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1.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 540-545, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985805

ABSTRACT

With the improvement of nonsurgical treatment in pancreatic cancer, the increasing accuracy of subclassification of anatomy, and the continuous refinement of surgical resection techniques, more and more locally advanced pancreatic cancer(LAPC) patients have the opportunity to undergo conversion surgery and achieve survival benefits,which has attracted the attention of scholars in this field. Despite the numerous prospective clinical studies conducted, there is still a lack of high-level evidence-based medical evidence in terms of conversion treatment strategies, efficacy evaluation, surgical timing and survival prognosis, and there are not yet specific quantitative standards and guiding principles for conversion treatment for these patients in clinical practice, and the indications for surgical resection rely more on the experience of each center or surgeon, lacking consistency. Therefore,the indicators for the evaluation of the efficacy of conversion treatment in patients with LAPC were summarized to reflect on the different modes of conversion treatment and clinical outcomes currently being explored, expecting to provide more accurate recommendations and guidance for the clinic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prospective Studies , Pancreatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use
2.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 557-565, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985444

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial resistance of food-borne diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) and the prevalence of mcr genes that mediates mobile colistin resistance in parts of China, 2020. Methods: For 91 DEC isolates recovered from food sources collected from Fujian province, Hebei province, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and Shanghai city in 2020, Vitek2 Compact biochemical identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing platform was used for the detection of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) against to 18 kinds of antimicrobial compounds belonging to 9 categories, and multi-polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) was used to detect the mcr-1-mcr-9 genes, then a further AST, whole genome sequencing (WGS) and bioinformatics analysis were platformed for these DEC isolates which were PCR positive for mcr genes. Results: Seventy in 91 isolates showed different antimicrobial resistance levels to the drugs tested with a resistance rate of 76.92%. The isolates showed the highest antimicrobial resistance rates to ampicillin (69.23%, 63/91) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (59.34%, 54/91), respectively. The multiple drug-resistant rate was 47.25% (43/91). Two mcr-1 gene and ESBL (extended-spectrum beta-lactamase) positive EAEC (enteroaggregative Escherichia coli) strains were detected. One of them was identified as serotype of O11:H6, which showed a resistance profile to 25 tested drugs referring to 10 classes, and 38 drug resistance genes were predicted by genome analysis. The other one was O16:H48 serotype, which was resistant to 21 tested drugs belonging to 7 classes and carried a new variant of mcr-1 gene (mcr-1.35). Conclusion: An overall high-level antimicrobial resistance was found among foodborne DEC isolates recovered from parts of China in 2020, and so was the MDR (multi-drug resistance) condition. MDR strains carrying multiple resistance genes such as mcr-1 gene were detected, and a new variant of mcr-1 gene was also found. It is necessary to continue with a dynamic monitoring on DEC contamination and an ongoing research into antimicrobial resistance mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colistin/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , China/epidemiology , Escherichia coli , Plasmids/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
3.
Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology ; (12): 265-270, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995285

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the molecular characteristics of hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) among the cases with acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) in Henan Province.Methods:Nasal/throat swab samples collected from patients with severe acute respiratory tract infection (SARI) in Luohe and patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) in Zhengzhou were used in this study. HPIV nucleic acids in the samples were detected using real-time fluorescent PCR. HPIV3-positive samples were subjected to RT-PCR for the amplification of HN genes and the sequences were analyzed with Sanger method. CExpress and MEGA7.0 software were used for sequences editing, evolution tree construction and gene sequence analysis.Results:A total of 374 throat swab samples collected form ARI cases in Luohe and Zhengzhou were tested and 20 (5.3%) of them were positive for HPIV3. Eighteen HPIV3 HN gene sequences were successfully amplified and all belonged to C3 subgroups, including 16 sequences of C3f genotype and two sequences of C3a genotype. The 18 HN gene sequences shared the homology of 97.6%-100.0% in nucleotide and 99.3%-100.0% in amino acid, but the differences between them and the prototype strain Wash/47885/57 were significant. There were 12 amino acid mutations shared by them, including four function-related mutations (H295Y, I391V, D556N and I53T). There were no significant differences in the nucleotide or amino acid sequences as compared with the epidemic strain of China/BCH4210A/2014.Conclusions:The C3f and C3a branches of HPIV3 were the epidemic genotypes in Henan Province in recent years and a local circulating prevalence might be established. Continuous and in-depth monitoring of HPIV3 C3 subtype would be of great significance for the prevention and control of HPIV3-associated diseases.

4.
Chinese Medical Ethics ; (6): 332-337, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005554

ABSTRACT

【Objective:】 To summarize the research status, problems and countermeasures of ethical issues related to volunteer action in public health emergencies by reviewing relevant literature. 【Methods:】 Using four keywords: public health emergencies, volunteers, ethics, and research, this paper searched the Chinese and English databases for the literature published from December 2006 to December 2021 (15 years in total) on "ethical research on volunteer action in public health emergencies". After searching, it was found that there were not many related papers. A total of 31 papers were retrieved, and only 23 papers were selected. 【Results:】 The ethical problems faced by volunteers in public health emergencies were complex and diverse, and the individual ethical behavior of volunteers was affected by many factors. The strategies to solve the relevant ethical issues were not yet perfect. 【Conclusions:】 The ethical issues related to volunteer actions in public health emergencies needed to be further studied.

5.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 1623-1627, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013717

ABSTRACT

Drug discrimination is a behavioral pharmacological technique to study the discriminative stimulus effects of drug. Currently drug discrimination has been widely used in preclinical drug development of CNS drugs, the most extensive of which is psychodependent research in the field of drug abuse. This review describes in general the basic principles of drug discrimination, preliminarily elaborates on the relevant characteristics and applications of the subjective effects, time-course effect, stereo specificity, individual differences, and receptor mechanisms, and its development prospects for hallucinogens and cannabis drugs are also presented.

6.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 100-106, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970192

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To establish a newly-designed scoring system for breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS) 4 and 5 breast lesions only visible on MRI, and to examine their clinical pathway of biopsy. Methods: The BI-RADS 4 and 5 breast lesions only visible on MRI but not suspected on mammograms or ultrasound between June 2007 and December 2021 at Beijing Hospital were evaluated retrospectively. A total of 209 lesions from 184 patients were finally included. All patients were female, aged (50±11) years (range: 27 to 76 years). All lesions were confirmed by pathology and divided into malignancy and non-malignancy. The lesions were divided into mass and non-mass type using BI-RADS. The receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the new scoring system. Four types of pathology-obtaining pathway were used: biopsy guided by second-look ultrasound, local excision guided by lesion position information on MRI, intraductal lesion excision guided by methylene blue stain and mastectomy. The data between mass and non-mass lesions were compared by Mann-Whitney U test, χ2 test or Fisher exact test,respectively. Results: There were 124 malignant and 85 non-malignant lesions, while 100 mass and 109 non-mass lessions. The sizes between mass and non-mass lesions showed significant difference(M(IQR)) (7.0 (3.0) mm vs. 25.0 (25.0) mm, U=568.000, P<0.01) and their BI-RADS diagnostic accuracy had no significant difference (53.0% (53/100) vs. 65.1% (71/109), χ2=3.184, P=0.074). The areas under ROC curve of the new scoring system for evaluating mass and non-mass were 0.841 and 0.802, respectively. When taking Score 3 as threshold, it can potentially avoid 14.0% (14/100) and 4.6% (5/109) of biopsies in mass and non-mass, respectively. As to pathway of obtaining pathology, second-look ultrasound succeeded more easily in mass than non-mass (41.0% (41/100) vs.26.6% (29/109), χ2=4.851, P=0.028). More MRI-guided local excisions were performed in non-mass than mass (52.3% (57/109) vs. 34.0% (34/100), χ2=7.100, P=0.008). Conclusions: For suspicious breast lesions detected by MRI but not suspected on X-ray or ultrasound, the new scoring system can further increase diagnostic accuracy. The second-look ultrasound plays an important role for obtaining pathology, especially for mass-type lesion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Male , Retrospective Studies , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Mastectomy , Radiography , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
7.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 378-385, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969855

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the infection status of Enterovirus (EV) in cases of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in Luohe City, Henan Province from 2017 to 2021, and analyze the prevalence and type composition of EV in ARIs. Methods: From October 2017 to May 2021, pharyngeal swab samples were collected from 1 828 patients with ARIs in Luohe Central Hospital and the clinical epidemiological data of these cases were also collected. EV-positive samples were identified by Quantitative Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR). The 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR) was amplified by Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). The results of 5'UTR region were initially typed by Enterovirus Genotyping Tool Version 1.0. Based on the typing results, the full-length of VP1 region was amplified by RT-PCR. The EV typing was identified again by VP1 region. Results: Among 1 828 cases of ARIs, 56.7% (1 036) were males. The median (Q1, Q3) age was about 3 (1, 5) years. Patients under 5 years old accounted for 71.6% (1 309 cases). Among all cases, a total of 71 EV-positive samples were identified by qPCR, with a detection rate of 3.88% (71/1 828). The EV detection rates for men and women were 3.28% (34/1 036) and 4.67% (37/792), without statistically significant differences (χ2=2.32, P=0.14). The EV detection rates for 2 to <6 years, 6 months to <2 years, 6 to <10 years, and <6 months were 6.29% (48/763), 3.00% (18/600), 2.52% (4/159), and 1.67% (1/60) (χ2=27.91, P<0.001). The EV detection rate was 0.92% (3/326) in autumn and winter of 2017. The EV detection rates were 1.18% (6/508), 2.47% (12/485) and 8.31% (34/409) in each year from 2018 to 2020, with an increasing trend year by year(χ2trend=29.76, P<0.001). The main prevalent seasons were summer and autumn. The detection rate in spring of 2021 was 4.00% (4/100). A total of 12 types were identified and classified as CVA2, CVA4, CVA5, CVA6, CVA10, CVB3, CVB5, E5, E11, E30, PV-1, and EV-D68. The types of CVA2, CVA10, CVA6, and CVB3 were the dominant phenotypes. In 59 sample of EV typing, the main clinical manifestation was upper respiratory tract infection (36/59, 61.01%). The dominant types detected in upper respiratory tract infections were CVA10 (10/36, 27.78%), CVA6 (9/36, 25.00%) and CVB3 (8/36, 22.22%). The dominant type detected in lower respiratory tract infections was CVA2 (7/19, 36.84%). Conclusion: In Luohe City, Henan Province from 2017 to 2021, EV infection in ARIs cases has clear seasonal and age-specific patterns, and the dominant types of upper and lower respiratory tract infections are different.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Enterovirus/genetics , 5' Untranslated Regions , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Phenotype , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Phylogeny
8.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 291-298, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971342

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effects of Zishen Yutai Pills (ZYPs) on the quality of oocytes and embryos, as well as pregnancy outcomes in patients with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) receiving in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET). The possible mechanisms, involving the regulation of bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), were also investigated.@*METHODS@#A total of 120 patients with DOR who underwent their IVF-ET cycle were randomly allocated to 2 groups in a 1:1 ratio. The patients in the treatment group (60 cases) received ZYPs from the mid-luteal phase of the former menstrual cycle by using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol. The patients in the control group (60 cases) received the same protocol but without ZYPs. The primary outcomes were the number of oocytes retrieved and high-quality embryos. Secondary outcomes included other oocyte or embryo indices as well as pregnancy outcomes. Adverse events were assessed by comparison of the incidence of ectopic pregnancy, pregnancy complications, pregnancy loss, and preterm birth. Contents of BMP15 and GDF9 in the follicle fluids (FF) were also quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the numbers of oocytes retrieved and high-quality embryos were significantly increased in the ZYPs group (both P<0.05). After treatment with ZYPs, a significant regulation of serum sex hormones was observed, including progesterone and estradiol. Both hormones were up-regulated compared with the control group (P=0.014 and 0.008), respectively. No significant differences were observed with regard to pregnancy outcomes including implantation rates, biochemical pregnancy rates, clinical pregnancy rates, live birth rates, and pregnancy loss rates (all P>0.05). The administration of ZYPs did not increase the incidence of adverse events. The expressions of BMP15 and GDF9 in the ZYPs group were significantly up-regulated compared with the control group (both P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#ZYPs exhibited beneficial effects in DOR patients undergoing IVF-ET, resulting in increments of oocytes and embryos, and up-regulation of BMP15 and GDF9 expressions in the FF. However, the effects of ZYPs on pregnancy outcomes should be assessed in clinical trials with larger sample sizes (Trial reqistration No. ChiCTR2100048441).


Subject(s)
Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Fertilization in Vitro/methods , Ovarian Reserve , Prospective Studies , Premature Birth , Embryo Transfer/methods , Ovulation Induction/methods , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/therapeutic use
9.
Chinese Journal of Hospital Administration ; (12): 819-823, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995999

ABSTRACT

In order to carry out the " Healthy China 2030″ initiative, accelerate the cloud-based transformation of hospital information platforms, promote the construction of smart hospitals, and improve hospital informatization service capabilities, a tertiary hospital launched a comprehensive cloud-based practice for hospital operations in November 2020. A high-availability medical cloud platform designed for large general hospitals was built, by renting from carriers the Internet data center, installing highly scalable infrastructure, building multi-loop self-healing fiber-optic private network, applying the cloud-based software architecture using microservices and distributed storage, and implementing distributed systems′ full-link log and performance monitoring. In February 2021, the hospital migrated its medical care and operation management services on the cloud, achieving unified management of multiple hospital campuses, and reducing manpower and capital investment in computer room constructions. This practice ensured the continuity of hospital business, promoted the regional medical cooperation and the sinking of high-quality medical resources, and provided a reference for speeding up the promotion of nationwide hospital business to the cloud.

10.
Chinese Journal of Infectious Diseases ; (12): 735-741, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992514

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of hospitalized children with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI), and to analyzed the risk factors for severe infection.Methods:The epidemiological and clinical data of hospitalized children with ALRTI and positive RSV test from Children′s Hospital of Fudan University from January 2013 to December 2018 were retrospectively analyzed.The hospitalized children from October 2016 to November 2017 were selected by random singular sequence and divided into severe infection group and non-severe infection group. The clinical data of the two groups were compared. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the risk factors of severe RSV-associated ALRTI.Results:A total of 34 192 hospitalized children were diagnosed with ALRTI, and 8 113(23.73%) children were positive for respiratory tract viruses, including 4 028(11.78%) children with RSV infection, which was higher than other common respiratory tract viruses. Among the 4 028 RSV-positive children, 2 550(63.31%) were under six months of age, 3 623(89.95%) were under two years of age. The detection rates of RSV in spring, summer, autumn and winter were 6.47%(553/8 551), 2.46%(176/7 161), 12.85%(1 042/8 111) and 21.77%(2 257/10 369), respectively. In 347 hospitalized children with RSV-associated ALRTI, 54 cases were severe cases. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that RSV-positive patients complicated with respiratory diseases ( Z=3.43), cardiovascular diseases ( Z=4.96), non-exclusive breast-feeding ( Z=-1.97) and premature birth ( Z=-1.98) were independent risk factors for severe RSV-associated ALRTI (all P<0.050). Conclusions:RSV is the most important and common viral pathogen in hospitalized children with ALRTI in Shanghai, and infants under six months of age are the most susceptible to RSV. RSV patients complicated with respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, non-exclusive breast-feeding and premature birth are more likely to develope severe RSV-associated ALRTI.

11.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 47-53, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1014171

ABSTRACT

Aim To explore the effeet of chemogenetic designer reeeptors exclusively activated by designer drugs( DREADD) mediated inhibition of glutamatergic neurons in paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN ) on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice.Methods Mice were catheterized in PVN by stereotaxic technique, followed by recover}' for three days in individual cages.The mice were then received the inhibitory virus rAAV CaMK E cx-hM4d (Gi)-EG- FP-WPRE-hGHpA or the control vims rAAV CaMK H a - E GF P- W PRE - h GH pA in the PVN nucleus.Three weeks after virus infection, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury ( IR) was performed by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery for 1 h and then releasing it for 2 h.Clozapine N-oxide (CNO) 2 mg •kg 1 was injected intraperitoneally 1 h before IR, to induce inhibition of glutamatergic neurons in PVN by specifically binding to the hM4D receptor ( Gi).TTC staining was used to measure the infarct size, and ELISA was used to measure the serum cTnl concentration.During experiments, the ECG was recorded by PowerLab system.Western blot was used to detect the pro-survival kinase ERK and cleaved caspase-3 proteins in heart tissues, and the expressions of EGFP, CaMKII and c-fos in PVN were examined under fluorescence microscope.Results The glutamatergic neurons in PV N were specifically infected by AAV vectors.When compared with sham group, the ratio of IS/AAR, serum cTnl, c-fos in PVN, and cleaved caspase-3 protein all increased in IR group , but the pERK level decreased.However, hM4D ( Gi) DREADD mediated inhibition of PVN glutamatergic neurons significantly reduced IS/AAR, cTnl concentration and c-fos expression in PVN, as well as the decrease of cleaved caspase-3 and the increase of pERK in heart tissues.Conclusion Chemogenetic DREADD mediated inhibition of glutamatergic neurons in paraventricular nu- cleus of hypothalamus ( PVN) reduces myocardial is- chemia-reperfusion injury in mice.

12.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 1218-1226, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1014037

ABSTRACT

Aim Human TMPRSS2 is a transmembrane serine protease.In this paper, the structure and func¬tion of the protein were systematically analyzed by bioinformatics, the codon was optimized and the pro- karvotie expression vector was constructed to explore the molecular mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 infecting host cells.Methods The recombinant expression vector pET-22b-TMPRSS2 was generated by molecular clo¬ning technology.The homology, functional sites, sub¬cellular localization, three-dimensional structure and evolutionary characteristics of TMPRSS2 protein were systematically analyzed by using analytical tools such as Protparam, NetPhos3.1, Blast, Clustal X2 and MEGA7.0.Results The prokarvotic expression plas- mid was constructed correctly; TMPRSS2 belongs to medium molecular weight protein, which is composed of 492 amino acid residues.The theoretical isoelectric point is 8.12, the molecular extinction coefficient is 118 145 L • mol~1 • cm"1 , and the half-life is 30 h; TMPRSS2 has 15 potential glycosylation sites and 49 possible phosphorylation sites.It is a transmembrane hydrophilie protein without signal sequenee.In addi¬tion, the protein has 13 potential B-cell epitopes and 7 T-eell epitopes.Seeondarv structure analysis showed that random coil accounted for the highest proportion of TMPRSS2 protein ( 0.453 3) , followed by extended strand (0.252 0).Sequence comparison and evolu¬tionary analysis showed that the highest sequence con¬sistency and closest genetic relationship with human TMPRSS2 was Pan troglodytes, followed by gorilla.Conclusions Human-derived TMPRSS2 protein is ev- olutionarilv conserved and functionally important.Hie results of this study can help to reveal the structure and mechanism of action of TMPRSS2 protein, provide ide¬as for the diagnosis and treatment of COYID-19, and accelerate the research and development process of new drugs targeting TMPRSS2 protein.

13.
Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 563-567, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-958552

ABSTRACT

Viral central nervous system infection (VCNSI), with high disability and mortality rates, is a serious threat for the health of children. Given the low pathogen load in cerebrospinal fluid and limitations of conventional virus detection technology, the early pathogenic diagnosis methods are less than ideal. With the development of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), digital PCR, point-of-care testing detection of nucleic acid, and metagenome high-throughput sequencing, the clinical use of viral diagnostic technologies has become more prevalent. In this comment, the current status and future directions of laboratory diagnosis of VCNSI in children are discussed.

14.
Chinese Journal of Infectious Diseases ; (12): 350-355, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-956437

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze common respiratory pathogens epidemiology in hospitalized children with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in a single center in Shanghai, and to provide the basic data support for clinical diagnosis and treatment of children with LRTI in Shanghai.Methods:Children with LRTI in Children′s Hospital of Fudan University were enrolled from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2019, and respiratory samples were collected and tested by direct immunofluorescence assay and real time polymerase chain reaction. The epidemiological characteristics of different respiratory pathogens were analyzed. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis.Results:A total of 18 716 children were included, the total detection rate of respiratory pathogens was 36.96% (6 918/18 716), and the most frequent detected pathogen was Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) (15.31%(2 866/18 716)), followed by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (10.40%(1 946/18 716)) and parainfluenza virus Ⅲ (PIV-Ⅲ) (4.65%(871/18 716)). The detection rate of pathogens in female was significantly higher than that in male (38.48%(2 936/7 630) vs 35.92%(3 982/11 086), χ2=12.72, P<0.001). RSV and influenza virus A (Flu-A) infections peaked in winter. The detection rates of influenza virus B (Flu-B) and human metapneumovirus (MPV) were higher in winter and spring. PIV-Ⅲ infection peaked in spring and summer. The peak of PIV-Ⅱ infection occurred in summer and autumn. The infections of adenovirus (ADV), MP, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and PIV-Ⅰ were prevalent throughout the year without significant seasonality. The detection rate of RSV declined with age, while the detection rate of MP increased with age. The co-infection rate was 1.65%(309/18 716), and the predominant co-infection type was MP and RSV (0.37%(70/18 716)). Conclusions:A variety of pathogens lead to children′s LRTI in Shanghai from 2015 to 2019, with the common infection of MP, RSV and PIV-Ⅲ. Different pathogens showed different epidemiological characteristics in age and season distributions.

15.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 474-478, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935311

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the course of disease and epidemiological parameters of COVID-19 and provide evidence for making prevention and control strategies. Methods: To display the distribution of course of disease of the infectors who had close contacts with COVID-19 cases from January 1 to March 15, 2020 in Guangdong Provincial, the models of Lognormal, Weibull and gamma distribution were applied. A descriptive analysis was conducted on the basic characteristics and epidemiological parameters of course of disease. Results: In total, 515 of 11 580 close contacts were infected, with an attack rate about 4.4%, including 449 confirmed cases and 66 asymptomatic cases. Lognormal distribution was fitting best for latent period, incubation period, pre-symptomatic infection period of confirmed cases and infection period of asymptomatic cases; Gamma distribution was fitting best for infectious period and clinical symptom period of confirmed cases; Weibull distribution was fitting best for latent period of asymptomatic cases. The latent period, incubation period, pre-symptomatic infection period, infectious period and clinical symptoms period of confirmed cases were 4.50 (95%CI:3.86-5.13) days, 5.12 (95%CI:4.63-5.62) days, 0.87 (95%CI:0.67-1.07) days, 11.89 (95%CI:9.81-13.98) days and 22.00 (95%CI:21.24-22.77) days, respectively. The latent period and infectious period of asymptomatic cases were 8.88 (95%CI:6.89-10.86) days and 6.18 (95%CI:1.89-10.47) days, respectively. Conclusion: The estimated course of COVID-19 and related epidemiological parameters are similar to the existing data.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Contact Tracing , Incidence , Prospective Studies
16.
Chinese Journal of Hospital Administration ; (12): 42-46, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934560

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the reform actions on raising the appropriateness of inpatient care use, as well as the current situation, so as to provide suggestions on improving the appropriateness.Methods:Policies and literatures on the appropriateness of inpatient care use released from 2009 to 2021 were collected from such official websites as the State Council and China National Health Commission as well as literature databases from home and abroad, for a text analysis. Based on the data of China Health Statistics Yearbook(2010-2021) and The Sixth National Health Service Survey Report (2018), descriptive methods were adopted to analyze the situation of inpatient care use in China. Results:Since the new healthcare reform, the Chinese government had standardized the hospitalization standards and procedures to minimize inappropriate use of inpatient care, increased financial subsidies for public hospitals to minimize their inappropriate patient attraction merely for economic interests, and reformed the medical insurance payment methods so as to regulate physicians′ behavior. Under the influence of the above policies, the average length of stay decreased from 10.5 days in 2009 to 9.1 days in 2019, with an average annual growth rate of -1.42%. The average waiting time in hospitals decreased from 3.6 days in 2008 to 1.5 days in 2018.From 2012 to 2019, the admission rate increased from 13.2% to 19.0%.Conclusions:Since the new healthcare reform, the average length of stay in China has decreased year by year, but the admission rate has increased year by year. Therefore, it is necessary to further reduce the inappropriate utilization of inpatient care use by speeding up the construction of the close-type medical alliances, improving the reform of payment methods, refining the performance appraisal standards for medical staff and strengthening supervision mechanism.

17.
Chinese Journal of Nephrology ; (12): 304-312, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933861

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics of renal leukocyte chemotactic factor 2 amyloidosis (ALECT2).Methods:The patients with renal ALECT2 diagnosed by renal biopsy in Peking University First Hospital, Shanxi Medical University Second Hospital and Shanxi Bethune Hospital from January 2001 to October 2021 were retrospectively enrolled. According to whether the patients had concurrent glomerular diseases, they were classified into two groups: isolated ALECT2 group and ALECT2 with concurrent renal diseases group. Clinicopathological data of the two groups were compared. Light microscopy, immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy were applied to investigate pathological characteristics of renal tissues. Mass spectrometry was used to analyze the composition of renal amyloid deposits. Gene sequencing was employed to detect the leukocyte chemotactic factor 2 ( LECT2) gene sequence in peripheral blood of the patients. Results:Sixteen patients with ALECT2 were enrolled in this study and nine of them had concurrent renal diseases. The age of 16 patients was (65.00±8.45) years old. The sex ratio of males to females was 7 to 9. Most of patients were Han ethnicity (15/16). Eight patients came from Shanxi province. Fifteen patients presented with varying degree of proteinuria [2.16(1.07, 4.72) g/24 h]; 5 patients had nephrotic syndrome; 11 patients had renal insufficiency; 12 patients had microscopic hematuria. Part of patients also had hypertension (12/16) and diabetics (6/16). Compared with isolated ALECT2, the ALECT2 group with concurrent renal diseases had a higher proportion of nephrotic syndrome (5/9 vs 0/7, P=0.034). Renal biopsy results showed that all patients (16/16) had amyloid deposits in the interstitium of renal cortex with varying degree of inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrosis, and glomeruli (12/16) and arterioles (14/16) were involved by amyloid deposits. The amyloid deposits were strongly congophilic and immunohistochemistry for LECT2 was positive. By semi-quantitative analysis, the proportions of glomerular and overall amyloid loads in ALECT2 with concurrent renal diseases group were lower than those in isolated ALECT2 group (both P<0.05). Electron microscopy revealed randomly oriented and non-branching fibrils with a diameter of 8-12 nm. The LECT2 peptides were detected by mass spectrometry in renal amyloid deposits of 8 patients, and homozygous G allele of LECT2 was found in 7 patients by gene sequencing. Complete follow-up data of 13 patients showed that 2 patients died, 1 patient developed end-stage renal disease at the time of renal biopsy, and most of the rest patients had stable renal function (8/10). Conclusions:Patients with renal ALECT2 mainly present with proteinuria, along with a high incidence of renal insufficiency, microscopic hematuria, and concurrent renal diseases. The pathologic feature is the preferential deposition of amyloid in renal cortical interstitium.

18.
Chinese Journal of Practical Nursing ; (36): 1212-1217, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930768

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effects of Manchester Pain Management Model (MPMM) on postoperative pain and joint function for patients undergoing rotator cuff repair surgery.Methods:A total of 66 patients undergoing rotator cuff repair surgery from February 2017 to October 2020 in the First People′s Hospital of Hefei were divided into experimental group and control group by random digits table method, with 33 cases in each group. The control group received routine nursing; based on the routine care, the experimental group implemented MPMM-based intervention. The degree of pain and shoulder function of the two groups were assessed by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Constant-Murley Scale (CMS).Results:During the study period, 1 case in the experimental group was lost, 32 cases in the final experimental group and 33 cases in the control group. There was no significant difference in the score of VAS and CMS before surgery between the two groups ( P>0.05). At 1 day, 3 days, 3 weeks and 6 weeks after surgery, VAS scores in the experimental group were 5.47 ± 1.72, 4.63 ± 1.16, 3.25 ± 0.78, 1.81 ± 0.52, lower than those scores in the control group 6.42 ± 1.03, 5.45 ± 1.54, 4.30 ± 0.64, 2.39 ± 0.47, the differences were statistically significant ( t values were 2.36-3.11, all P<0.05). At 3, 6, 12 weeks after surgery, CMS scores in the experimental group were 57.09 ± 4.32, 67.75 ± 4.60, 81.94 ± 4.18, higher than those scores in the control group 52.27 ± 5.39, 64.24 ± 3.76, 78.91 ± 4.36, the differences were statistically significant ( t=3.97, 3.37, 2.89, all P<0.01). Conclusions:MPMM can effectively alleviate the postoperative pain and promote the recovery of joint function in patients undergoing rotator cuff repair surgery.

19.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 150-158, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940325

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the name, origin, producing area and other aspects of Menthae Haplocalycis Herba in the famous classical formulas were carried out by consulting herbal literature, medical books, prescription books in the past dynasties and related modern documents. Through the textual research, it can be seen that the name of Bohe was used as the correct name in the mainstream of the past dynasties, and there were still multiple synonyms, most of which originated from the false transmission of dialectal accent, producing area and efficacy. There are many varieties recorded in the literature of the past dynasties such as Bohe, Longnao Bohe, Hubohe and Shibohe. According to the textual research, Bohe, Longnao Bohe and Yebohe are consistent with Mentha haplocalyx, whcih is the mainstream variety. Longnao Bohe is named for its form of producing area, Shibohe is Mosla chinensis, Daye Bohe is Agastache rugosa, and Nanbohe is M. crispata. Menthae Haplocalycis Herba has been widely planted since Tang dynasty. It was mainly grown in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Jiangxi and Sichuan in Ming and Qing dynasties, and Jiangsu is the genuine production area. Its quality is best if it has dry body, no roots, many leaves, green color and strong smell. In ancient times, the stems and leaves of Menthae Haplocalycis Herba were often picked and dried in summer and autumn, which is basically the same as the records of modern times when the stems and leaves are luxuriant in summer and autumn, or when the flowers bloom to three rounds, they are picked in sunny days and cut in different times, and then dried in the sun or in the shade, and the raw products was often used as medicine in ancient and modern times. Before the Song dynasty, Menthae Haplocalycis Herba was recorded as pungent and warm. Until the Song dynasty, it was written as “extremely cool” in Lyuchanyan Bencao. It may have been thought in the early stage that it was similar to several warm herbs, such as Perilla frutescens, Stachys japonica, Elsholtzia ciliata and M. chinensis in appearance, all of which have the function of Xinsan, so it was recorded as warm. Since the Qing dynasty, Menthae Haplocalycis Herba has been recorded as cool property in the mainstream materia medica, Menthae Haplocalycis Herba recorded as pungent and cool in the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, and its effect is to dissipate wind heat, clear the head, relieve the pharynx and so on, the records of efficacy in ancient and modern times are basically the same. Based on the research results, it is suggested that raw products of M. haplocalyx should be selected when developing the famous classical formulas containing Menthae Haplocalycis Herba.

20.
Chinese Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology ; (12): 1319-1328, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1015857

ABSTRACT

Substance addiction is considered to be a chronic recurrent encephalopathy. The neural adap-tation changes induced by addictive substances are partly mediated by epigenetic mechanism. The perma ̄nent changes of gene expression in tissues or brain can be affected by DNA methylation, histone modifica-tion and chromatin remodeling, these changes eventually lead to behavioral abnormalities of individual. Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2), an important transcription inhibitor, contains characteristic do-mains that regulated chromosome conformation, transcription and RNA splicing. It has also been identified that MeCP2 plays an important role in regulating neuronal plasticity and related target gene transcription during brain development, which add more attention about the importance of epigenetic mechanism in neuronal function. Studies have showed that DNA methylation, histone acetylation and phosphorylation regulate MeCP2 gene expression, affect gene and protein transcription, translation and cell regulation in learning, memory and substance addiction. Addictive substances induce psychological and mental dependence, which are related to the changes of neuronal plasticity and gene expression in addictive neural circuits. MeCP2 plays an important role in regulating synaptic transmission and neuronal plasticity in central nervous system. Therefore, it is of great scientific significance to explore the role of MeCP2 in regulating neuronal plasticity in the central nervous system. In this review we summarized the structure and function of MeCP2, the relationship between MeCP2 and epigenetics, and the role of MeCP2 epigenetic modifications induced by different addictive substances in substance addiction, which may provide further understanding of the molecular mechanism of substance addiction and provide new in ̄sight for clinical intervention.

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