Copy Number Variations , East Asian People , Brain/metabolism , Mutation/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics
16.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 146-153, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970254

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the epidemiology and hospitalization costs of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Shanghai. Methods: A retrospective case summary was conducted on 63 614 hospitalized children with CAP in 59 public hospitals in Shanghai from January 2018 to December 2020. These children's medical records, including their basic information, diagnosis, procedures, and costs, were extracted. According to the medical institutions they were admitted, the patients were divided into the children's hospital group, the tertiary general hospital group and the secondary hospital group; according to the age, they were divided into <1 year old group, 1-<3 years old group, 3-<6 years old group, 6-<12 years old group and 12-18 years old group; according to the CAP severity, they were divided into severe pneumonia group and non-severe pneumonia group; according to whether an operation was conducted, the patients were divided into the operation group and the non-operation group. The epidemiological characteristics and hospitalization costs were compared among the groups. The χ2 test or Wilcoxon rank sum test was used for the comparisons between two groups as appropriate, and the Kruskal-Wallis H test was conducted for comparisons among multiple groups. Results: A total of 63 614 hospitalized children with CAP were enrolled, including 34 243 males and 29 371 females. Their visiting age was 4 (2, 6) years. The length of stay was 6 (5, 8) days. There were 17 974 cases(28.3%) in the secondary hospital group, 35 331 cases (55.5%) in the tertiary general hospital group and 10 309 cases (16.2%) in the children's hospital group. Compared with the hospitalizations cases in 2018 (27 943), the cases in 2019 (29 009) increased by 3.8% (1 066/27 943), while sharply declined by 76.2% (21 281/27 943) in 2020 (6 662). There were significant differences in the proportion of patients from other provinces and severe pneumonia cases, and the hospitalization costs among the children's hospital, secondary hospital and tertiary general hospital (7 146 cases(69.3%) vs. 2 202 cases (12.3%) vs. 9 598 cases (27.2%), 6 929 cases (67.2%) vs. 2 270 cases (12.6%) vs. 9 397 cases (26.6%), 8 304 (6 261, 11 219) vs. 1 882 (1 304, 2 796) vs. 3 195 (2 364, 4 352) CNY, χ2=10 462.50, 9 702.26, 28 037.23, all P<0.001). The annual total hospitalization costs of pediatric CAP from 2018 to 2020 were 110 million CNY, 130 million CNY and 40 million CNY, respectively. And the cost for each hospitalization increased year by year, which was 2 940 (1 939, 4 438), 3 215 (2 126, 5 011) and 3 673 (2 274, 6 975) CNY, respectively. There were also significant differences in the hospitalization expenses in the different age groups of <1 year old, 1-<3 years old, 3-<6 years old, 6-<12 years old and 12-18 years old (5 941 (2 787, 9 247) vs. 2 793 (1 803, 4 336) vs. 3 013 (2 070, 4 329) vs. 3 473 (2 400, 5 097) vs. 4 290 (2 837, 7 314) CNY, χ2=3 462.39, P<0.001). The hospitalization cost of severe pneumonia was significantly higher than that of non-severe cases (5 076 (3 250, 8 364) vs. 2 685 (1 780, 3 843) CNY, Z=109.77, P<0.001). The cost of patients who received operation was significantly higher than that of whom did not (10 040 (4 583, 14 308) vs. 3 083 (2 025, 4 747) CNY, Z=44.46, P<0.001). Conclusions: The number of children hospitalized with CAP in Shanghai decreased significantly in 2020 was significantly lower than that in 2018 and 2019.The proportion of patients from other provinces and with severe pneumonia are mainly admitted in children's hospitals. Hospitalization costs are higher in children's hospitals, and also for children younger than 1 year old, severe cases and patients undergoing operations.


Subject(s)
Infant , Female , Male , Humans , Child , Retrospective Studies , China/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Community-Acquired Infections/therapy , Hospitals, Pediatric , Pneumonia/therapy
17.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 283-290, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970205

ABSTRACT

Choledochal cyst is one of the most common congenital diseases in biliary tract system,which can affect children as well as adults. While the surgical management has markedly evolved in recent years,our understanding related to the nomenclature,diagnosis and classification of choledochal cysts remains to be inadequate. Anatomic variations and intrahepatic bile duct stricture are prone to be overlooked during surgery. Besides,it is still controversial in the treatment of intrapancreatic choledochal cyst and the extent of resection related to intrahepatic dilated bile ducts. Along with the advancement of laparoscopic or robot-assisted procedures,there is also an increased number of reoperations for patients with choledochal cyst,which underscores the importance of long-term biliary patency. This state-of-the-art review on choledochal cyst aims to further improve the diagnosis and treatment for this benign but intractable disease.

18.
Journal of Environmental and Occupational Medicine ; (12): 349-354, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969641

ABSTRACT

Background Aedes albopictus is the dominant mosquito species in residential areas in Shanghai. There are many types of small containers with accumulated water in residential areas, providing a large number of breeding environments for Aedes alpopicuts and leading to an increasing transmission risk of mosquito-borne diseases. Objective To use random forest to predict breeding of Aedes mosquitoes in small aquatic container habitat in two concentrated reconstruction communities of rural areas in Shanghai, and to understand associated influence of environmental factors on the breeding of Aedes mosquitoes in the process of urbanization.Methods Small-scale habitat surveys of Aedes mosquitoes were carried out in two suburb concentrated reconstruction communities (Community A and B) in Shanghai, and the environment where the habitat was located was recorded and analyzed in both communities. The habitat where eggs, larvae, or pupae were found was recorded as positive. Spatial weight matrix was applied on a household basis, and global Moran's I index was used to carry out spatial autocorrelation analysis on the small-scale habitat and positive habitat in the environment of the two communities. When Moran's I is greater than 0, it means that the data present a positive spatial correlation; when Moran's I is less than 0, it means that the data are spatially negatively correlated; when Moran's I is 0, the spatial distribution is random. Combining the results of P and Z values, we explored the spatial distribution characteristics of small-scale habitat and positive habitat in the community environment. Random forest algorithm in machine learning was used to classify and sort environmental-related factors, and predict the breeding of Aedes mosquitoes in small aquatic habitat; receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to carry out model fitting evaluation. Results The environmental factors including building location (χ2=23.35, P<0.001), open space (χ2=8.83, P=0.003), and having trees (χ2=11.02, P=0.001) had a significant impact on the positive rate of small-scale habitat. The results of spatial characteristics analysis showed that the global Moran's I index of small-scale habitat was −0.092 (Z=−1.09, P=0.274) in Community A and 0.034 (Z=0.52, P=0.602) in Community B, and the global Moran's I index of positive habitat was −0.092 (Z=−1.14, P=0.255) in Community A and 0.070 (Z=0.95, P=0.342) in Community B. Since the P values of Community A and B were greater than 0.1 and the Z values were between −1.65 and 1.65, for both small-scale habitat and positive habitat the spatial characteristics were randomly distributed and no significant spatial aggregation was found. In the fitted random forest algorithm classification prediction model with the top 10 characteristic factors of importance, the area under curve (AUC) value was 0.95, and the prediction fitting effect was satisfactory. The results of classification and sorting indicated that counts of household small-scale habitat and positive habitat were the most important factors for breeding. Conclusion The random forest model constructed by environmental factor indicators can be used to predict the breeding situation of Aedes mosquitoes in small-scale aquatic habitat, and provide a basis for scientific prevention and control of mosquito breeding for the target area.

19.
Intestinal Research ; : 110-125, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967011

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The safety and efficacy of filgotinib, a once-daily oral Janus kinase 1 preferential inhibitor, were evaluated in Japanese patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) in the phase 2b/3 SELECTION trial. @*Methods@#SELECTION (NCT02914522) was a randomized, placebo-controlled trial comprising 2 induction studies and a maintenance study. Adults with moderately to severely active UC were randomized in induction study A (biologic-naïve) or B (biologic-experienced) to receive filgotinib 200 mg, 100 mg, or placebo once daily for 11 weeks. Patients in clinical remission or Mayo Clinic score response at week 10 entered the 47-week maintenance study. Efficacy and safety outcomes were assessed in Japanese patients enrolled in Japan. @*Results@#Overall, 37 and 72 Japanese patients were enrolled in Japan in induction studies A and B, respectively, and 54 entered the maintenance study. Numerically higher proportions of filgotinib 200 mg-treated than placebo-treated patients achieved clinical remission in induction study A (4/15 [26.7%] vs. 0/6 [0%]) and the maintenance study (5/20 [25.0%] vs. 0/9 [0%]), but not induction study B (1/29 [3.4%] vs. 1/14 [7.1%]). Both doses were well tolerated, and no new safety signals were noted. Herpes zoster was reported in 1 filgotinib 200 mg-treated patient in each of induction study A (2.3%, 1/44) and the maintenance study (5.0%, 1/20). @*Conclusions@#These data, alongside those of the overall SELECTION population, suggest the potential of filgotinib 200 mg as a viable treatment option for Japanese patients with UC. Owing to small patient numbers, data should be interpreted cautiously.

20.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 550-559, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-965610

ABSTRACT

Pro-inflammatory macrophages play key regulatory role in the occurrence and development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we constructed a celastrol (Cel)-loaded polyamide-amine dendrimer (PAMAM) drug delivery system, which could target folate receptor and mitochondria. It could target inflammatory macrophages and realize chemo-photothermal synergistic therapy. Using PAMAM as the nano-carrier, folate receptor-targeting group folic acid (FA) and mitochondria-targeting group IR808 (also known as the photothermal agent) were conjugated with PAMAM through amide reaction, and then complexed with anti-inflammatory drug Cel to prepare the FA-PAMAM-IR808/Cel nanocomplex. In vitro characterization results showed that the drug loading efficiency of the nanocomplex was 50.90%, particle size was between 130 and 160 nm, average potential was between 1.0 and 3.5 mV, the drug release showed pH sensitivity, temperature reached to 42.5 ℃ after near-infrared (NIR) light irradiation for 10 min. In vitro cellular uptake experiments showed that the nanocomplex had obvious folate receptor-targeting and mitochondria-targeting ability. Following irradiation with NIR light, the cytotoxicity and cellular apoptosis enhanced. The secretion of pro-inflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and nitric oxide (NO) decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. This study provided insights for the development of novel anti-RA nanomedicines.

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