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1.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 1117-1123, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941409

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor and clopidogrel in elderly Chinese patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the real world. Methods: This study is a post-hoc analysis of a single center, retrospective cohort study. Between March 2016 and March 2018, elderly (age≥65) ACS patients who underwent PCI in the General Hospital of Northern Theater Command were included in the study. The patients were grouped according to P2Y12 receptor inhibitor. The primary endpoints of this study were ischemic events during the 2-year follow-up, which were defined as the composite of cardiac death, myocardial or stroke. The secondary efficiency endpoints included all-cause death and BARC 2, 3, 5 bleeding events. Results: A total of 4 022 elderly (mean age: (71.5±5.3) years) ACS patients were included in this study. Based on the choice of P2Y12 receptor inhibitor, patients were divided into clopidogrel (n=3 201) and ticagrelor (n=821) groups. Incidences of ischemic events (3.2% (26/821) vs. 5.6% (179/3 201), P=0.005) at 2 years were significantly lower in ticagrelor group compared to clopidogrel group. BARC 2, 3, 5 bleeding events (1.7% (14/821) vs. 1.6% (52/3 201), P=0.818) were comparable between the two groups. The incidence of all-cause death (1.5% (12/821) vs. 4.1% (132/3 201), P=0.005) were also lower in the ticagrelor group compared to the clopidogrel group. Clinical outcomes were consistent after adjusting for confounding factors, the incidence of ischemic events (HR= 0.637, 95%CI 0.409-0.991, P=0.046) and all-cause mortality (HR=0.402, 95%CI 0.213-0.758, P=0.005) was significantly lower in the ticagrelor group compared with the clopidogrel group. Risk of BARC 2, 3, 5 bleeding events were similar between the two groups (HR=0.957, 95%CI 0.496-1.848, P=0.897). Conclusion: In real-world clinical practice, for elderly patients with ACS undergoing PCI, ticagrelor use might reduce the incidence of long-term ischemic events and all-cause death without increasing the risk of bleeding.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Acute Coronary Syndrome/surgery , Clopidogrel/therapeutic use , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Ticagrelor/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
2.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 143-149, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941250

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the medication compliance for secondary prevention drugs and long-term prognosis of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) between hospitals in different regions of China. Methods: The Optimal Antiplatelet Therapy for Chinese Patients with Coronary Artery Disease (OPT-CAD) study was a prospective, multi-center and registered study. Patients diagnosed as ACS and underwent PCI in OPT-CAD study were selected. Taking the Yangtze River as the dividing line between the south and the north of China, these patients were divided into two groups according to the hospitals where the patients visited, namely the southerns region group (n=1 958) and the northerns region group (n=5 091). In order to reduce selection bias and potential confounding factors, the patients in the two groups were matched by the tendency score, and the patients in the two groups were matched by the 1: 1 nearest match method according to the tendency score. The main endpoint of this study was the major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) occurring within 5 years after discharge, namely the composite endpoint of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and/or ischemic stroke. Secondary endpoints were all-cause death, cardiac death, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and type 2, 3, and 5 bleeding events defined by the Academic Research Consortium on Hemorrhage (BARC) within 5 years. The secondary preventive drugs was recorded, including antiplatelet drugs, statins, beta blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensinⅡreceptor blockers (ACEI/ARB), etc. Before and after the matching, the secondary preventive medication and the incidence of clinical events of the two groups were compared. Results: A total of 7 049 ACS patients, including 1 958 patients in the southern region group and 5 091 patients in the northern region group were enrolled in this study. There were 5 319 males (37.9%), and the aged was (60.7±6.7) years. After propensity score matching, there were 1 324 cases in each group. Before matching, in the northern region group, the proportion of smoking, hypertension and diabetes, previous history (myocardial infarction, PCI and stroke) and family history of coronary heart disease were higher (all P<0.05). The proportion of complex lesions, diffuse lesions, small vessel lesions and thrombotic lesions in the northern region group was higher than that in the southern region group (all P<0.05). Sixty months after discharge, the antiplatelet patterns were quite different between patients in the northern and southern region group (P<0.001). The proportion of clopidogrel monotherapy in the southern region group was higher than that in the northern region group (9.8% (130/1324) vs. 1.1% (14/1324)), while the proportion of aspirin monotherapy in the northern region group was higher than that in the southern region group (67.4% (893/1324) vs. 46.5% (616/1324)). As for the use of other secondary prophylactic drugs, the proportion of patients in southern region group receiving beta blockers (24.5% (325/1324) vs. 16.8% (222/1324), P<0.001) and ACEI/ARB (19.4% (257/1324) vs. 10.0% (133/1324), P<0.001) was higher than that in northern region group. After matching, the incidence of MACCE (8.4%(111/1 324) vs.6.2% (82/1 324), P=0.030) and BARC 2, 3 and 5 bleeding (6.0% (80/1 324) vs. 4.0% (53/1 324), P=0.020) was higher in patients in northern region group. Conclusions: ACS patients who undergo PCI in northern area hospital is at higher prevalence of comorbidities and complicated coronary artery lesions compared to patients in the southern area hospital, and the drug compliance is worse than that in southern area, and the prognosis is also relatively poor.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Acute Coronary Syndrome/drug therapy , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , China , Medication Adherence , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Secondary Prevention , Treatment Outcome
3.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 121-127, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941247

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the five-year safety and efficacy of the second generation biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent (EXCROSSAL) in treating patients with de novo coronary artery diseases. Methods: Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD)who were implanted with EXTROSSAL stents in CREDIT Ⅱ and CREDIT Ⅲ study were included. CREDIT Ⅱ was a randomized trial, and CREDIT Ⅲ was a single-arm study. From November 2013 to December 2014, 833 CAD patients with de novo coronary lesions implanted with EXTROSSAL stents were selected from 33 centers in China. The primary outcome was 5-year target lesion failure (TLF), a composite of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction and clinically indicated target lesion revascularization. Secondary endpoints was patient-oriented composite endpoint (PoCE), including all-cause death, all myocardial infarction, or any revascularization within 5 years post stenting and stent thrombosis according to Academic Research Consortium's (ARC) definition. Kaplan Meier method was used to calculate the incidence of TLF and PoCE within 5 years after operation. Univariate Cox regression analysis was used to analyze the impacts of diabetes, small vessel disease (vessel diameter ≤ 2.74 mm), lesion length ≥ 16.7 mm and multivessel disease on the incidence of TLF within 5 years after operation. Results: A total of 833 patients were included in this study including 579 males (69.5%), the age was (59.3±9.1) years. And 832 (99.9%) patients completed 5-year clinical follow-up. The incidence of TLF and PoCE in the 5-year follow-up were 10.6%(86/811) and 15.5%(126/811), respectively. Stent thrombosis occurred in 1.0%(8/811) of patients. Univariate Cox regression analysis showed that vessel diameter ≤ 2.74 mm (HR=3.20,95%CI 1.90-5.39,P<0.001), lesion length ≥ 16.7 mm (HR=1.88,95%CI 1.18-2.99,P=0.007) and multivessel disease (HR=2.44,95%CI 1.60-3.72,P<0.001) were related factors of TLF within 5 years after operation. Conclusion: EXCROSSAL stent is effective and safe in treating CAD patients with de novo coronary lesions, with low incidence of TLF and PoCE within 5 years after operation.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cardiovascular Agents , China , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Drug-Eluting Stents , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Polymers , Risk Factors , Sirolimus/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
4.
Gut and Liver ; : 471-478, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763852

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Metallic stents designed to relieve malignant biliary obstruction are susceptible to occlusive tumor ingrowth or overgrowth. In a previous report, we described metallic stents covered with paclitaxel-incorporated membrane (MSCPM-I, II) to prevent occlusion from tumor ingrowth via antitumor effect. This new generation paclitaxel-eluting biliary stent is further endowed with sodium caprate (MSCPM-III) for enhanced drug delivery. The purpose of this study is to examine the safety of its drug delivery system in the porcine biliary tract. METHODS: MSCPM-III (10% [wt/vol] paclitaxel) and covered metal stents (CMSs) were endoscopically inserted in porcine bile ducts in vivo. Histologic biliary changes, levels of paclitaxel released, and various serum analytes (albumin, alkaline phosphate, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, total protein, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin) were assessed. RESULTS: Based on the intensity of reactive inflammation and fibrosis, changes in porcine biliary epithelium secondary to implanted MSCPM-III were deemed acceptable (i.e., safe). Histologic features in the MSCPM-III and CMS groups did not differ significantly. In a related serum analysis, paclitaxel release from MSCPM-III stents was below the limit of detection for 28 days. Biochemical analyses were also similar for the two groups, and no evidence of hepatic or renal toxicity was found in animals receiving MSCPM-III stents. CONCLUSIONS: In a prototypic porcine trial, this newly devised metal biliary stent incorporating both paclitaxel and sodium caprate appears to be safe in the porcine bile duct.


Subject(s)
Animals , Alanine Transaminase , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Bile Ducts , Biliary Tract Neoplasms , Biliary Tract , Bilirubin , Drug Delivery Systems , Drug-Eluting Stents , Epithelium , Fibrosis , Inflammation , Limit of Detection , Membranes , Paclitaxel , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Self Expandable Metallic Stents , Sodium , Stents
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-465234

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe theRuangan granule on liver fibrosis in rats liver pathology change, the influence of hepatic function and hepatic fibrosis indexes, and to discusses the mechanism of its action to provide the basis for clinical prevention and treatment of liver fibrosis.Methods A total of 105 Wistar rats were randomly divided into a normal control group, a model group and a colchicines group, and Dahuang-Zhechong pill group, high-, medium- and low-doseRuangan granule groups (n=15 in each group). Liver fibrosis was induced by carbon tetrachloride and a high-cholesterol diet. After modeling, the low-, medium- and high-doseRuangan granule groups were intragastric administratedRuangan granule mixed suspension 3.6, 7.2, 14.4 g/(kg?d), respectively;Dahuang-Zhechong pill group was administrated with Dahuang-Zhechong pellets mixed suspension of 0.18 g/(kg?d); the colchicine group was intragastric administrated with colchicine mixed suspension of 0.108 mg/(kg?d); and the normal control group and the model group were intragastric administrated with the equal volume of distilled water. All rats were intragastric administrated for 8 weeks. HE staining and Masson trichromatic collagen staining were used to observe the pathological changes of liver While the change of AST, ALT, PH, TP and serum HA, LN, C-Ⅳ, PCⅢin blood serum were detected. Results Masson trichromatic collagen staining showed that, the percentage of liver collagen fiber area in rats of theRuangan granule high-dose group was significantly decreased (7.06 ± 1.18) % compared with model group (23.49 ± 1.34) %, colchicine group (11.35 ± 1.83) %, rhubarb worm pill group (15.27 ± 1.22) %,Ruangan granule medium-dose group (14.52 ± 1.75) %, and low dose group (16.08 ± 1.56) % (P<0.05 orP<0.01). Compared with model group,Ruangan granule high-dose group rats serum AST (75.86 ± 5.23 U/Lvs. 157.62 ± 24.04) U/L, the ALT (80.15 ± 5.94 U/Lvs. 160.58 ± 26.47) U/L, PH (52.58 ± 4.98μg/Lvs. 98.66 ± 6.75)μg/L significantly reduced, TP (74.19 ± 3.56 g/Lvs. 51.73 ± 5.92)g/L increased significantly (P<0.01).Ruangan granule high-dose group rats serum HA (277.22 ± 106.34 ng/mlvs. 553.19 ± 172.38 ng/ml), LN (89.82 ± 5.68 ng/mlvs. 134.25 ± 10.64 ng/ml), C-Ⅳ (47.94 ± 8.65 ng/mlvs. 84.18 ± 13.83 ng/ml), PCⅢ (16.53 ± 4.88 ng/mlvs.31.57 ± 5.35 ng/ml) decreased significantly in the model group (P<0.01).ConclusionRuangan granule has obvious effects for resisting liver fibrosis.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-462491

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effects of Ruangan granule on transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1)/Smads signaling pathway in liver fibrosis in rats. Methods A total of 105 Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control group, model group and colchicine, Dahuang-Zhechong pill group, high-, medium- and low-dose Ruangan granule groups (n=15 in each group). Liver fibrosis was induced by carbon tetrachloride and a high-cholesterol diet. After modeling, the low-, medium- and high-dose Ruangan granule groups were intragastric administrated Ruangan granule mixed suspension 3.6, 7.2, 14.4 g/(kg?d), respectively;Dahuang-Zhechong pill group was administrated with Dahuang-Zhechong pellets mixed suspension of 0.18 g/(kg?d);the colchicine group was intragastric administrated with colchicine mixed suspension of 0.108 mg/(kg?d);and the normal control group and the model group were intragastric administrated with the equal volume of distilled water. All rats were intragastric administrated for 8 weeks. The expressions of TGF-β1, Smad3 and Smad7 proteins in the liver tissue were detected with immunohistochemical staining method. The expressions of TGF-β1, Smad3, Smad7 mRNAs in the liver tussue were detected by RT-PCR. Results The expressions of TGF-β1 (2.59 ± 0.99 vs. 0.43 ± 0.21) and Smad3 (2.56 ± 0.67 vs. 0.41 ± 0.18) proteins and TGF-β1 mRNA (2.25 ± 0.21 vs. 0.71 ± 0.09) and Smad3 (2.34 ± 0.03 vs. 0.78 ± 0.12) mRNAs in the model group were significantly increased than those in the normal control group (all P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the expressions of TGF-β1 (1.12 ± 0.27 vs. 2.59 ± 0.99) and Smad3 (1.05 ± 0.34 vs. 2.56 ± 0.67) proteins in the high-dose Ruangan granule group decreased significantly, the expression of Smad7 increased significantly (2.33 ± 0.62 vs. 0.36 ± 0.18), and the expressions of TGF-β1 (1.09 ± 0.11 vs. 2.25 ± 0.21) and Smad3 (1.10 ± 0.02 vs. 2.34 ± 0.03) mRNAs decreased significantly, the expression of smad7 mRNA (1.18 ± 0.13 vs. 0.38 ± 0.11) increased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusions Ruangan granule can regulate the TGF-β1/Smads signaling pathway via down-regulation of TGF-β1, Smad3 and up-regulation of Smad7 in liver fibrosis in rats.

7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-82670

ABSTRACT

Polymeric micelles from pH-sensitive block copolymers have been designed for targeting tumor acidity or endosomal pH in tumor cells. The micelles are core-shell types formed by self-organization of the blocks in an aqueous medium or under specific experimental conditions. They possess a segment that has physical or chemical properties responding to small changes in environmental pH. The segment induces to the fast release kinetics from the micelles at tumor sites by particle shrunk/disruption. Furthermore, it can alter the biodistribution of the micelles and the interactions with tissues and cells by utilizing small pH changes. Such properties lead to overcome the problems associated with free chemo-agents, such as nonspecific toxicity, lack of tumor selectivity, and the development of multidrug resistance in various tumor cells. Therefore, the micelles have been considered as promising anti-cancer drug carriers. This review summarizes the recent progress in pH-sensitive micelles for tumor chemotherapy, particularly for those responding to tumor pH and endosomal/lysosomal pH for the treatment of multidrug resistance (MDR).


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Drug Delivery Systems , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Micelles , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Polymers/chemistry
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-198329

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Pullulan derivatives (PD) can be used to make self-assembled hydrogel nanoparticles which are responsive to ionic strength. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of PD as a retaining carrier of radioisotope inside tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four types of PD were evaluated which included pullulan acetate (PA), succinylated PA (SPA), PA-DTPA and SPA-DTPA conjugates. They were radiolabeled with Tc-99m. Labelling efficiencies were determined at 30 min, 1, 2, 4 and 12 hours after radiolabeling. CT-26 colon cancer cells were subcutaneously injected into Balb/c mice. After 2 weeks of subcutaneous injection, Tc-99m-labelled PD (Tc-99m-PD) were injected into the tumors. Whole body images of mice were obtained at 30 min, 1, 2, and 12 hr after intratumoral injection. All twenty mice were grouped into four groups by largest diameter; control A (largest diameter = 5 mm, n = 5), control B (largest diameter = 10 mm, n = 5), pullulan A (largest diameter = 5 mm, n = 5), pllulan B (largest diameter = 10 mm, n = 5). Dynamic images were obtained for 1 hour after intratumoral injection. Static images were obtained at 1 hr, 2 hr, 3 hr and 4 hr after intratumoral injection with Tc-99m pertechnetate and Tc-99m-PA. Target-to-background ratios and retention rates were calculated. RESULTS: Labeling efficiencies of PA, SPA, PA-DTPA and SPA-DTPA were 94.5 +/- 5.9%, 97.8 +/- 3.5% 94.2 +/- 3.8%, and 92.5 +/- 6.2%, respectively (p> 0.05). Percent retention rates (%RR) of PA and PA-DTPA were significantly higher than those of control, however, those of SP-DTPA and SPA became similar to control at 4 and 12 hr, respectively. %RR of pullulan A and pullulan B at 1, 4 and 8 hr is significantly higher than that of control (p < 0.05). However, %RR between pullulan A and pullulan B were similar. CONCLUSION: The ionic strength dependent PD-nanoparticles are retained in the tumor. No difference of %RR according to tumor size was noted. Therapeutic application of PD labelled with beta- or alpha- emitting radionuclides can be expected.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Body Image , Colonic Neoplasms , Hydrogels , Injections, Subcutaneous , Nanoparticles , Osmolar Concentration , Radioisotopes , Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
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