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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1465-1470, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924751

ABSTRACT

Probe electrospray ionization (PESI) is one of the typical types of ambient ionization technology, but its application in quantitative analysis is limited due to its poor sampling stability. Previously, we developed a new micro-pen electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (μPen-ESI-MS/MS) method based on PESI. In this study, a μPen-ESI-MS/MS method to measure testosterone and dextromethorphan in liver microsome samples was developed and validated to further applicate in evaluating drug metabolism stability and CYP450 enzyme activity. A μPen-ESI-MS/MS method for detecting the CYP3A4 substrate testosterone and CYP2D6 substrate dextromethorphan in the liver microsome incubation system were developed, and the linearity, precision and accuracy of the method was validated. The validated method was further used to detect the metabolic stability of testosterone in the liver microsome incubation system. The results showed that the μPen-ESI-MS/MS had high efficiency with 0.3 min spraying time of each sample. The standard curve of the testosterone and dextromethorphan has good linearity (R2 > 0.99), the intra- and inter-batch accuracy of testosterone and dextromethorphan was 95.9%-109.3% and 90.5%-107.3%, respectively; the intra- and inter-batch precision was acceptable with RSD values of 2.4%-13.5% and 3.4%-12.1%. The half-lives of testosterone and dextromethorphan in the liver microsome incubation system were 12 min and 14 min, respectively. This study provided a rapid and sensitive μPen-ESI-MS/MS method for the assay of testosterone and dextromethorphan in liver microsome samples, and provided a new strategy for the evaluation of drug metabolism stability and CYP3A4/CYP2D6 activity.

2.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1361-1367, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924362

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To study the pharm acokinetics of venlafaxine(VEN)combined with vinpocetine (VIN)in rats ,and to investigate the interaction between them. METHODS Healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into VEN group (13.5 mg/kg), VIN group (1.8 mg/kg) and VEN + VIN group (13.5 mg/kg VEN + 1.8 mg/kg VIN ),with 6 rats in each group. Before administration,rats in each group fasted but didn ’t deprived of water for 12 hours,and were given corresponding drugs intragastrically at one time. Blood was collected from rats in each group through orbital venous plexus at different time points after administration. After plasma sample was pretreated (domperidone as internal standard ),LC-MS/MS method was adopted to determine the concentration of VEN ,active metabolite O-desmethylvenlafaxine of VEN (ODV)and active metabolite apovinblastic acid of VIN (AVA)in plasma. DAS 2.0 software was used to calculate and compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of VEN ,ODV and AVA. RESULTS Compared with VEN group ,the pharmacokinetic parameters cmax,AUC0-t,AUC0-∞,MRT0-t(except for VEN),MRT0-∞(except for VEN )of VEN and ODV in VEN+VIN group were increased significantly ,while CL/ F and Vz/F were decreased significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with VIN group ,there was no statistical difference in the pharmacokinetic parameters of AVA in rat plasma of VEN+VIN group (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS After the combination of VEN and VIN ,VIN can affect the metabolism of VEN by increasing the absorption of VEN and ODV and slowing down their elimination.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923331

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of six common air pollutants in Xi'an, and to provide a scientific basis for the environmental protection departments to conduct targeted prevention and control. Methods Based on air pollution monitoring data with high temporal resolution, the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of six common air pollutants in Xi'an were analyzed, and the correlation between the pollutants was studied. Results Except for O3_8h, the annual average concentrations of the other five air pollutants decreased year by year. By 2020, the annual average concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 still exceeded the second-level concentration limit. The annual average concentration of NO2 was slightly higher than the first-level concentration limit, and the number of unqualified days of O3_8h accounted for one-tenth of the entire year. The concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, CO, SO2, and NO2 all were the highest in winter, equivalent in spring and autumn, and the lowest in summer. The concentration of O3_8h generally presented the characteristics of summer > spring > autumn > winter. In 2020, the annual average concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 in 9 urban areas exceeded the second-level concentration limit. The annual average concentrations of NO2 in Xincheng District, Lianhu District, Beilin District, and Yanta District all exceeded the second-level concentration limit. The annual average concentration of O3_8h in Beilin District, Chang'an District, and Yanliang District all exceeded the average level of Xi'an. PM2.5, PM10, CO, SO2, and NO2 in general showed a positive correlation in varying degrees. In summer, O3_8h showed a positive correlation with other air pollutants, but a negative correlation in other seasons. Conclusion The air pollution situation in Xi'an has been improving year by year, but the pollution of PM2.5, PM10, and O3_8h still exceeds the standard, which will be the focus of long-term prevention and control of air pollution in Xi'an.

4.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 124-128, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913125

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the association of ideal cardiovascular health metrics with the incidence rate of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and to provide a basis for the prevention and control of NAFLD. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted for the data of 50 511 employees of Kailuan Group who participated in physical examination from July 2006 to June 2007, and the onset of NAFLD was observed during follow-up once every two years. A one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between multiple groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis H test used for comparison of continuous data with skewed distribution between multiple groups; the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. The subjects were divided into four groups according to the quartile of cardiovascular health score (CHS), and person-year incidence rate was used to calculate the incidence rate of NAFLD in each group. Restricted cubic spline (RCS) curve was used to calculate the dose-response relation between continuous variables and outcome events; the Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze hazard ratio ( HR ) and 95% confidence interval ( CI ) in each group and investigate the effect of ideal cardiovascular health metrics on the incidence rate of NAFLD. Results During the mean follow-up time of 5.58 years, a total of 15 265 cases of NAFLD were observed, and the incidence rate of NAFLD was 77.88/1000 person-year in the Q1 group, 61.33/1000 person-year in the Q2 group, 46.37/1000 person-year in the Q3 group, and 33.69/1000 person-year in the Q4 group. RCS results showed a non-linear relationship between CHS continuous variable and the risk of NAFLD ( P < 0.05). The multivariate Cox proportional risk model analysis showed that compared with the Q1 group in terms of the risk of NAFLD, the Q2, Q3, and Q4 groups had an HR of 0.78 (95% CI 0.74~0.81), 0.57 (95% CI 0.54~0.59), and 0.38 (95% CI 0.36~0.41), respectively, and similar results were observed in subjects stratified by sex and age. The analysis of each component showed that ideal body mass index ( HR =0.37, 95% CI : 0.36~0.39), ideal blood glucose ( HR =0.80, 95% CI : 0.77~0.84), ideal blood pressure ( HR =0.72, 95% CI : 0.69~0.75), ideal cholesterol ( HR =0.86, 95% CI : 0.83~0.89), and ideal diet ( HR =0.94, 95% CI : 0.90~0.99) were protective factors against NAFLD. Conclusion Ideal cardiovascular health metrics are protective factors against NAFLD, and maintaining a healthy lifestyle may help to prevent the onset of NAFLD.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928827

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#SMARCA2 (SWI/SNF Related, Matrix Associated, Actin Dependent Regulator of Chromatin, Subfamily A, Member 2) is an important ATPase catalytic subunit in the switch-sucrose nonfermenting (SWI/SNF) complex. However, its relationship with the pathological features of NSCLC and its prognosis remain unclear.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively reviewed 2390 patients with surgically resected NSCLC, constructed tissue microarrays (TMAs) and performed immunohistochemical assays. We analyzed the correlation of SAMRCA2 with clinicopathological features and evaluated its prognostic value.@*RESULTS@#Among 2390 NSCLC cases, the negative expression ratios of SAMRCA2, SMARCA4, ARID1A, ARID1B and INI1 were 9.3%, 1.8%, 1.2%, 0.4% and 0%, respectively. In NSCLC, male sex, T3 and T4 stage, moderate and poor differentiation, tumor ≥ 2 cm, Ki67 ≥ 15%, SOX-2 negative expression, middle lobe lesion and adenocarcinoma were relative risk factors affecting SMARCA2-negative expression. In lung adenocarcinomas, high-grade nuclei, histological morphology of acinar and papillary, solid and micropapillary and TTF-1-negative expression were relative risk factors affecting SMARCA2-negative expression. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the OS was shorter in the SMARCA2-negative group. Multivariate survival analysis revealed that SMARCA2-negative expression was an independent factor correlated with a poor prognosis in NSCLC.@*CONCLUSION@#In conclusion, SMARCA2-negative expression is an independent predictor of a poor outcome of NSCLC and is a potential target for NSCLC treatment.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphatases/metabolism , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Transcription Factors/genetics
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928684

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the expressions of CD33 and CD13 in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) patients and its relationship with prognosis.@*METHODS@#It was retrospectively observed that the expression of CD33 and CD13 in 121 MM patients who were newly diagnosed from January 2014 to January 2020, and the relationship between the expressions of CD33 and CD13 and patients prognosis was analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Among the 121 newly diagnosed MM patients, there were 30 patients (24.8%) in the CD33+ group and 12 patients (9.9%) in the CD13+ group. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that, compared with the CD33- group, the progression-free survival (PFS) time and overall survival (OS) time were significantly shortened in MM patients in CD33+ group (PFS 17.5 vs 23 months, P=0.000; OS 18.5 vs 25 months, P=0.000); and the PFS time and OS time of MM patients in the CD13+ group were also significantly shortened than those in CD13- group (PFS 21 vs 22 months, P=0.012; OS 25 vs 26 months, P=0.006). Cox regression analysis showed that CD33 and CD13 were independent adverse prognostic factors in MM patients (CD33: P=0.000;CD13: P=0.003).@*CONCLUSION@#CD33 and CD13 are prognostic risk factors in patients with MM.


Subject(s)
CD13 Antigens , Cell Count , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Multiple Myeloma , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928666

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the efficacy of the second-line nilotinib and third-line dasatinib on chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) with failed first- and second-line treatments, and analyze the influencing factors of the efficacy.@*METHODS@#Selected 83 patients in The Third People's Hospital of Kunshan City, Jiangsu Province with CML who were treated with nilotinib as the second-line treatment after the failure of the first-line treatment with imatinib as the second-line treatment group (referred to as the second-line group) from January 2014 to December 2018, and 61 CML patients who were treated by dasatinib as the third-line treatment group (referred to as the third-line group) after the failure of the second-line treatment with nilotinib; the first-line treatment with imatinib failed, but due to various reasons, the patients were fully after being informed of the possible serious consequences of not changing the drug treatment, 37 CML patients who were still required to continue imatinib treatment served as the control group. The hematological, genetic and molecular responses of each group were compared for 3, 6, and 24 months of treatment. LogistiC regression was used to analyze the factors affecting the second and third line curative effects.@*RESULTS@#The three groups had statistically significant differences in the rates of achieving CHR, MCyR, and MMR at 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment (P<0.05). Compared the two groups, the CHR rates of the second-line group at 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment were 100.00%, 97.59%, and 95.18%, respectively; higher than the third-line group's 90.16%, 86.89%, 83.61% and the control group's 83.78%, 75.68% and 72.97%; the CHR rate of the third-line group was higher than that of the control group at 6 and 12 months of treatment. The rates of reaching MCyR at 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment in the second-line group were 87.95%, 93.98% and 93.98%, respectively, while those in the third-line group were 80.33%, 88.52% and 86.89%, which were higher than those of the control group of 67.57%, 64.86% and 48.65%. The rates of achieving MMR at 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment in the second-line group were 19.28%, 33.72% and 60.24%, respectively, and those in the third-line group were 11.48%, 26.23% and 49.18%, which were higher than those of the control group of 0.00%, 2.70% and 0.00%; The rate of reaching MMR within 12 months of treatment in the second-line group was higher than that of the third-line group, and the differences was statistically significant (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the rate of reaching MCyR between the second-line group and the third-line group at 3, 6, and 12 months, and the rate of reaching MMR at 3 and 6 months (P>0.05). The incidence of nausea and vomiting among the three main non-hematological adverse reactions, and the incidence of grade 1~2 anemia among the hematological adverse reactions were statistically significant (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of rash, eyelid edema, diarrhea, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia and neutropenia in the three groups (P>0.05). The incidence of nausea and vomiting and grade 1~2 anemia in the second-line group and the third-line group were higher than that of the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). There were statistically significant differences in Sokal score, medication compliance, and hematological adverse reactions between the MMR group and the non-MMR group (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that dose reduction or withdrawal during the treatment period, and grade 3~4 hematological adverse reactions were the main factors affecting the second and third line curative effects (OR=22.160, 2.715, 95% CI=2.795-93.027, 1.882-48.834).@*CONCLUSION@#The second-line nilotinib and the third-line dasatinib have a better effect on CML patients who have failed the first and second-line treatments. Grade 3~4 hematological adverse reactions, dose reduction or withdrawal are risk factors that affect the efficacy of second and third-line treatments.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Dasatinib/therapeutic use , Humans , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928620

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the biological processes and functions of serum exosomes in children in the acute stage of Kawasaki disease (KD), so as to provide new biomarkers for the early diagnosis of KD.@*METHODS@#In this prospective study, 13 children with KD who were treated in Children's Hospital of Soochow University from June 2019 to August 2020 were enrolled as the KD group, and 13 children who were hospitalized due to bacterial infection during the same period were enrolled as the control group. Whole blood was collected on the next morning after admission, serum samples were obtained by centrifugation, and exosomes were extracted through ultracentrifugation. Serum exosomes were analyzed by label-free quantitative proteomics, and differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were screened out for functional enrichment analysis. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was plotted, and unique proteins were validated by targeted proteomics.@*RESULTS@#A total of 131 DEPs were screened out for the two groups, among which 27 proteins were detected in both groups. There were 48 unique DEPs in the KD group, among which 23 were upregulated and 25 were downregulated, and these proteins acted on "complement and coagulation cascades" and "the MAPK signaling pathway". Validation by targeted proteomics showed that FGG, SERPING1, C1R, C1QA, IGHG4, and C1QC proteins were quantifiable in the KD group. A total of 29 proteins were only expressed in the control group, among which 12 were upregulated and 17 were downregulated. Four proteins were quantifiable based on targeted proteomics, i.e., VWF, ECM1, F13A1, and TTR. A PPI network was plotted for each group. In the KD group, FGG and C1QC had close interaction with other proteins, while in the control group, VWF had close interaction with other proteins.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The serum exosomes FGG and C1QC in children in the acute stage of KD are expected to become the biomarkers for the early diagnosis of KD. For children with unexplained fever, detection of FGG, C1QC1, and VWF may help with etiological screening.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Child , Exosomes , Extracellular Matrix Proteins , Humans , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , Proteomics , von Willebrand Factor
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928100

ABSTRACT

This paper discussed the guiding significance of "disease-syndrome-symptom" mode in FU Qing-zhu's Obstetrics and Gynecology(FU Qing-zhu Nyu Ke) for dealing with ovulation disorder infertility caused by hyperprolactinemia(HPRL). FU Qing-zhu's Obstetrics and Gynecology(FU Qing-zhu Nyu Ke) concentrates on the disease entities, main symptoms, pathogenesis, and syndrome differentiation, based on which the prescriptions are prescribed. This reflects the "disease-syndrome-symptom" mode, with the core lying in the "combination of disease with syndrome". The contained Discussion on Menstruation Regulation(Tiao Jing Pian) and Discussion on Getting Pregnant(Zhong Zi Pian) have important reference significance for later doctors in the diagnosis and treatment of inferti-lity, and many prescriptions are still in use due to good effects. It is believed in traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) that HPRL results from kidney deficiency and liver depression, among which kidney deficiency is the main cause. Liver depression accelerates the onset of HPRL, so the kidney-tonifying and liver-soothing herbs were mainly selected. The "disease-syndrome-symptom" mode in FU Qing-zhu's Obstetrics and Gynecology(FU Qing-zhu Nyu Ke) sheds enlightenment on the diagnosis and treatment of ovulation infertility caused by HPRL, in that it is not confined to disease entity and syndrome type. The integration of "disease-syndrome-symptom" highlights the main complaint of patients and emphasizes the main pathogenesis, thus giving full play to the overall advantage of syndrome differentiation. For multiple diseases in FU Qing-zhu's Obstetrics and Gynecology(FU Qing-zhu Nyu Ke) such as infertility due to liver depression, infertility due to obesity, delayed menstruation, and irregular menstruation, although the typical lactation symptom of HPRL is not mentioned, the medication can still be determined according to the chief complaint, syndrome type, and symptoms and signs, making up for the defects of excessive reliance on serum biochemical indicators in modern Chinese medicine. We should learn its diagnosis and treatment thoughts of paying attention to liver, spleen, kidney, and heart, holism, and strengthening body resistance to eliminate pathogenic factors.


Subject(s)
Female , Gynecology , Humans , Hyperprolactinemia/drug therapy , Infertility , Obstetrics , Ovulation , Pregnancy
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927841

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of preadolescent and adolescent female patients with ovarian mass combined with dysplasia of secondary sexual characteristics. Methods This study retrospectively analyzed 18 cases of ovarian mass combined with dysplasia of secondary sexual characteristics aged 0-19 years admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 2012 to November 2019.By analyzing the clinical manifestations,surgical methods,postoperative pathology,therapies and prognosis of the cases,we summarized the diagnosis and treatment ideas. Results Among the 18 cases,7(7/18,38.9%)developed secondary sex signs before puberty,including 5 cases showing precocity(including 2 cases of juvenile granulosa cell tumor,1 case of gonadoblastoma,1 case of ovarian follicular cyst,and 1 case of 46,XY simple gonadal dysplasia combined with dysgerminoma)and 2 cases presenting masculine manifestations(1 case of steroid cell tumor and 1 case of sclerosing stromal tumor).The rest 11(11/18,61.1%)cases showed abnormal development of secondary sexual characteristics during puberty,including 8 cases with masculine manifestations or abnormal menstruation after menarche(7 cases with sex cord stromal cell tumor and 1 case with cystic granulosa cell tumor),2 cases with primary amenorrhea(1 case with androgen insensitivity syndrome combined with testicular sertoli cell tumor and 1 case with endometriosis cyst combined with reproductive tract malformation),and 1 case diagnosed as 46,XX gonadal dysplasia with serous cystadenoma and no secondary sexual development during puberty. Conclusions Sex hormone levels should be actively tested in the case of prepubertal secondary sexual characteristics appearing early,pubertal secondary sexual characteristics being abnormal(underdevelopment),and/or menstrual abnormalities.Imaging examination should be performed to exclude ovarian organic lesions,and chromosome karyotype analysis should be performed if necessary.The diagnosis of ovarian mass in preadolescent and adolescent females with related symptoms should first be alerted to cord stromal cell tumor.It is recommended to rule out the possibility of combined reproductive tract malformation in the adolescent patients with primary amenorrhea.Chromosome examination should be conducted to rule out the possibility of gonadal dysplasia in the adolescent patients with primary amenorrhea and/or no development of secondary sexual characteristics.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Hyperplasia/complications , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Ovarian Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879019

ABSTRACT

Triterpenoids are one of the most active constituents in Ligustri Lucidi Fructus, but only oleanolic acid has been mostly studied. In recent years, a growing number of studies have shown that other triterpenes from Ligustri Lucidi Fructus also have various biological activities, so it is necessary to build up a detailed profile of the triterpenoids in Ligustri Lucidi Fructus. The chromatographic separation was performed on a C_(18) column(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) with mobile phase of methanol-acetonitrile-0.2% formic acid for gradient elution. The detection wavelength was set at 210 nm, with a flow rate of 0.5 mL·min~(-1), and the column temperature of 25 ℃. The HPLC fingerprint of triterpenoids in Ligustri Lucidi Fructus was built by testing 21 batches of samples from different sources. The structures of the total 15 common chromatographic peaks were elucidated with UHPLC-ESI-Orbitrap-MS/MS technique and six of them were identified as tormentic acid, pomolic acid, maslinic acid, botulin, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid by comparison to the reference substances. Under the same chromatographic condition, four main triterpenes(podocarboxylic acid, hawthorn acid, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid) were quantified and the results of system adaptability and methodology investigation all met the requirements of content determination. Meanwhile, with oleanolic acid(A) as the internal reference substance, quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker(QAMS) method was used to analyze the above four components. The relative correction factor of oleanolic acid(B), hawthorn acid(C) and ursolic acid(D) to oleanolic acid was f_(B/A)=1.12, f_(C/A)=1.02 and f_(D/A)=0.88, respectively, and the relative retention values of these three to oleanolic acid was RRV_(B/A)=0.46, RRV_(C/A)=0.70 and RRV_(D/A)=1.03, respectively. The contents determined by two methods were similar. In conclusion, the method built in this paper is proved to be simple, reliable and specific for the simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of the triterpenoids in Ligustri Lucidi Fructus, which can lay foundation for further assays of the triterpenoids in Ligustri Lucidi Fructus and the relative products.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fruit , Ligustrum , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Triterpenes
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878986

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to solve the problems of complicated-unstable test solution preparation process and insufficient extraction of the active ingredient astragaloside Ⅳ in the legal method for the determination of astragaloside Ⅳ in Astragali Radix. The continuous single-factor analysis of seven main factors affecting the content of astragaloside Ⅳ was carried out by HPLC-ELSD, and then the pre-paration method of test solution was optimized. This optimized method exhibited excellent performance in precision, repeatability and stability. The average recovery rate of astragaloside Ⅳ was 99.65% with RSD 2.2%. Astragaloside Ⅳ showed a good linearity between the logarithm of peak area and the logarithm of injection quantity in the range of 0.46-9.1 μg(r=0.999 6). The contents of astragaloside Ⅳ in 29 batches of Astragali Radix were determined by the new and the legal methods. The results showed that the average content of astragaloside Ⅳ in these Astragali Radix samples determined by the former method was 1.458 times than that of the latter one, indicating the new method was simple, reliable and more adequate to extract target compound. According to the results, it is suggested to improve the content standard of astragaloside Ⅳ in Astragali Radix in the new edition of Chinese Pharmacopeia.


Subject(s)
Astragalus Plant , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Saponins , Triterpenes/analysis
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878690

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effects of palliative care consultation on medical professionals who have requested it in Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 medical professionals who had requested palliative care consultation.Results Palliative care consultation had the following positive effects:building a bridge for doctor-patient communication,providing psychological support to reduce the sense of occupational exhaustion for medical professionals,providing technical support for medical professionals to help patients relieve symptoms,helping medical professionals in the multidisciplinary learning of palliative care,adding humanistic care and neglected ethical concerns.Conclusion Palliative care consultation improves the quality of care for dying patients,and the capacity of consultation needs to be enhanced urgently.


Subject(s)
Hospitals , Humans , Palliative Care , Qualitative Research , Referral and Consultation
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1637-1658, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878659

ABSTRACT

Filamentous fungi are important industrial microorganisms that play important roles in the production of bio-based products such as organic acids, proteins and secondary metabolites. The development of metabolic engineering and its enabling techniques have greatly promoted the design, construction and application of filamentous fungal cell factories. This article systematically reviews the development of filamentous fungal cell factories constructed through metabolic engineering, and discusses the challenges and future perspectives for systems metabolic engineering of filamentous fungi.


Subject(s)
Fungi/genetics , Metabolic Engineering
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878455

ABSTRACT

Eosinophilic granuloma, a rare disease, has various clinical manifestations and no specific X-rays features and is thus easily misdiagnosed. This paper reports a case of multifocal eosinophilic granuloma of jaw with long-term follow-up. The patient initially presented with periodontal tissue destruction.The diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of multifocal eosinophilic granuloma of jaw were discussed in combination with the literature to alert this disease in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis, Differential , Eosinophilic Granuloma/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Jaw , Periodontium , Radiography
16.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 318-325, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878045

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Methylene blue is the most commonly used tracer for sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy (SLNB) in China. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of clinical application of SLNB using methylene blue dye (MBD) for early breast cancer and the prognosis of patients with different SLN and non-SLN statuses.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed the clinicopathological data of patients with early breast cancer treated at the Peking University First Hospital between 2013 and 2018. We calculated the SLN identification rate (IR) in SLNB with MBD and the false-negative rate (FNR), and analyzed the prognosis of patients with different SLN and non-SLN statuses using Kaplan-Meier curves.@*RESULTS@#Between January 2013 and December 2018, 1603 patients with early breast cancer underwent SLNB with MBD. The SLN IR was 95.8% (1536/1603). Two SLNs (median) were detected per patient. There were significant differences in FNR between patients with SLN micrometastasis and macrometastasis (19.0% vs. 4.5%, χ2 = 12.771, P < 0.001). Chi-square test showed that there were significant differences in SLN successful detection rates among patients with different vascular tumor embolism status (96.3% vs. 90.8%, χ2 = 9.013, P = 0.003) and tumor (T) stages (96.6% vs. 94.1%, χ2 = 5.189, P = 0.023). Multivariate analysis showed that vascular tumor embolism was the only independent factor for SLN successful detection (odds ratio: 0.440, 95% confidence interval: 0.224-0.862, P = 0.017). Survival analysis showed a significant difference in disease-free survival (DFS) between patients with non-SLN metastasis and patients without non-SLN metastasis (P = 0.006).@*CONCLUSION@#Our single-center data show that, as a commonly used tracer in SLNB in China, MBD has an acceptable SLN IR and a low FNR in frozen sections. This finding is consistent with reports of dual tracer-guided SLNB. Positive SLNs with non-SLN metastasis are associated with DFS.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/surgery , China , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Methylene Blue , Retrospective Studies , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
17.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 141-160, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880252

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Perioperative treatment has become an increasingly important aspect of the management of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Small-scale clinical studies performed in recent years have shown improvements in the major pathological remission rate after neoadjuvant therapy, suggesting that it will soon become an important part of NSCLC treatment. Nevertheless, neoadjuvant immunotherapy may be accompanied by serious adverse reactions that lead to delay or cancelation of surgery, additional illness, and even death, and have therefore attracted much attention. The purpose of the clinical recommendations is to form a diagnosis and treatment plan suitable for the current domestic medical situation for the immune-related adverse event (irAE).@*METHODS@#This recommendation is composed of experts in thoracic surgery, oncologists, thoracic medicine and irAE related departments (gastroenterology, respirology, cardiology, infectious medicine, hematology, endocrinology, rheumatology, neurology, dermatology, emergency section) to jointly complete the formulation. Experts make full reference to the irAE guidelines, large-scale clinical research data published by thoracic surgery, and the clinical experience of domestic doctors and publicly published cases, and repeated discussions in multiple disciplines to form this recommendation for perioperative irAE.@*RESULTS@#This clinical recommendation covers the whole process of prevention, evaluation, examination, treatment and monitoring related to irAE, so as to guide the clinical work comprehensively and effectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Perioperative irAE management is an important part of immune perioperative treatment of lung cancer. With the continuous development of immune perioperative treatment, more research is needed in the future to optimize the diagnosis and treatment of perioperative irAE.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888062

ABSTRACT

This research established the HPLC methods for the determination of perillaketone, perillaldehyde, caffeic acid, scutellarin, and rosmarinic acid in 33 batches of Perillae Folium. Kromasil C_(18)(4.6 × 250 mm, 5 μm) chromatographic column was used, and the mobile phase for determination of the perillaketone and perillaldehyde was methanol-water(55∶45) solution, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL·min~(-1), with the column temperature at 30 ℃. The mobile phase for the determination of caffeic acid, scutellarin and rosmarinic acid was methanol(A)-0.2% phosphoric acid aqueous solution(B) with gradient elution(0-20 min, 25%-30% A; 20-60 min, 30%-43% A). The flow rate was 1.0 mL·min~(-1) and the column temperature was set at 30 ℃. The results showed that the established method can achieve good separation of the five components in samples, with a good linear relationship and high accuracy, indicating that the methods can be used for the determination of Perillae Folium. The results showed that all samples contained five components. And the content of rosmarinic acid(0.04%-1.57%) > scutellarin(0.03%-0.77%) > perillaldehyde(0.02%-0.66%) > perillaketone(0.03%-0.30%) > caffeic acid(0.006%-0.07%). Thirty-three Batches of Perillae Folium can be grouped into 5 categories. There are certain content rules and region specificities under different clusters. Perillaketone, perillaldehyde, and rosmarinic acid can be used as the main markers to evaluate the quality of Perillae Folium.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Plant Extracts , Plant Leaves
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888061

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the establishment of the commercial grade of Yinpian [traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) pieces for decoction] in the TCM industry has been hotly disputed. In this article, Sophorae Flavescentis Radix(SFR) was selected as a representative example to investigated. Through systematic comparison and analysis, the different grades of SFR slices were traced, verified and evaluated. According to the current published local grade standards of SFR slices, the results showed that the first-class of SFR slices were mostly derived from the wild medicinal materials, the second-class were mostly originated from the cultivated materials in 3-4 years, and the third-class products were from a small number of lateral roots and short-growing years or harsh habitat of wild medicinal materials. On the basis of identifying the sources of different grades of SFR slices, the contents of the active components, including matrine, oxymatrine, oxysophocarpine, sophoridine, N-methyl-cytisine, sophocarpine, were quantitatively determined in typical samples, it was found that the grades were inversely proportional to the contents of active ingredients. In order to ensure the universality of the conclusion, the contents of different grades of commercial SFR slices were determined, and the conclusion was verified as "the commercial grades of SFR slices were inversely linked to their contents of active ingredients". This phenomenon is common in the determination of the commercial grade of Yinpian of radix and rhizome. Therefore, we propose that the method or standard of the commercial grade of Yinpian of radix and rhizome based on the size of Yinpian maybe not proper. Whether and how to classify Yinpian commercial grade is not only a multi-disciplinary issue, especially in combination with clinical efficacy, but also a big problem need to consider the production, commercial circulation and other processes link of quality risk and quality assurance, and should be treated with great caution.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Roots , Rhizome , Sophora
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888060

ABSTRACT

As anti-aging ingredients, β-nicotinamide mononucleotide(NMN) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide(NAD~+) have attracted worldwide attention in recent years. After oral administration, NMN can be converted into NAD~+ in vivo and the latter is the actual ingredient which exerts anti-aging effect. In order to explore the "rejuvenating and anti-aging" effect of Dendrobium officinale, which was firstly recorded in Shennong's Herbal Classic of Materia Medica, this study established the quantitative method of UPLC-MS/MS for simultaneous determination of NMN and NAD~+ in D. officinale and the congeneric species for the first time, and 34 batches of samples were detected. UPLC conditions are as follows: ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3 column(2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.8 μm), gradient elution with acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid in water at the flow rate of 0.3 mL·min~(-1), and column temperature of 40 ℃. MS conditions were scanned electrospray ionization source and multiple reaction monitoring mode. The method was verified by systematic methodology. The mean recoveries of NMN and NAD~+ were 77.58% and 80.70%, respectively, with RSD of 3.6% and 4.3%, separately. All results showed that the content of NMN was higher in D. officinale than in the other congeneric species. Particularly, the content in fresh D. officinale stems was as high as 0.931 9 μg·g~(-1). NAD~+ was only found in D. officinale and the content was three times higher than that of NMN. This may be the reason that D. officinale topped the "nine famous anti-aging herbs". In addition, processing method influences the content of NMN and NAD~+ in Dendrobium. Specifically, the content of NMN and NAD~+ was in the order of fresh Dendrobium stems > dried Dendrobium stem segments > spiral or spring-like dried Dendrobium stems.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Dendrobium , NAD , Nicotinamide Mononucleotide , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
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