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1.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 117-120, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935921

ABSTRACT

Primary hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common high-grade malignant tumors in the world. Its incidence ranks fifth among malignant tumors in China, and various therapeutic measures have poor curative effect. Pyruvate kinase type M2 is a key enzyme in the glycolytic pathway, and its abnormal expression in liver cancer is closely related to the proliferation, metastasis, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, as well as drug and radiation resistance. Therefore, multi-pathway targeted regulation of pyruvate kinase type M2 use is expected to become a new direction for the treatment of primary liver cancer.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , China , Humans , Liver Neoplasms , Prognosis , Pyruvate Kinase
2.
Chinese Journal of Stomatology ; (12): 410-414, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935881

ABSTRACT

To provide references for the diagnosis and treatment of congenital granular cell tumor (CGCT), by comprehensive analysis of the clinical data, histopathological and immunohistochemical results. Patients with CGCT were involede, from March 2015 to November 2020, at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University. A total of 6 children, aged 3-16 days, 1 male and 5 female, 5 maxillary and 1 mandibular, with maximum tumor diameter of 6-70 mm, were included. The lesions of CGCT were single and connected to the alveolar ridge by a pedicle. The surface of the tumor was covered with a vascular network, and two cases had ulcers on the surface of the tumor. All 6 cases had the tumor removed surgically and there was no recurrence or metastasis in the follow-up visit. Although CGCT is rare, it is a benign tumor and generally does not recur or metastasize after surgery, and has a good prognosis. The prenatal imaging, clinical manifestations after delivery, pathological characteristics and immunohistochemical analyses may provide reference for early diagnosis and treatment of CGCT.


Subject(s)
Child , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Gingival Neoplasms/surgery , Granular Cell Tumor/surgery , Humans , Male , Pregnancy
3.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 269-276, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935381

ABSTRACT

Objective: To construct and compare the dynamic prediction models of the risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in the elderly based on six different cognitive function scales. Methods: Based on longitudinal data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative from 2005 to 2020, Mini-mental state examination (MMSE), functional activities questionnaire (FAQ), Alzheimer's disease assessment scale-cognitive (ADAS-Cog) 11, ADAS-Cog13, ADAS delayed word recall (ADASQ4), and Rey auditory verbal learning test (RAVLT)_immediate were used as longitudinal cognitive function evaluation indicators to assess the longitudinal changes in cognitive function. The joint model was used to analyze association between indicators variation trajectory and survival outcome MCI, and construct the risk prediction model of MCI in the elderly, the linear mixed model was constructed the longitudinal sub-model which described the evolution of a repeated measure over time, a proportional hazards model was constructed the survival sub-model, and the two sub-models were connected through the correlation parameter (α). The areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) were used to evaluate the predictive efficacy of the model in the follow-up period of (t, t+Δt). The starting point t was selected at the 30th, 42nd, and 54th month, and the Δt was selected as 15 and 21 months. Based on the prediction model, an example of the research object was selected for dynamic individual predictions of the risk of MCI. Results: Finally, 544 older adults (aged 60 years and above) with normal baseline cognitive status were included, of which 119 cases (21.9%) had MCI during the follow-up process were regarded as the case group, and 425 cases remained normal as the control group. The joint model suggests that the longitudinal trajectories of the six evaluation indicators are all related to the risk of MCI (P<0.001). The risk of MCI decreased by 32.3% (HR=0.677, 95%CI: 0.541-0.846) and 10.8% (HR=0.892, 95%CI: 0.865-0.919) for each one-point increase of MMSE and RAVLT_immediate longitudinal scores. The risk of MCI increased by 53.2% (HR=1.532, 95%CI: 1.393-1.686), 36.2% (HR=1.362, 95%CI: 1.268-1.462), 23.2% (HR=1.232, 95%CI: 1.181-1.285), and 85.1% (HR=1.851, 95%CI:1.629-2.104) for each one-point increase of FAQ, ADAS-Cog11, ADAS-Cog13, and ADASQ4 longitudinal scores. AUC results show that RAVLT_immediate (0.760 2) and ADASQ4 (0.755 8) have higher average prediction efficiency, followed by ADAS-Cog13 (0.743 7), ADAS-Cog11 (0.715 3), FAQ (0.700 8) and MMSE (0.629 5). ADASQ4 joint model was used to provide a dynamic individual prediction of the risk of MCI. The average probability of MCI after five years of follow-up and ten years of follow-up in the example individuals were 8% and 40%, respectively. Conclusions: The RAVLT_immediate and ADASQ4 scales, which are only for memory tests, have high accuracy in predicting the risk of MCI. Using the RAVLT_immediate and ADASQ4 scales as longitudinal cognitive function evaluation indicators to construct a joint model, the results can provide a basis for realizing MCI risk prediction for the elderly.


Subject(s)
Aged , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests , Risk Factors
4.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 450-457, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935169

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore and compare the effect of standard or prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) on the long-term prognosis of elderly patients with coronary heart disease complicated with diabetes mellitus after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation. Methods: Consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus, ≥65 years old, underwent DES implantation, and had no adverse events within 1 year after operation underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) from January to December 2013 in Fuwai Hospital were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. These patients were divided into three groups according to DAPT duration: standard DAPT duration group (11 ≤ DAPT duration≤ 13 months) and prolonged DAPT duration group (13<DAPT duration≤ 24 months; DAPT duration>24 months). All the patients were followed up at 1, 6 months, 1, 2 and 5 years in order to collect the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), and type 2 to 5 bleeding events defined by the Federation of Bleeding Academic Research (BARC). MACCE were consisted of all cause death, myocardial infarction, target vessel revascularization or stroke. The incidence of clinical adverse events were compared among 3 different DAPT duration groups, and Cox regression model were used to analyze the effect of different DAPT duration on 5-year long-term prognosis. Results: A total of 1 562 patients were enrolled, aged (70.8±4.5) years, with 398 female (25.5%). There were 467 cases in standard DAPT duration group, 684 cases in 13<DAPT duration≤ 24 months group and 411 cases in DAPT duration>24 months group. The patients in standard DAPT duration group and the prolonged DAPT duration groups accounted for 29.9% (467/1 562) and 70.1% (1 095/1 562), respectively. The 5-year follow-up results showed that the incidence of all-cause death in 13<DAPT duration≤ 24 months group (4.8%(33/684) vs. 8.6%(40/467),P=0.011) and DAPT duration>24 month group(4.1%(17/411) vs. 8.6%(40/467),P=0.008) were significantly lower than in standard DAPT group. The incidence of myocardial infarction in 13<DAPT duration≤ 24 months group was lower than in standard DAPT duration group (1.9%(13/684) vs. 5.1%(24/467),P=0.002). The incidence of MACCE in 13<DAPT duration≤ 24 months group was the lowest (standard DAPT duration group, 13<DAPT duration≤ 24 months group and DAPT duration>24 month group were 19.3% (90/467), 12.3% (84/684), 20.2% (83/411), respectively, P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the incidence of stroke and bleeding events among the three groups (all P>0.05). Multivariate Cox analysis showed that compared with the standard DAPT group, prolonged DAPT to 13-24 months was negatively correlated with MACCE (HR=0.601, 95%CI 0.446-0.811, P=0.001), all-cause death (HR=0.568, 95%CI 0.357-0.903, P=0.017) and myocardial infarction (HR=0.353, 95%CI 0.179-0.695, P=0.003). DAPT>24 months was negatively correlated with all-cause death (HR=0.687, 95%CI 0.516-0.913, P=0.010) and positively correlated with revascularization (HR=1.404, 95%CI 1.116-1.765, P=0.004). There was no correlation between prolonged DAPT and bleeding events. Conclusions: For elderly patients with coronary heart disease complicated with diabetes mellitus underwent DES implantation, and had no MACCE and bleeding events within 1 year after operation, appropriately prolonging of the DAPT duration is related to the reduction of the risk of cardiovascular adverse events. Patients may benefit the most from the DAPT between 13 to 24 months. In addition, prolonging DAPT duration does not increase the incidence of bleeding events in this patient cohort.


Subject(s)
Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Diabetes Mellitus , Drug Therapy, Combination , Drug-Eluting Stents/adverse effects , Female , Hemorrhage , Humans , Male , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Stroke , Treatment Outcome
5.
Cancer Research and Clinic ; (6): 120-123, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934641

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the effects of cervical region Ⅱ and oral target area optimization on therapeutic efficacy, salivary gland function and oral mucosal response during intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for oropharyngeal cancer.Methods:A total of 50 patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in Xuzhou Cancer Hospital from January 2012 to May 2017 were collected. According to the random number table, they were divided into normal radiotherapy group (the control group), oral and cervical target area optimization group (the observation group), 25 cases in each group. Both groups were treated with IMRT and platinum-chemotherapy. The control group received bilateral cervical region Ⅱ-Ⅳ lymphatic drainage area irradiation (the positive side of the cervical lymph node included Ⅰ B region), and bilateral cervical region Ⅱ was given a tumor dose of 60 Gy (positive lymph nodes were given intensified irradiation); the observation group was optimized for the target area, and the contralateral cervical region Ⅱ B (the side with no positive lymph node) was given a tumor dose of 50 Gy; the observation group's oral structure was delineated as an organ at risk and the average radiation dose (D mean) was limited to <32 Gy. The differences in radiation dose of parotid gland, acute oral mucosal reaction and long-term xerostomia (6 months after the end of radiotherapy), objective remission rate (ORR), local recurrence rate (LRR), 3-year overall survival (OS) were compared between the two groups. Results:In the control group, the contralateral parotid gland D mean was (29±4) Gy, the proportion of irradiation volume exposed to 34 Gy (V 34) was (48±5)%; in the observation group, contralateral parotid gland D mean was (23±3) Gy, V 34 was (41±5)%, and there are statistically significant differences between the two groups ( t values were 6.14, 4.98, all P < 0.05). In the control group, oral D mean was (35±6) Gy, the proportion of volume exposed to 30 Gy (V 30) was (36±5)%; in the observation group oral D mean was (29±4) Gy, V 30 was (28±4)%, and there were statistically significant differences between the two groups ( t values were 4.11, 5.98, all P < 0.05). The incidence of ≥ grade Ⅱ acute oral mucosal adverse reaction and the duration time of oral mucosal ≥ 2 weeks was 64% (16/25) and 76% (19/25), respectively in the control group, 36% (9/25) and 40% (10/25), respectively in the observation group; and the differences were statistically significant ( χ2 values were 3.92, 6.65; P values were 0.048, 0.009). The incidence of ≥ grade Ⅱ long-term xerostomia reaction was 72% (18/25) and 44% (11/25), respectively in the control group and the observation group, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant ( χ2 = 4.02, P = 0.044). The ORR, LRR, and 3-year OS rates were 80%, 28%, 48% in the control group, and 76%, 24%, 44% in the observation group. There was no statistically significant difference in the OS between the two groups ( χ2 = 0.04, P = 0.849). Conclusions:Optimization of the target area of the oral and cervical region Ⅱ during IMRT for oropharyngeal carcinoma can improve the function of salivary glands, thereby reducing dry mouth and oral mucosal reactions, improving the quality of life of patients; and it does not affect the efficacy of tumor treatment.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934557

ABSTRACT

Objective:To compare the actual situation and measurement data of human resources deployment in public general hospitals in Pudong New Area, so as to provide a data basis for further optimizing the human resources deployment plan.Methods:The Pudong New Area Health Statistical Information System was used to collect the staffing information and business data of 9 public general hospitals in Pudong New Area, Shanghai in 2019. On such basis, the numbers of officially budgeted positions and actual positions were calculated. Descriptive analyses of the data were performed to compare the theoretical and actual quantities by paired t-test and Wilcoxn signed-rank sum test. Results:The actual number of officially budgeted positions of the 9 hospitals was less than the theoretical number( Z=-2.55, P=0.011), while the actual number of positions was less than that of theoretical number( t=3.36, P=0.010). The proportion of the officially budgeted position shortage at tertiary hospitals(72.77%)was higher than that of secondary hospitals(36.94%). The proportion of position shortage at tertiary hospitals(16.14%)was less than that at secondary hospitals(38.78%). Conclusions:Area-owned general hospitals are in shortage of human resources, while secondary and tertiary hospitals have different needs for human resources. The actual situation of a hospital should be comprehensively considered to develop an optimal deployment plan for human resources.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934435

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the horizontal scientific research projects from 2015 to 2019 by the provincial Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China, and to compare the regional differences, in order to provide the suggestion on the scientific management of CDC.Methods:The horizontal scientific research projects from 2015 to 2019 were retrospectively analyzed by questionnaire survey. Multiple linear regression models were adopted to examine the trend, and variance analyses were used to test the differences in horizontal scientific research projects among the Eastern, Central, and Western regions.Results:From 2015 to 2019, provincial CDC have received RMB 124.3 million of horizontal scientific research project funds totally, of which 51.9% were funded by enterprises, and 86.9% were undertaken by provincial CDC themselves. There were no statistical significance in the change of research project funds obtained by provincial CDC ( F=0.46, P = 0.764) during this period.The number of horizontal scientific research projects undertook or participated by provincial CDC in the Eastern region were more than that of the Central and Western region ( F = 5.85, P = 0.004; F = 5.03, P = 0.008). Conclusions:The horizontal scientific research projects obtained by the provincial CDC remained stable in recent years while distribution was unbalanced in the region areas. It is suggested to innovate the management mode of scientific research projects with strengthening the trans-agency, trans-department and trans-regional cooperation.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932980

ABSTRACT

Objectives:To analysis the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on nocturnal blood pressure in patients complicated with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) and different circadian rhythms of hypertension.Methods:A total of 61 eligible patients were monitored by overnight polysomnography (PSG) at the Sleep Center of the Affiliated Huaian No.1 People′s Hospital of Nanjing Medical University between January 2020 and April 2021. During the period of PSG monitoring, continuous non-invasive blood pressure (BP) and heart rate variability (HRV) were monitored simultaneously. Frequency domain analysis was used to measure HRV and low/high frequency was used to indirectly reflect sympathetic activity. According to the nighttime systolic BP decrease rate, patients were divided into three groups: dipper pattern (descent rate ≥10%), non-dipper pattern (descent rate was less than 10% but higher than 0) and reverse dipper pattern (descent rate≤0). The PSG parameters, BP data as well as sympathetic activity etc. were compared within and among groups before and after CPAP treatment. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to explore the influencing factors of antihypertensive effect of CPAP.Results:There were no significant differences in awake systolic BP (SBP) values, the severity of OSAHS, ESS scores, awake sympathetic activity and the other baseline data among the three groups. After CPAP treatment, the mean value of asleep BP in entire group showed a modest decline as compared to the baseline values [SBP decreased 4.6 mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa); diastolic blood pressure (DBP) decreased 2.4 mmHg, both P<0.001]. Subgroup analysis showed a significant reduction in asleep SBP of 11.1 mmHg and DBP of 4.9 mmHg (both P<0.001) in reverse dipper group, respectively, compared with the baseline values. While in dipper and non-dipper group, there were no significant differences before and after CPAP treatment in terms of BP (both P>0.05). In addition, there was no difference in awake sympathetic activity among three groups, while sleep sympathetic activity showed a gradual increasing trend. Sleep sympathetic activity decreased significantly from baseline after CPAP treatment in reverse dipper group ( P<0.001), while no differences were found in the other two groups before and after treatment. After controlling for baseline data such as age etc., the line regression model showed that the antihypertensive effect of CPAP was correlated with reverse dipper (SBP: β=0.548, P=0.002; DBP: β=0.454, P=0.013) and the improvement of nocturnal MpO 2 (SBP: β=0.410, P=0.046), but not with the severity of OSAHS, daytime sleepiness, or baseline BP values. Conclusion:For patients with moderate to severe OSAHS and hypertension, reverse dipper is an effective indicator to predict the antihypertensive effect of CPAP therapy.

9.
Chinese Journal of Rheumatology ; (12): 9-13,C1, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932447

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of functional movement assessment on the recurrence of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) after treat-to-target therapy.Methods:The clinical data of 61 patients with AS in Chengdu were collected including clinical symptoms and AS disease activity (ASDAS). After 24 weeks adalimumab treatment, motor function score of AS patients(ASDAS<1.3) was assessed by functional movement screen (FMS), then adalimumab was discontinued and the rest of the concurrent drugs were continued until the disease relapse or up to 1 year. The data of the two groups were compared using t-test analysis and Cox proportionate hazard model. Results:① The recurrence rate of patients with AS after treat-to-target therapy within 1 year follow-up was 57.4%; ② The recurrence group was younger [(27±7) vs (31±6), t=5.96, P=0.02], the ASADAS value was at the high end when adalimumab was withdrawal [(1.29±0.07) vs (0.87±0.16), t=177.31, P<0.01], and the FMS value was lower after treat-to-target [(12.9±2.7) vs (16.2±1.9), t=29.23, P<0.01], The time to reaching the treatment target was longer [(2.9±1.2) month vs (1.7±0.6) month, t=19.89, P<0.01] than the stable group; ③ The cut-off value of the FMS test of AS patients after treat-to-target therapy was 14.25 (sensitivity was 84.6%, specificity was 80%) . The time to treat-to-target was a risk factor for recurrence ( RR=2.285, P<0.05), and the FMS value after treat-to-target was a protective factor ( RR=0.625, P<0.05). Conclusion:After discontinuing the adalimumab, about half of the patients relapse. The time reaching the treatment target and the FMS value after treat-to-target therapy are the risk factors for disease recurrence.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931178

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the clinical diagnosis value of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and Cystatin C (Cys C) of late onset sepsis (LOS) with acute kidney injury(AKI) in preterm infants.Methods:A case-control study was used among preterm infants diagnosed with LOS and admitted to the NICU of Dalian Women and Children′s Medical Group from November 2018 to October 2021, including 24 cases of sepsis AKI group and 40 cases of sepsis non-AKI group. The blood creatinine, urine NGAL, Cys C levels and urine volume were measured at 1 d after birth and 1 d after sepsis. The t-test was used for statistical analysis, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted to analyze the diagnostic value of blood creatinine, urinary NGAL and Cys C in LOS combined with AKI. Results:Blood creatinine, urinary NGAL and Cys C levels were significantly higher in the sepsis AKI group than that in the sepsis non-AKI group: (53.667 ± 20.040) μmol/L vs. (35.975 ± 9.048) μmol/L, (1.613 ± 0.405) μg/L vs. (0.839 ± 0.258) μg/L, (39.524 ± 11.619) μg/L vs. (21.778 ± 3.302) μg/L ( P<0.01). Comparison of ROC curves showed that in sepsis AKI group the AUC (0.946 and 0.965, respectively), sensitivity (97.5% and 100.0%, respectively) and specificity (75.0% and 79.2%, respectively) of the urinary NGAL and Cys C levels were higher in than those of creatinine level (AUC 0.771, sensitivity 95.0%, specificity 62.5%), with statistically significant differences ( P<0.05). Conclusions:Urinary NGAL and Cys C are more sensitive than creatinine and can be used as biological indicators for the early diagnosis of sepsis with AKI in preterm infants.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930766

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of peer support-based narrative therapy on postoperative self-image and stigma of patients with head and neck cancer, to provide reference for clinical nursing.Methods:A total of 78 head and neck cancer patients from August 2018 to August 2020 in Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center were divided into experimental group and control group by random digits table method, each group were 39 cases. The control group was given conventional nursing, while the experimental group implemented support-based narrative therapy on the basis of routine nursing. The intervention time was 4 weeks. The self-image and stigma of the two groups before and after intervention were assessed by Body Image Scale (BIS) and Social Impact Scale (SIS), respectively.Results:Finally, 37 cases were included in the experimental group and 38 cases in the control group. There was no significant difference in BIS, SIS dimension scores and total scores between the two groups before intervention ( P>0.05). After intervention, the emotional demension scores, behavior dimension scores, cognitive dimension scores and total scores in BIS were 4.41 ± 1.04, 1.95 ± 0.51, 3.81 ± 0.63 and 10.16 ± 2.05 in the experimental group, significantly lower than in the control group 5.08 ± 1.08, 2.82 ± 0.60, 5.42 ± 0.76 and 13.32 ± 1.93, the differences were statistically significant ( t values were 2.76-6.86, all P<0.01); the social exclusion scores, internal shame scores, social isolation scores and total stigma scores in SIS were 17.57 ± 2.67, 9.08 ± 1.55, 12.14 ± 3.73 and 46.14 ± 4.95 in the experimental group, significantly lower than in the control group 19.18 ± 3.70, 10.68 ± 1.61, 14.18 ± 3.83 and 51.68 ± 6.09, the differences were statistically significant ( t values were 2.16-4.38, all P<0.05). Conclusions:Peer support-based narrative therapy can effectively alleviate the postoperative self-image problems and stigma of patients with head and neck cancer, which is worthy of clinical application.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930757

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the application of 6MWT and handgrip strength test in the nursing evaluation of arterial stiffness in community-dwelling elderly.Methods:From September 2019 to January 2020, 129 community-dwelling elderly people (age 60 years or older) were selected as the research subjects. Arterial stiffness was detected by pulse wave detector, and handgrip strength test and 6MWT were performed. Pearson correlation analysis and multiple linear regression methods were used to analyze the relationship between handgrip strength and 6MWT test indicators and aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) and augmentation index75 (AIx75).Results:The community-dwelling older people of aPWV was (10.50 ± 1.36) m/s and was negatively correlated with 6MWT distance and 6WMT work, of which the correlation coefficients were -0.404 and -0.285 respectively ( P<0.05). The community-dwelling older people of AIx75 was (28.51 ± 10.81) % and was negatively correlated with handgrip strength, relative grip strength, 6MWT distance and 6MWT work, of which the range of correlation coefficients were from -0.261 to -0.226 ( P<0.05). After adjusting for age, gender, and blood pressure, 6MWT distance and grip strength were independently related to aPWV and AIx75, respectively. Conclusions:In community-dwelling elderly people, both the grip strength test and 6MWT can be used for nursing evaluation of early arterial stiffness, but the specific evaluation role is different.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930491

ABSTRACT

Antipyretic-analgesics are currently one of the most prescribed drugs in children.The clinical application of antipyretic-analgesics for children in our country still have irrational phenomenon, which affects the therapeutic effect and even poses hidden dangers to the safety of children.In this paper, suggestions were put forward from the indications, dosage form/route, dosage suitability, pathophysiological characteristics of children with individual differences and drug interactions in the symptomatic treatment of febrile children, so as to provide reference for the general pharmacists when conducting prescription review.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942356

ABSTRACT

This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and national schistosomiasis surveillance sites in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2021. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, Shanghai Municipality, Zhejiang Province, Fujian Province, Guangdong Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, and Sichuan and Jiangsu provinces maintained the criteria of transmission interruption, while Yunnan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan provinces maintained the criteria of transmission control by the end of 2021. A total of 451 counties (cites, districts) were found to be endemic for schistosomiasis in China in 2021, with 27 571 endemic villages covering 73 250 600 people at risk of infections. Among the 451 endemic counties (cities, districts), 75.17% (339/451), 22.17% (100/451) and 2.66% (12/451) achieved the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control of schistosomiasis, respectively. By the end of 2021, 29 037 cases with advanced schistosomiasis were documented in China. In 2021, 4 405 056 individuals received serological tests and 72 937 were sero-positive. A total of 220 629 individuals received stool examinations and 3 were positive. In 2021, snail survey was performed in 19 291 endemic villages in China and Oncomelania snails were found in 7 026 villages, accounting for 36.42% of all surveyed villages, with 12 villages identified with emerging snail habitats. Snail survey was performed at an area of 686 574.46 hm2 and 191 159.91 hm2 snail habitats were found, including 1 063.08 hm2 emerging snail habitats and 5 113.87 hm2 reemerging snail habitats. In 2021, 525 878 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas of China, and 115 437 received serological examinations, with 231 positives detected. Among the 128 719 bovines received stool examinations, no positives were identified. In 2021, there were 19 927 schistosomiasis patients receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and 729 113 person-time individuals and 256 913 herd-time bovines were given expanded chemotherapy. In 2021, snail control with chemicals was performed in 117 372.74 hm2 snail habitats, and the actual area of chemical treatment was 65 640.50 hm2, while environmental improvements were performed in snail habitats covering an area of 1 244.25 hm2. Data from the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections were both zero in humans and bovines in 2021, and no S. japonicum infection was detected in snails. The results demonstrate that the overall endemic status of schistosomiasis remained at a low level in China in 2021; however, the progress towards schistosomiasis elimination was slowed and the areas of snail habitats rebounded mildly. Strengthening researches on snail diffusion and control, and improving schistosomiasis surveillance and forecast are recommended to prevent reemerging schistosomiasis.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940945

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the spatial-temporal distribution characteristics of Oncomelania hupensis snails in Anhui Province from 2011 to 2020, to provide insights into precision control of O. hupensis snails in Anhui Province.@*METHODS@#O. hupensis snail distribution data were collected in Anhui Province from 2011 to 2020 and descriptively analyzed, including actual area of snail habitats, area of emerging snail habitats and area of Schistosoma japonicum-infected snails. The actual area of snail habitats and area of emerging snail habitats were subjected to spatial autocorrelation analysis, hotspot analysis, standard deviation ellipse analysis and space-time scanning analysis, and the clusters of snail distribution and settings at high risk of snail spread were identified in Anhui Province from 2011 to 2020.@*RESULTS@#The actual area of snail habitats gradually decreased in Anhui Province from 2011 to 2020. The actual area of snail habitats were 26 238.85 hm2 in Anhui Province in 2020, which were mainly distributed in marshland and lake regions. There was a large fluctuation in the area of emerging snail habitats in Anhui Province during the period from 2011 to 2020, with the largest area seen in 2016 (1 287.65 hm2), and 1.96 hm2 emerging infected snail habitats were detected in Guichi District, Chizhou City in 2020. Spatial autocorrelation and hotspot analyses showed spatial clusters in the distribution of actual areas of snail habitats in Anhui Province from 2011 to 2020 (Z = 3.00 to 3.43, all P values < 0.01), and the hotspots were mainly concentrated in the marshland and lake regions and distributed along the south side of the Yangtze River, while the cold spots were mainly concentrated in the mountainous regions of southern Anhui Province. There were no overall spatial clusters in the distribution of areas of emerging snail habitats (Z = -2.20 to 1.71, all P values > 0.05), and a scattered distribution was found in local regions. Standard deviation ellipse analysis showed relatively stable distributions of the actual areas of snail habitats in Anhui Province from 2011 to 2020, which was consistent with the flow direction of the Yangtze River, and the focus of the distribution of areas of emerging snail habitats shifted from the lower reaches to upper reaches of Anhui section of the Yangtze River. Space-time scanning analysis identified two high-value clusters in the distribution of actual areas of snail habitats in lower and middle reaches of Anhui section of the Yangtze River from 2011 to 2020, and two high-value clusters in the distribution of areas of emerging snail habitats were identified in mountainous and hilly regions.@*CONCLUSIONS@#There were spatial clusters in the distribution of O. hupensis snails in Anhui Province from 2011 to 2020, which appeared a tendency of aggregation towards the south side and upper reaches of the Yangtze River; however, the spread of O. hupensis snails could not be neglected in mountainous and hilly regions. Monitoring of emerging snail habitats should be reinforced in mountainous and hilly regions and along the Yangtze River basin.


Subject(s)
Animals , China/epidemiology , Ecosystem , Gastropoda , Lakes , Rivers , Schistosoma japonicum
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940944

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To predict the trends for fine-scale spread of Oncomelania hupensis based on supervised machine learning models in Shanghai Municipality, so as to provide insights into precision O. hupensis snail control.@*METHODS@#Based on 2016 O. hupensis snail survey data in Shanghai Municipality and climatic, geographical, vegetation and socioeconomic data relating to O. hupensis snail distribution, seven supervised machine learning models were created to predict the risk of snail spread in Shanghai, including decision tree, random forest, generalized boosted model, support vector machine, naive Bayes, k-nearest neighbor and C5.0. The performance of seven models for predicting snail spread was evaluated with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), F1-score and accuracy, and optimal models were selected to identify the environmental variables affecting snail spread and predict the areas at risk of snail spread in Shanghai Municipality.@*RESULTS@#Seven supervised machine learning models were successfully created to predict the risk of snail spread in Shanghai Municipality, and random forest (AUC = 0.901, F1-score = 0.840, ACC = 0.797) and generalized boosted model (AUC= 0.889, F1-score = 0.869, ACC = 0.835) showed higher predictive performance than other models. Random forest analysis showed that the three most important climatic variables contributing to snail spread in Shanghai included aridity (11.87%), ≥ 0 °C annual accumulated temperature (10.19%), moisture index (10.18%) and average annual precipitation (9.86%), the two most important vegetation variables included the vegetation index of the first quarter (8.30%) and vegetation index of the second quarter (7.69%). Snails were more likely to spread at aridity of < 0.87, ≥ 0 °C annual accumulated temperature of 5 550 to 5 675 °C, moisture index of > 39% and average annual precipitation of > 1 180 mm, and with the vegetation index of the first quarter of > 0.4 and the vegetation index of the first quarter of > 0.6. According to the water resource developments and township administrative maps, the areas at risk of snail spread were mainly predicted in 10 townships/subdistricts, covering the Xipian, Dongpian and Tainan sections of southern Shanghai.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Supervised machine learning models are effective to predict the risk of fine-scale O. hupensis snail spread and identify the environmental determinants relating to snail spread. The areas at risk of O. hupensis snail spread are mainly located in southwestern Songjiang District, northwestern Jinshan District and southeastern Qingpu District of Shanghai Municipality.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bayes Theorem , China/epidemiology , Ecosystem , Gastropoda , Supervised Machine Learning
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940943

ABSTRACT

Currently, the national schistosomiasis control program of China is moving from transmission interruption to elimination, and there are multiple challenges during the stage moving towards the progression of schistosomiasis elimination, including a high difficulty in shrinking snail-infested areas, unstable achievements for infectious source control, imperfect surveillance system and a reduction in schistosomiasis control and administration. Based on the core suggestions proposed in the 2022 WHO guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis, recommendations on schistosomiasis surveillance system building, development of novel diagnostics, adjustment of the schistosomiasis control strategy and maintaining and improvements of the schistosomiasis control capability are proposed for the national schistosomiasis control program of China in the new era according to the actual status of schistosomiasis control in China. Formulation of the national schistosomiasis control strategy and goal from One Health perspective, verification of transmission interruption and elimination of schistosomiasis, precision implementation of schistosomiasis control interventions with adaptations to local circumstances, development and application of highly sensitive and specific diagnostics are recommended for elimination of schistosomiasis in China. In addition, the implementation of the 2022 WHO guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis may guide the elimination of schistosomiasis in China.


Subject(s)
Animals , China/epidemiology , Goals , Humans , Schistosomiasis/prevention & control , Snails , World Health Organization
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940941

ABSTRACT

Preventive chemotherapy is one of the pivotal interventions for the control and elimination of schistosomiasis, which is effective to reduce the morbidity and prevalence of schistosomiasis. In order to promote the United Nations' sustainable development goals and the targets set for schistosomiasis control in the Ending the neglect to attain the Sustainable Development Goals: a road map for neglected tropical diseases 2021-2030, WHO released the guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis in 2022, with major evidence-based updates of the current preventive chemotherapy strategy for schistosomiasis. In China where great success has been achieved in schistosomiasis control, the preventive chemotherapy strategy for schistosomiasis has been updated several times during the past seven decades. This article reviews the evolution of the WHO guidelines on preventive chemotherapy and Chinese national preventive chemotherapy schemes, compares the current Chinese national preventive chemotherapy scheme and the recommendations for preventive chemotherapy proposed in the 2022 WHO guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis, and proposes recommendations for preventive chemotherapy during the future implementation of the 2022 WHO guideline, so as to provide insights into schistosomiasis control among public health professionals engaging in healthcare foreign aid.


Subject(s)
China/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , Public Health , Schistosomiasis/prevention & control , World Health Organization
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940940

ABSTRACT

On February 2022, WHO released the evidence-based guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis, with aims to guide the elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem in disease-endemic countries by 2030 and promote the interruption of schistosomiasis transmission across the world. Based on the One Health concept, six evidence-based recommendations were proposed in this guideline. This article aims to analyze the feasibility of key aspects of this guideline in Chinese national schistosomiasis control program and illustrate the significance to guide the future actions for Chinese national schistosomiasis control program. Currently, the One Health concept has been embodied in the Chinese national schistosomiasis control program. Based on this new WHO guideline, the following recommendations are proposed for the national schistosomiasis control program of China: (1) improving the systematic framework building, facilitating the agreement of the cross-sectoral consensus, and building a high-level leadership group; (2) optimizing the current human and livestock treatments in the national schistosomiasis control program of China; (3) developing highly sensitive and specific diagnostics and the framework for verifying elimination of schistosomiasis; (4) accelerating the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis and other parasitic diseases through integrating the national control programs for other parasitic diseases.


Subject(s)
China/epidemiology , Disease Eradication , Humans , Public Health , Schistosomiasis/prevention & control , World Health Organization
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940791

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveBased on the inhibitory activity of phosphodiesterase (PDE), a method for determining the anti-inflammatory activity of Qingjin Huatantang was established to supplement and improve the quality control system of this famous classical formula. MethodHigh performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the activity of PDE, and the dose-effect relationship of inhibiting PDE activity of Qingjin Huatantang was investigated. The mobile phase consisted of methanol-0.5% acetic acid aqueous solution (5∶95), and the detection wavelength was 254 nm. By measuring the PDE inhibition rate of multiple batches of Qingjin Huatantang water extract lyophilized powder, biological activity was marked with the activity of the neutralizing enzyme in the international unit U. ResultWhen the concentration of reaction substrate (cyclic adenosine monophosphate) was 50 μmol·L-1 and the reaction time was 60 min, the enzymatic reaction was stable with 4 U·mL-1 of PDE. In this reaction system, when the concentration of Qingjin Huatantang water extract lyophilized powder was 0.11-3.0 g·L-1, the inhibitory effect of PDE showed a concentration-dependent relationship. It was determined that the concentration of Qingjin Huatantang water extract lyophilized powder to be tested was 1 g·L-1, which showed a significant and stable inhibitory effect on PDE, and the inhibitory rate was >45%, that is, 1 mg of Qingjin Huatantang water extract lyophilized powder could neutralize the activity of 1.8 U PDE at least. ConclusionThis study establishes a biological activity evaluation method of Qingjin Huatantang based on the inhibitory activity of PDE, and the anti-inflammatory activity of Qingjin Huatantang is characterized by international unit U of PDE activity, which can provide a new method for the determination of biological activity of traditional Chinese medicine compounds.

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