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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919207

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Anti-phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) autoantibody is the main biomarker of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN). We aimed to find a new cutoff value of anti-PLA2R for patients with IMN and to explore the relevance between this antibody and baseline clinical parameters. @*Methods@#A total of 670 subjects including 374 IMN cases and 296 non-IMN controls were included between January 2017 and January 2020. All clinical parameters were collected at the time of renal biopsy. The levels of anti-PLA2R were detected by a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. The optimal cutoff value was calculated by a receiver operating characteristic curve and compared in diagnostic efficiency. @*Results@#The optimal cutoff value of anti-PLA2R for IMN was 7.45 RU/mL with the highest Youden index, and the corresponding sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 80.75%, 97.97%, 98.05% and 80.11%, respectively. Anti-PLA2R levels in IMN patients demonstrated a significant positive correlation with serum creatinine and 24-hour urinary protein, while they showed a negative correlation with serum albumin and estimated glomerular filtration rate. @*Conclusions@#The recommended cutoff value of anti-PLA2R is 7.45 RU/mL using ELISA detection for distinguishing IMN from non-IMN nephropathy. The level of anti-PLA2R is related to baseline renal function in IMN. This new threshold can improve the diagnostic efficiency and facilitate early diagnosis of IMN.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 46-63, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913167

ABSTRACT

In recent years, immunotherapy has made great progress in clinical cancer therapy. However, the poor tumor specificity, low intra-tumoral penetration, and low cellular uptake in the systemic delivery of immunotherapeutic drugs lead to low efficacy and poor safety, limiting the development of immunotherapy. Active tumor-targeting nano drug delivery systems (aNDDS) can enhance the concentration of drugs in target cells through the interaction between surface-conjugated antibodies or ligands and the receptors on target cell membranes, providing a viable strategy for specific and efficient drug delivery. In addition, some specific types of cell membranes with the natural targeting ability have been exploited for the construction of biomimetic nanocarriers to improve the drug delivery efficiency. In view of the many advantages of active tumor-targeting nanocarriers, researchers also have designed a series of aNDDS for promoting antitumor immune responses and proved that they improved the efficacy and safety of immunotherapy. In this review, we summarize the recent progress on aNDDS for improving the tumor immunotherapy and look forward to the main challenges and future directions in this field.

3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2391-2405, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929378

ABSTRACT

Drug-induced hyperglycemia/diabetes is a global issue. Some drugs induce hyperglycemia by activating the pregnane X receptor (PXR), but the mechanism is unclear. Here, we report that PXR activation induces hyperglycemia by impairing hepatic glucose metabolism due to inhibition of the hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-alpha (HNF4α)‒glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) pathway. The PXR agonists atorvastatin and rifampicin significantly downregulated GLUT2 and HNF4α expression, and impaired glucose uptake and utilization in HepG2 cells. Overexpression of PXR downregulated GLUT2 and HNF4α expression, while silencing PXR upregulated HNF4α and GLUT2 expression. Silencing HNF4α decreased GLUT2 expression, while overexpressing HNF4α increased GLUT2 expression and glucose uptake. Silencing PXR or overexpressing HNF4α reversed the atorvastatin-induced decrease in GLUT2 expression and glucose uptake. In human primary hepatocytes, atorvastatin downregulated GLUT2 and HNF4α mRNA expression, which could be attenuated by silencing PXR. Silencing HNF4α downregulated GLUT2 mRNA expression. These findings were reproduced with mouse primary hepatocytes. Hnf4α plasmid increased Slc2a2 promoter activity. Hnf4α silencing or pregnenolone-16α-carbonitrile (PCN) suppressed the Slc2a2 promoter activity by decreasing HNF4α recruitment to the Slc2a2 promoter. Liver-specific Hnf4α deletion and PCN impaired glucose tolerance and hepatic glucose uptake, and decreased the expression of hepatic HNF4α and GLUT2. In conclusion, PXR activation impaired hepatic glucose metabolism partly by inhibiting the HNF4α‒GLUT2 pathway. These results highlight the molecular mechanisms by which PXR activators induce hyperglycemia/diabetes.

4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 339-352, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929298

ABSTRACT

Psoriasis is an autoimmune skin disease in which dendritic cells (DCs) trigger the progression of psoriasis by complex interactions with keratinocytes and other immune cells. In the present study, we aimed to load celastrol, an anti-inflammatory ingredient isolated from Chinese herbs, on mannosylated liposomes to enhance DC uptake as well as to induce DC tolerance in an imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like mouse model. Mannose was grafted onto liposomes to target mannose receptors on DCs. The results demonstrated that compared with unmodified liposomes, DCs preferred to take up more fluorescence-labeled mannosylated liposomes. After loading celastrol into mannose-modified liposomes, they effectively inhibited the expression of maturation markers, including CD80, CD86 and MHC-II, on DCs both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, after intradermal injection with a microneedle, celastrol-loaded mannose-modified liposomes (CEL-MAN-LPs) achieved a superior therapeutic effect compared with free drug and celastrol-loaded unmodified liposomes in the psoriasis mouse model in terms of the psoriasis area and severity index, histology evaluation, spleen weight, and expression of inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, our results clearly revealed that CEL-MAN-LPs was an effective formulation for psoriasis treatment and suggested that this treatment has the potential to be applied to other inflammatory diseases triggered by activated DCs.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929248

ABSTRACT

Simiao Wan (SMW) is a traditional Chinese formula, including Atractylodis Rhizoma, Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex and Coicis Semen at the ratio of 1:1:2:2. It can be used to the treatment of diabetes. However, its bioactive compounds and underlying mechanism are unclear. This study aimed to screen the antilipolytic fraction from SMW and investigate its therapeutic mechanisms on hepatic insulin resistance. Different fractions of SMW were prepared by membrane separation combined with macroporous resin and their antilipolytic activities were screened in fasted mice. The effects of 60% ethanol elution (ESMW) on lipolysis were investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes stimulated by palmitic acid (PA) and high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. In our study, ESMW is the bioactive fraction responsible for the antilipolytic activity of SMW and 13 compounds were characterized from ESMW by UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS. ESMW suppressed protein kinase A (PKA)-hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) related lipolysis and increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in PA challenged 3T3-L1 adipocytes. AMPKα knockdown abolished the inhibitory effects of ESMW on IL-6 and HSL pSer-660, revealing that the antilipolytic and anti-inflammatory activities of ESMW are AMPK dependent. Furthermore, ESMW ameliorated insulin resistance and suppressed lipolysis in HFD-fed mice. It inhibited diacylglycerol accumulation in the liver and inhibited hepatic gluconeogenesis. Conditional medium collected from ESMW-treated 3T3-L1 cells ameliorated insulin action on hepatic gluconeogenesis in liver cells, demonstrating the antilipolytic activity contributed to ESMW beneficial effects on hepatic glucose production. In conclusion, ESMW, as the antilipolytic fraction of SMW, inhibited PKA-HSL related lipolysis by activating AMPK, thus inhibiting diacylglycerol (DAG) accumulation in the liver and thereby improving insulin resistance and hepatic gluconeogenesis.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Animals , Insulin/metabolism , Lipolysis/physiology , Liver/metabolism , Mice , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928698

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the clinical effect of haploid allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation(haplo-HSCT) in the treatment of severe aplastic anemia (SAA), and to explore the efficacy different between post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PT/Cy) and standard-dose ATG.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 38 patients with SAA in our hospital from January 2012 to December 2019 were collected and retrospectively analyzed. The efficacy was evaluated. The patients with haplo-HSCT were divided into low-dose ATG combined with PT/Cy group and standard-dose ATG group, and the blood cell hematopoietic reconstruction time, GVHD incidence, mortality and survival time of the patients in the two groups was compared.@*RESULTS@#Among the 32 patients, hematopoietic reconstitution were detected in 9375%(30/32) recipients. The median time of neutrophil and platelet engraftment was 15(10-22) days and 13(7-30) days, respectively. The incidence of GVHD was 21.89%, the incidence of infection was 93.75%, and the 2-year overall survival rate was 84.38%. The hematopoietic reconstitution time, incidence of GVHD, mortality rate and survival time were no statistical differences between the patients in the two groups(all P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Haplo-HSCT is an effective method for the treatment of SAA,low-dose ATG combined with PT/Cy can lighten the economic burden on patients, it would be a feasible treatment plan for SAA with light side effect.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Aplastic/therapy , Cyclophosphamide , Graft vs Host Disease , Haploidy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Transplantation Conditioning
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928601

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the efficacy and safety of domestic generic levetiracetam in replacement of brand-name levetiracetam in the treatment of children with epilepsy.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 154 children with epilepsy who received domestic generic levetiracetam in the inpatient or outpatient service of Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital from May 2019 to December 2020. Domestic generic levetiracetam and brand-name levetiracetam were compared in terms of efficacy and safety.@*RESULTS@#For these 154 children, the epilepsy control rate was 77.3% (119/154) at baseline. At 6 months after switching to domestic generic levetiracetam, the epilepsy control rate reached 83.8% (129/154), which showed a significant increase (P<0.05). There was no significant change in the frequency of seizures from baseline to 6 months after switching (P>0.05). The incidence of refractory epilepsy in children with no response after switching treatment was significantly higher than that in children with response (P<0.05). Before switching, only 1 child (0.6%) experienced somnolence, while after switching, 3 children (1.9%) experienced mild adverse drug reactions, including dizziness, somnolence, irritability, and bad temper.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Switching from brand-name to generic levetiracetam is safe and effective and holds promise for clinical application, but more prospective randomized controlled trials are required in future.


Subject(s)
Child , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Humans , Levetiracetam , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Seizures
8.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 311-316, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928538

ABSTRACT

Repairing glans dehiscence after failed hypospadias repair is challenging for pediatric surgeons. Here, we introduced and evaluated a newly modified Mathieu technique, Mathieu combined tunnel (MCT), which involves multiple custom-designed flaps for the shortage of flap source material after repeated operations; we also constructed a tunnel to avoid the glans incision that may carry new risks of dehiscence. This retrospective study included 26 patients who were consecutively admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University (Guangzhou, China) for glans dehiscence repair after failed hypospadias repair from October 2014 to October 2020; sixteen patients underwent surgery using the MCT (MCT group) and ten patients underwent surgery using the tubularized incised plate (TIP) technique (TIP group). The operative time, blood loss, postoperative complications, normal urethral meatus rate, success rate, and Hypospadias Objective Penile Evaluation (HOPE) score were compared between the two groups. The MCT group achieved an overall satisfactory penile appearance and voiding function, with a higher rate of normal urethral meatus (15/16, 93.8%) and a lower rate of glans dehiscence (1/16, 6.2%), compared with the TIP group (70.0% and 30.0%, respectively). However, these differences were not statistically significant, possibly because of the limited number of patients (all P > 0.05). Mean postoperative HOPE scores were similar in the MCT group (mean ± standard deviation: 8.83 ± 0. 89) and TIP group (8.94 ± 0.57) (P > 0.05). No significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of blood loss and success rate, nor in the rates of various complications (e.g., fistula, urethral stricture, and glans dehiscence). In conclusion, the MCT technique appears to be feasible and reliable for repairing glans dehiscence after failed hypospadias repair.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Hypospadias/surgery , Infant , Male , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Urethra/surgery , Urologic Surgical Procedures, Male/methods
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928176

ABSTRACT

This study analyzed the quality markers(Q-markers) of Yuquan Capsules(YQC) based on serum pharmacochemistry of Chinese medicine and detected the components and metabolites of YQC absorbed into the blood by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and UNIFI systems. As a result, 32 components of YQC were detected, including 17 prototype components and 15 metabolized components. Among them, 12 prototype components(ginsenoside Rh_2, genistein, formononetin, puerarin, daidzein, schizandrin A, schizandrin B, schizandrin C, schizandrol A, schizandrol B, gomisin D, and ononin) and 12 metabolized components(ginsenoside Rg_1, ginsenoside Rg_2, ginsenoside Rg_3, ginsenoside Ro, 3'-methoxypuerarin, daidzin, astragaloside Ⅱ, astragaloside Ⅳ, glycyrrhizic acid, liquiritigenin, isoliquiritin, and verbascoside) showed inhibitory effects and pharmacological activities against diabetes, and these 24 blood-entering components against diabetes were identified as Q-markers of YQC.


Subject(s)
Capsules , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Ginsenosides/analysis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Serum/chemistry
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928090

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the mechanism of baicalin on lipopolysaccharide(LPS)/interferon γ(IFN-γ)-induced inflammatory microglia based on the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2(TREM2)/Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4)/nuclear factor kappaB(NF-κB) pathway. Specifically, LPS and IFN-γ were used to induce inflammation in mouse microglia BV2 cells. Then the normal group, model group, low-dose(5 μmol·L~(-1)) baicalin group, medium-dose(10 μmol·L~(-1)) baicalin group, high-dose(20 μmol·L~(-1)) baicalin group, and minocycline(10 μmol·L~(-1)) group were designed. Cell viability was detected by CCK-8 assay and cell morphology was observed under bright field. The expression of interleukin-1β(IL-1β), interleukin-4(IL-4), inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS), interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin-10(IL-10), and arginase-1(Arg-1) mRNA was detected by real-time quantitative PCR, the protein expression of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), IL-1β, TREM2, TLR4, inhibitor kappaB-alpha(IκBα), p-IκBα, NF-κB p65 and p-NF-κB p65 by Western blot, and transfer of NF-κB p65 from cytoplasm to nucleus by cellular immunofluorescence. Compared with the normal group, most of the BV2 cells in the model group tended to demonstrate the pro-inflammatory M1 amoeba morphology, and the model group showed significant increase in the mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and iNOS, decrease in the mRNA levels of IL-4, IL-10, and Arg-1(P<0.01), rise of the protein expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, TLR4, p-IκBα, and p-NF-κB p65(P<0.01), reduction in TREM2 protein expression, and increase in the expression of NF-κB p65 in nucleus. Compared with the model group, baicalin groups and minocycline group showed the recovery of BV2 cell morphology, significant decrease in the mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and iNOS, increase in the mRNA levels of IL-4, IL-10, and Arg-1(P<0.01), reduction in the protein expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, TLR4, p-IκBα, and p-NF-κB p65(P<0.05), rise of TREM2 protein expression, and decrease in the expression of NF-κB p65 in nucleus. In summary, these results suggest that baicalin can regulate the imbalance between TREM2 and TLR4 of microglia and inhibit the activation of downstream NF-κB, thus promoting the polarization of microglia from pro-inflammatory phenotype to anti-inflammatory phenotype.


Subject(s)
Animals , Flavonoids , Inflammation/genetics , Interferon-gamma , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , Mice , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928024

ABSTRACT

This study analyzed the molecular mechanism of Huangjing Qianshi Decoction(HQD) in the treatment of prediabetes based on network pharmacology and molecular docking. The active components of HQD were identified and screened based on Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP, http://Lsp.nwu.edu.cn/tcmsp.php) and then the targets of the components and the genes related to prediabetes were retrieved, followed by identifying the common targets of the decoction and the disease. The medicinal component-target network was constructed by Cytoscape to screen key components. The protein-protein interaction(PPI) network was established by STRING and hub genes were identified by Cytoscape-CytoNCA, followed by Gene Ontology(GO) term enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) of the hub genes with R-clusterProfi-ler. Thereby, the possible signaling pathways were predicted and the molecular mechanism was deduced. A total of 79 active components of HQD and 785 diabetes-related targets of the components were screened out. The hub genes mainly involved the GO terms of tricarboxylic acid cycle, peptide binding, amide binding, hydrolase activity, and kinase activity regulation, and the KEGG pathways of AGE-RAGE signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway, AMPK signaling pathway, IL-17 signaling pathway, and insulin signaling pathway. Western blot result showed that HQD-containing serum significantly reduced the expression of AKT1, AGE, and RAGE proteins in insulin resistance model cells. HQD's treatment of prediabetes is characterized by multiple pathways, multiple targets, and multiple levels. The main mechanism is that the components zhonghualiaoine, baicalein, kaempferol, and luteolin act on AKT1 and inhibit the AGE-RAGE axis.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Network Pharmacology , Prediabetic State/genetics
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928011

ABSTRACT

Aiming to solve the poor compactibility of the alcoholic extract of Zingiberis Rhizoma(ZR), this study explored the feasibility of its physical modification using co-spray drying with a small amount of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose(HPMC). Based on the univariate analysis, the influence of two independent variables(the HPMC content in the product and the solid content of spray material) on the powder properties and tablet properties of the dried product was investigated by the central composite design. With the tensile strength and disintegration time of the tablets as the evaluation indexes, the optimal prescription was determined as follows: the HPMC content was 15% and the solid content of spray material was 25.6%. The accuracy of the regression model established for predicting tensile strength and disintegration time of tablets was verified, and the results revealed that the measured values were close to the predicted ones with deviations of 0.47% and-8.2%, indicating good prediction and reproducibility of the model. The tensile strength(4.24 MPa) of tablets prepared with the optimal prescription was 3.59 times that(1.18 MPa, far lower than the baseline of 2 MPa for qualified tablets) with the spray-dried powder of the ZR. On the other hand, due to the addition of HPMC, the disintegration time of tablets increased from 7.3 min to 24.6 min. On the whole, this study provided a new strategy to solve the common problem of poor compactibility of raw Chinese medicinal materials, which facilitated the successful preparation of Chinese medicinal tablets with high drug loads.


Subject(s)
Ginger , Plant Extracts , Reproducibility of Results , Rhizome , Spray Drying
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927992

ABSTRACT

Ginsenoside Rg_1, one of the main active components of precious traditional Chinese medicine Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, has the anti-oxidative stress, anti-inflammation, anti-aging, neuroprotection, and other pharmacological effects. Diabetic retinopathy(DR), the most common complication of diabetes, is also the main cause of impaired vision and blindness in the middle-aged and the elderly. The latest research shows that ginsenoside Rg_1 can protect patients against DR, but the protection and the mechanism are rarely studied. This study mainly explored the protective effect of ginsenoside Rg_1 against DR in type 2 diabetic mice and the mechanism. High fat diet(HFD) and streptozotocin(STZ) were used to induce type 2 diabetes in mice, and hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was employed to observe pathological changes in the retina of mice. The immunohistochemistry was applied to study the localization and expression of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors 3(NLRP3) and vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) in retina, and Western blot was used to detect the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B(NF-κB), p-NF-κB, NLRP3, caspase-1, interleukin-1β(IL-1β), transient receptor potential channel protein 6(TRPC6), nuclear factor of activated T-cell 2(NFAT2), and VEGF in retina. The results showed that ginsenoside Rg_1 significantly alleviated the pathological injury of retina in type 2 diabetic mice. Immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg_1 significantly decreased the expression of NLRP3 and VEGF in retinal ganglion cells, middle plexiform layer, and outer plexiform layer in type 2 diabetic mice. According to the Western blot results, ginsenoside Rg_1 significantly lowered the expression of p-NF-κB, NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1β, TRPC6, NFAT2, and VEGF in retina of type 2 diabetic mice. These findings suggest that ginsenoside Rg_1 can significantly alleviate DR in type 2 diabetic mice, which may be related to inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome and VEGF. This study provides experimental evidence for the clinical application of ginsenoside Rg_1 in the treatment of DR.


Subject(s)
Aged , Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetic Retinopathy/genetics , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Mice , Middle Aged , NF-kappa B/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927420

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of fire needling on psoriasis-like lesion and the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway in mice and compare the therapeutic effect between different interventions of fire needling therapy (surrounding technique of fire needling, fire needling at "Dazhui" [GV 14] and "Zusanli" [ST 36]).@*METHODS@#Thirty male BALB/c mice were randomized into a blank group, a model group, a dexamthasone group, a surrounding technique group and an acupoint group, 6 mice in each one. Except the blank group, the mice in the rest groups were established as psoriasis-like lesion model by topical application with imiquimod cream, once daily, consecutively for 8 days. From day 4 to day 8, in the dexamthasone group, gastric infusion with 0.2 mL dexamthasone was administered, once daily. On day 4, 6 and 8, in the surrounding technique group, fire needling was exerted around the skin lesion; and fire needling was applied to "Dazhui" (GV 14) and "Zusanli" (ST 36) in the acupoint group, once a day. The changes in skin lesion on the dorsal parts of mice were observed in each group to score the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI). Using HE staining, the dermal morphological changes and epidermal thickness were observed in the mice of each group. The positive expression of proliferating cell-associated antigen Ki-67 was determined by immunofluorescence. Immunohistochemistry method was used to determine the expressions of , and T cells of skin tissue in each group. Using real-time PCR, the expressions of interleukin (IL)-17, IL-22, tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α) mRNA were determined. Western blot method was adopted to determine the protein expressions of STAT3 and p-STAT3 in skin tissue in each group.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the blank group, the scores of each item and the total scores of PASI, as well as the epidermal thickness were all increased in the mice of the model group (P<0.01). Except for the erythema scores of the dexamethasone group and the surrounding technique group, the scores of each item and the total scores of PASI, as well as the epidermal thickness were all decreased in each intervention group as compared with the model group (P<0.01). The infiltration scores and the total scores in the dexamethasone group and the acupoint group were lower than those in the surrounding technique group respectively (P<0.01, P<0.05). In comparison with the blank group, Ki-67 positive cell numbers and the numbers of , and T cells in skin tissue were increased in the mice of the model group (P<0.01). Ki-67 positive cell numbers and the numbers of , and T cells were reduced in each intervention group as compared with the model group (P<0.01), and the numbers of and T cells in the acupoint group were less than the surrounding technique group (P<0.01). Compared with the blank group, the mRNA expressions of IL-17, IL-22 and TNF-α and the ratio of p-STAT3 to STAT3 were all increased in the model group (P<0.01). The mRNA expressions of IL-17, IL-22 and TNF-α and the ratio of p-STAT3 to STAT3 were all decreased in each intervention group as compared with the model group (P<0.01, P<0.05). The mRNA expressions of IL-17, IL-22 and TNF-α in the acupoint group, as well as mRNA expression of IL-17 in the surrounding technique group were all lower than the dexamethasone group (P<0.01), while, the mRNA expression of IL-22 in the acupoint group was lower than the surrounding technique group (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Fire needling therapy improves skin lesion severity in imiquimod induced psoriasis-like lesion of the mice, which is probably related to the inhibition of STAT3 pathway activation and the decrease of Th17 inflammatory factors expression. The systemic regulation of fire needling at "Dazhui" (GV 14) and "Zusanli" (ST 36) is superior to the local treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Imiquimod/metabolism , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Psoriasis/drug therapy , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , STAT3 Transcription Factor/pharmacology , Skin/pathology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927365

ABSTRACT

The current clinical evidence and underlying mechanisms of acupuncture and moxibustion in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were summarized, so as to better optimize clinical treatment. The relevant articles of acupuncture and moxibustion in the treatment of IBS in recent years were retrieved and summarized. We found that the clinical efficacy of acupuncture and moxibustion in the treatment of IBS was relatively reliable. However, the mutual relationships among various mechanisms of action such as abnormal gastrointestinal motility, high visceral sensitivity, intestinal microenvironment disorders, and abnormal intestinal-brain interactions need to be further explored. The authors believe that in-depth explorations of the bidirectional regulation of "gut-brain axis", the law of changes in the abundance and diversity of intestinal flora, and the establishment of a more ideal animal model of TCM syndrome differentiation are useful ideas for subsequent research.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture , Acupuncture Therapy , Animals , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/therapy , Moxibustion
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927361

ABSTRACT

Through reviewing acupuncture technique in various editions of the state-compiled teaching material of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, the hierarchical structure, definitions, and variations of acupuncture manipulation were collected, the theory of contemporary acupuncture manipulation as well as its application characteristics were explored. In the perspective of the hierarchical structure, acupuncture technique with filiform needle is predominated. It is implied in the description of the definition of acupuncture technique that the devices of acupuncture have been developed from single form to multivariant one and the stimulation regions have no longer limited to acupoints. The types of acupuncture manipulations have been enriched gradually during the development of teaching materials. But a part of acupuncture manipulation have been deleted from the knowledge hierarchy of acupuncture technique in textbooks. Acupuncture and Moxibustion is comprehensive and normative, which is important in the inheritance and application of the theory of acupuncture and moxibustion. However, it has to some extent restricted the diversified development of knowledge on acupuncture manipulation.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture , Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Moxibustion , Needles
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927336

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of moxibustion on skin lesions and immune inflammatory response in psoriasis mice, and to explore the possible mechanism of moxibustion for psoriasis.@*METHODS@#A total of 32 male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into a normal group, a model group, a moxibustion group and a medication group, 8 mice in each group. Psoriasis model was induced by applying 5% imiquimod cream on the back for 7 days in the model group, the moxibustion group and the medication group. At the same time of model establishment, the moxibustion group was treated with suspension moxibustion on skin lesions on the back, 20 min each time, once a day; the medication group was treated with 1 mg/kg methotrexate tablet solution by gavage, once a day. Both groups were intervened for 7 days. The daily changes of skin lesions were observed, and the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) score was evaluated; the histopathological changes of skin lesions were observed by HE staining; the positive expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and T lymphocyte surface marker CD3 were detected by immunohistochemistry; the expression level of serum interleukin (IL) -17A was detected by ELISA, and the relative expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA in skin lesions were detected by real-time PCR.@*RESULTS@#The increased and hypertrophy scale, dry skin, red and swollen epidermis and obvious infiltration were observed in the model group, and each score and total score of PASI were higher than those in the normal group (P<0.01). The scale score, infiltration score, and total score of PASI in the moxibustion group were lower than those in the model group (P<0.01); the infiltration score and total score of PASI in the medication group were lower than those in the model group (P<0.01, P<0.05). The inflammatory cell infiltration in the model group was obvious, and the thickness of epidermal layer was increased compared with that in the normal group (P<0.01); the inflammatory cell infiltration and Munro micro abscess were decreased in the moxibustion group and the medication group, and the thickness of epidermal layer was decreased compared with that in the model group (P<0.01). Compared with the normal group, the positive cell number of PCNA and T was increased (P<0.01), and the body mass was decreased, and the spleen index was increased (P<0.01), and the expression of serum IL-17A and the relative expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA in the skin lesions was increased in the model group (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the positive cell number of PCNA and T was reduced (P<0.01), and the spleen index and the relative expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA were reduced (P<0.01) in the moxibustion group and the medication group; the body mass of mice in the moxibustion group was higher than that in the model group (P<0.01); the content of serum IL-17A in the medication group was lower than that in the model group (P<0.01); the relative expression of TNF-α, IL-1β mRNA in the moxibustion group was higher than that in the medication group (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Moxibustion could effectively improve the scale and infiltration of skin lesions in psoriasis mice. Its mechanism may be related to inhibiting inflammatory response and regulating immunity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Imiquimod , Male , Mice , Moxibustion , Psoriasis/therapy , Skin , Spleen , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924010

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the role of TRIM65 on DSS induced colitis and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods Trim65+/+ and Trim65-/- mice were administered with 3% (w/v) DSS in their drinking water for 5 consecutive days and then were switched to sterile water for 2 days. DSS treated mice were monitored daily for the clinical symptoms (bodyweight, stool consistency and rectal bleeding score). Mice were sacrificed on day 7 to measure colon length. Colon homogenates were collected to measure MPO activity and detect cleaved caspase-1 and mature IL-1β by Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot. Trim65-/- mice were intraperitoneally injected with NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor MCC950, and were given the above treatment to determine the effect of MCC950 on colitis in Trim65-/- mice. Results The results showed that deletion of Trim65 significantly enhanced weight loss and colon shortening in DSS mice, increased disease activity index and histopathological score, induced the activity of MPO, and promoted the F4/80+ immune cell infiltration, the activation of caspase-1 and the secretion of mature IL-1 in the colon of DSS mice. The NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor MCC950 alleviated DSS induced colitis symptoms and inflammation levels in trim65 deficient mice. Conclusion TRIM65 plays an anti-inflammatory role in DSS induced colitis mice by inhibiting the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome.

19.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 843-850, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923290

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the value of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), red blood cell distribution width-to-lymphocyte ratio (RLR), and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) in predicting the prognosis of early small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Methods A retrospective analysis was performed for 132 patients newly diagnosed with early HCC who underwent RFA in Tianjin Second People's Hospital from September 2011 to December 2020. Preoperative data were collected and the patients were followed up to observe recurrence and overall survival (OS). The X-tile tool was used to determine the optimal cut-off values of NLR, RLR, and LMR based on 5-year survival rate and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rate, and then the patients were divided into N-R-L 0 group with 92 patients, N-R-L 1 group with 29 patients, and N-R-L 2 group with 11 patients. The chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between the three groups. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to plot the survival curve, and the log-rank test was used to compare RFS and OS rates between groups. The factors with statistical significance in the log-rank test were included in the multivariate Cox regression analysis to determine the risk factors for RFS and OS rates. Results There were significant differences in Child-Pugh class and albumin between the N-R-L 0, N-R-L 1, and N-R-L 2 groups ( χ 2 2=10.992 and 5.699, both P < 0.05). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS rates of the three groups were 100%/96.3%/90.7%, 96.6%/60.4%/41.3%, and 81.8%/46.8%/15.6%, respectively ( χ 2 =38.46, P < 0.000 1), and the 1-, 3-, and 5-year RFS rates of the three groups were 76.9%/52.5%/33.3%, 42.9%/13.1%/0, and 11.1%/0/0, respectively ( χ 2 =35.345, P < 0.000 1). The multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that tumor diameter ≥ 2 cm (hazard ratio[ HR ]=2.10, 95% confidence interval[ CI ]: 1.28-3.43, P =0.003; HR =3.67, 95% CI : 1.58-8.52, P =0.002), N-R-L score of 1 point ( HR =3.14, 95% CI : 1.81-5.46, P < 0.000 1; HR =8.27, 95% CI : 3.15-21.71, P < 0.000 1), and N-R-L score of 2 points ( HR =2.61, 95% CI : 1.06-6.42, P =0.037; HR =14.59, 95% CI : 3.96-53.78, P < 0.000 1) were independent predictive factors for RFS and OS. Conclusion N-R-L, a systemic inflammatory response marker composed of NLR, RLR, and LMR, is an independent risk factor for recurrence and survival of early small HCC after RFA, and it can be used as a useful noninvasive biomarker in combination with tumor features to predict the recurrence and survival of early HCC after RFA.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922565

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect of Tangshen Formula (, TSF), a Chinese herbal medicine, on interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in the colon of diabetic rats.@*METHODS@#Fifty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control (NC, n=14) and high-fat diet (HFD) groups (n=40). After 6 weeks, the rats in the HFD group were injected intraperitoneally streptozotocin once (30 mg/kg). Thirty rats with fasting blood glucose higher than 11.7 mmol/L were randomly divided into diabetes (DM) and TSF groups, 15 rats in each group. Rats in the NC and DM groups were intragastrically administered with saline, and those in the TSF group were given with TSF (2.4 g/kg) once daily for 20 weeks. Expression levels of Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3 in colonic smooth muscle layer were measured by Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. The number of ICC was determined by immunohistochemical staining. Immunofluorescence was used for analyzing the ratio of classically activated macrophages (M1) and alternatively activated macrophages (M2) to total macrophages. Electron microscopy was used to observe the epithelial ultrastructure and junctions.@*RESULTS@#TSF appeared to partially prevented loss of ICC in DM rats (P<0.05). Compared with the NC group, expression levels of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, and TNF-α as well as the ratio of M1 to total macrophages increased in DM rats (all P<0.05), and the ratio of M2 to total macrophages decreased (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with the DM group, TSF decreased the expression levels of abovementioned proteins and restore M2 to total macrophages ratio (P<0.05 or P<0.01). TSF appeared to attenuate the ultrastructural changes of epithelia and improve the tight and desmosome junctions between epithelia reduced in the DM rats.@*CONCLUSION@#Reduced number of ICC in DM rats may be associated with damage of the intestinal barrier. The protective effects of TSF on ICC may be through repair of the epithelial junctions, which attenuates inflammation and inflammation-initiated apoptosis in colon of DM rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Colon , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar
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