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1.
Journal of Modern Urology ; (12): 254-260, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006125

ABSTRACT

Pheochromocytoma and paranganglioma (PPGL) is a rare neuroendocrine tumor. In recent years, the continuous development of multimodal imaging, pathonomics, genomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics, metabolism and proteomics have provided us with ideas to better understand the complex transfer mechanism of PPGL. This paper will review the precise typing system of PPGL, current research advances in the diagnosis and clinical prognosis.

2.
Journal of Modern Urology ; (12): 546-550, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006055

ABSTRACT

Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) following prostatectomy is an important and common problem in male, which can significantly reduce the quality of life. Urethral sling is a promising treatment for male SUI. It is easy to operate and can avoid the insertion of prosthesis, making it highly acceptable to patients. In recent years, with the advancement of technology, several kinds of slings have been put into clinical application and have achieved great outcomes. This article reviews the application of urethral sling in the treatment of SUI after prostatectomy.

3.
Journal of Modern Urology ; (12): 635-639, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006038

ABSTRACT

Bladder cancer (BCa) is one of the most common cancers in urology,whose pathogenesis is still unclear. Methyltransferase-like 3(METTL3) is the most important part of N6-methyladenosine methyltransferase complex (m6A MTC),which mediates the methylation of mRNA to regulate the stability and translation process of mRNA. Researches have shown that METTL3 can promote BCa development via AFF4/NF-κB/MYC signaling network,which involves many kinds of signaling molecules. In addition,METTL3 can affect the expressions of AFF4,NF-κB and MYC,so as to affect their downstream signaling pathways and finally promote the malignant progression of tumor.

4.
Journal of Modern Urology ; (12): 78-82, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005469

ABSTRACT

The number of benign prostatic obstruction (BPO) patients in China is increasing, and patients tend to be younger and younger. The former "gold standard" scheme of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is more suitable for patients with prostate volume ranging from 40 mL to 80 mL, which may lead to excessive resection in patients with small prostate volume and low efficiency in patients with large prostate volume. New minimally invasive techniques have been introduced,including prostate artery embolization, laser surgery (such as holmium, green, diode, and thulium), minimally invasive simple prostatectomy, transperineal laser ablation, prostatic urethral lift,and robot-assisted water jet ablation of the prostate. These methods are alternatives to TURP and increasingly used in the treatment of BPO. This article reviewed the advances in minimally invasive treatment of BPO.

5.
Chinese Journal of Digestion ; (12): 193-198, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995433

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the safety and feasibility of the CHESS endoscpic ruler (CHESS ruler), and the consistency between the measured values and the interpretation values by endoscopic physician experience.Methods:From January 2021 to January 2022, a total of 105 liver cirrhosis patients with portal hypertension were prospectively enrolled from General Hospital, Xixia Branch Hospital, Ningnan Hospital of People′s Hospital of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (29 cases), and the First People′s Hospital of Yinchuan (25 cases), General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University (18 cases), Wuzhong People′s Hospital (10 cases), the Fifth People′s Hospital of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (10 cases), Shizuishan Second People′s Hospital (6 cases), Yinchuan Second People′s Hospital (5 cases), and Zhongwei People′s Hospital (2 cases) 8 hospitals. The clinical characteristics of all the patients, including gender, age, nationality, etiolog of liver cirrhosis, and Child-Pugh classification of liver function were recorded. A big gastroesophageal varices was defined as diameter of varices ≥5 mm. Endoscopist (associated chief physician) performed gastroscopy according to the routine gastroscopy procedures, and the diameter of the biggest esophageal varices was measured by experience and images were collected, and then objective measurement was with the CHESS ruler and images were collected. The diameter of esophageal varices of 10 randomly selected patients (random number table method) was determined by 6 endoscopists (attending physician or associated chief physician) with experience or measured by CHESS ruler. Kappa test was used to test the consistency in the diameter of esophageal varices between measured values by CHESS ruler and the interpretation values by endoscopic physician experience.Results:Among 105 liver cirrhosis patients with portal hypertension, male 65 cases and female 40 cases, aged (54.8±12.2) years old, Han nationality 82 cases, Hui nationality 21 cases and Mongolian nationality 2 cases. The etiology of liver cirrhosis included chronic hepatitis B (79 cases), alcoholic liver disease (7 cases), autoimmune hepatitis (7 cases), chronic hepatitis C (2 cases), and other etiology (10 cases). Liver function of 32 cases was Child-Pugh A, Child-Pugh B 57 cases, and Child-Pugh C 16 cases. All 105 liver cirrhosis patients with cirrhotic portal hypertension were successfully measured the diameter of gastroesophageal varices by CHESS ruler, and the success rate of application of CHESS ruler was 100.0% (105/105). The procedure time from the CHESS ruler into the body to the exit of the body after measurement was (3.50±2.55) min. No complications happened in all the patients during measurement. Among 105 liver cirrhosis patients with cirrhotic portal hypertension, 96 cases (91.4%) were recognized as big gastroesophageal varices by the endoscopists. Totally 93 cases (88.6%) were considered as big gastroesophageal varices by CHESS ruler. Eight cases were recognized as big gastroesophageal varices by the endoscopist, however not by the CHESS ruler; 5 cases were recognized as big gastroesophageal varices by the CHESS ruler, but not by the endoscopists; 4 cases were not recognized as big gastroesophageal varices both by the endoscopists and CHESS ruler; 88 cases were recognized as big gastroesophageal varices both by the endoscopists and CHESS ruler. The missed diagnostic rate of big gastroesophageal varices by the endoscopists experience was 5.4% (5/93), and the Kappa value of consistency coefficient between the measurement by the CHESS ruler and the interpretation by endoscopists experience was 0.31 (95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.60). The overall Kappa value of consistency coefficient by 6 endoscopists measured by CHESS ruler in big gastroesophageal varices diagnosis was 0.77 (95% confidence interval 0.61 to 0.93).Conclusion:As an objective measurement tool, CHESS ruler can make up for the deficiency of subjective judgment by endoscopists, accurately measure the diameter of gastroesophageal varices, and is highly feasible and safe.

6.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 410-415, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-994054

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) plus immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) in metastatic fumarate hydratase-deficient renal cell carcinoma (FH-deficient RCC).Methods:The data of 87 metastatic FH-deficient RCC patients from West China Hospital ( n=44), Renji Hospital ( n=27) and Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (n=16) from Mar 2019 to Aug 2022 were retrospectively analyzed. The median age was 37(30, 47) years, the male to female ratio was 1.9∶1. The median size of tumor was 7.5(5.0, 10.0) cm. Sixty-one patients (70.1%) had germline FH mutations, and 26 patients (29.9%) had somatic FH mutations. Forty-nine patients (56.3%) metastasis disease at initial diagnosis, and 38 patients (43.7%) had metachronous metastasis. The most common site of metastasis was lymph node (41/87, 47.1%), followed by bone (33/87, 37.9%), liver (22/87, 25.3%), and lung (14/87, 16.1%). Fifteen patients (17.2%) had weak expression of FH protein and 59 patients (67.8%) had positive PD-L1 expression. The most common treatments were sintilimab plus axitinib (52/87, 59.8%), followed by pembrolizumab plus cabozantinib (7/87, 8.0%), tirelizumab plus axitinib (6/87, 6.9%), pembrolizumab plus axitinib (5/87, 5.7%), and toripalimab plus axitinib (4/87, 4.6%). Thirteen patients (13/87, 14.9%) received other ICI plus TKI combination treatments. Statistical analysis was conducted using R 4.2.3 software. Kaplan Meier survival curve was used to evaluate survival data, and log-rank test was used to compare differences between treatment groups. Results:The overall objective response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) of first-line TKI + ICI were 39.1% and 89.7%, respectively. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 16.5 months and 71.0 months, respectively. For first-line sintilimab plus axitinib, the ORR and DCR were 44.2% and 92.3%, respectively. The median PFS was 17.3 months and the median OS was not reached for this combination treatment. The efficacy of first-line tirelizumab plus axitinib was inferior to other treatment strategies (median PFS: 4.0 vs. 16.6 months, P<0.001; median OS: 22.0 vs. 71.0 months, P=0.043). Subgroup analyses further showed that the efficacy of ICI+ TKI combination therapy was consistent in patients with different clinicopathologic and genomic features. However, patients with liver metastasis had shorter OS than those without liver metastasis (median OS: 26.3 vs. 71.0 months, P=0.021). Conclusion:First-line TKI + ICI is effective for metastatic FH-deficient RCC and can significantly prolong the survival of the patients.

7.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 479-483, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984647

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the incidence of bloodstream infections, pathogen distribution, and antibiotic resistance profile in patients with hematological malignancies. Methods: From January 2018 to December 2021, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics, pathogen distribution, and antibiotic resistance profiles of patients with malignant hematological diseases and bloodstream infections in the Department of Hematology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University. Results: A total of 582 incidences of bloodstream infections occurred in 22,717 inpatients. From 2018 to 2021, the incidence rates of bloodstream infections were 2.79%, 2.99%, 2.79%, and 2.02%, respectively. Five hundred ninety-nine types of bacteria were recovered from blood cultures, with 487 (81.3%) gram-negative bacteria, such as Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Eighty-one (13.5%) were gram-positive bacteria, primarily Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Enterococcus faecium, whereas the remaining 31 (5.2%) were fungi. Enterobacteriaceae resistance to carbapenems, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoperazone sodium/sulbactam, and tigecycline were 11.0%, 15.3%, 15.4%, and 3.3%, with a descending trend year on year. Non-fermenters tolerated piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoperazone sodium/sulbactam, and quinolones at 29.6%, 13.3%, and 21.7%, respectively. However, only two gram-positive bacteria isolates were shown to be resistant to glycopeptide antibiotics. Conclusions: Bloodstream pathogens in hematological malignancies were broadly dispersed, most of which were gram-negative bacteria. Antibiotic resistance rates vary greatly between species. Our research serves as a valuable resource for the selection of empirical antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Cefoperazone , Sulbactam , Retrospective Studies , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Hematologic Neoplasms , Sepsis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination , Escherichia coli
8.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1067-1073, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980854

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Studies have classified muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) into primary (initially muscle-invasive, PMIBC) and secondary subtypes (initially non-muscle-invasive but progresses, SMIBC), for which controversial survival outcomes were demonstrated. This study aimed to compare the survival outcomes between PMIBC and SMIBC patients in China.@*METHODS@#Patients diagnosed with PMIBC or SMIBC at West China Hospital from January 2009 to June 2019 were retrospectively included. Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher tests were employed to compare clinicopathological characteristics. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox competing proportional risk model were used to compare survival outcomes. Propensity score matching (PSM) was employed to reduce the bias and subgroup analysis was used to confirm the outcomes.@*RESULTS@#A total of 405 MIBC patients were enrolled, including 286 PMIBC and 119 SMIBC, with a mean follow-up of 27.54 and 53.30 months, respectively. The SMIBC group had a higher proportion of older patients (17.65% [21/119] vs. 9.09% [26/286]), chronic disease (32.77% [39/119] vs . 22.38% [64/286]), and neoadjuvant chemotherapy (19.33% [23/119] vs . 8.04% [23/286]). Before matching, SMIBC had a lower risk of overall mortality (OM) (hazard ratios [HR] 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.41-0.85, P  = 0.005) and cancer-specific mortality (CSM) (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44-0.94, P  = 0.022) after the initial diagnosis. However, higher risks of OM (HR 1.47, 95% CI 1.02-2.10, P  = 0.038) and CSM (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.09-2.29, P  = 0.016) were observed for SMIBC once it became muscle-invasive. After PSM, the baseline characteristics of 146 patients (73 for each group) were well matched, and SMIBC was confirmed to have an increased CSM risk (HR 1.83, 95% CI 1.09-3.06, P  = 0.021) than PMIBC after muscle invasion.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Compared with PMIBC, SMIBC had worse survival outcomes once it became muscle-invasive. Specific attention should be paid to non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer with a high progression risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Retrospective Studies , Propensity Score , Cystectomy , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Neoadjuvant Therapy
9.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 212-220, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969827

ABSTRACT

Objective: Data for 2016 from cancer registries were used to estimate cancer incidence and mortality in China in 2016. Methods: According to the quality control process of the National Central Cancer Registry, the data from 683 cancer registries submitted by each province were evaluated, and the data of 487 cancer registries were qualified and included in the final analysis. Age-specific incidence and mortality rates were calculated by area (urban/rural), sex, age and cancer site, combined with national population data to estimate cancer incidence and mortality in China in 2016. Chinese population census in 2000 and Segi's population were used for age-standardized incidence and mortality rates. Results: Total population covered by 487 cancer registries was 381 565 422 (192 628 370 in urban and 188 937 052 in rural areas). The percentages of morphologically verified (MV%) and death certificate-only cases (DCO%) accounted for 68.31% and 1.40%, respectively, and the mortality to incidence ratio was 0.61. It was estimated about 4 064 000 new cases occurred in China in 2016, with the crude incidence rate being 293.91/100 000 (the rates of males and females were 315.52/100 000 and 271.23/100 000), age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 190.76/100 000 and 186.46/100 000, with the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 years old) being 21.42%. The crude incidence and ASIRC were 314.74/100 000 and 196.38/100 000 in urban areas, whereas in rural areas, they were 265.90/100 000 and 182.21/100 000, respectively. It was estimated about 2 413 500 cancer deaths occurred in China in 2016, the crude mortality rate was 174.55/100 000 (216.16/100 000 in males and 130.88/100 000 in females), the age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world standard population (ASMRW) were 106.00/100 000 and 105.19/100 000, and the cumulative mortality rate (0-74 years old) was 11.85%. The crude mortality and ASMRC were 180.31/100 000 and 104.44/100 000 in urban areas, whereas in rural areas, they were 166.81/100 000 and 108.01/100 000, respectively. The most common cancer cases include lung, colorectal, stomach, liver and female breast cancers. The top five cancers accounted for about 57.27% of all cancer cases. The most common cancer deaths included lung, liver, stomach, colorectal and esophageal cancers. The top five cancers accounted for about 69.25% of all cancer deaths. Conclusions: The burden of cancer shows a continuous increasing trend in China. Regional and gender differences in cancer burden are obvious. The cancer patterns still show the coexistence of cancer patterns in developed countries and developing countries. The situation of cancer prevention and control is still serious in China.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Urban Population , Breast Neoplasms , Esophageal Neoplasms , Rural Population , China/epidemiology , Registries , Incidence , Colorectal Neoplasms
10.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 208-216, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971023

ABSTRACT

Given the dual role of autophagy presenting in tumorigenesis and inhibition, we established an autophagy-related gene prognostic index (ARGPI) with validation to well predict the biochemical recurrence (BCR), metastasis, as well as chemoresistance for patients with prostate cancer (PCa) who underwent radical radiotherapy or prostatectomy. Then, Lasso and COX regression was used to develop the ARGPI. We performed the whole analyses through R packages (version 3.6.3). Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1), single-minded 2 (SIM2), serine protease inhibitor b5 (SERPINB5), aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), and acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain 3 (ACSL3) were eventually used to establish the ARGPI score. Patients were divided into two different-risk groups based on the median ARGPI score, high-risk patients with a higher risk of BCR than low-risk patients (hazard ratio [HR]: 5.46, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.23-9.24). The risk of metastasis of high-risk patients was higher than low-risk patients (HR: 11.31, 95% CI: 4.89-26.12). In The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset, we observed similar prognostic value of ARGPI in terms of BCR-free survival (HR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.07-2.99) and metastasis-free survival (HR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.16-2.78). ARGPI score showed a diagnostic accuracy of 0.703 for drug resistance. Analysis of gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) indicated that patients in the high-risk group were significantly positively related to interleukin (IL)-18 signaling pathway. Moreover, ARGPI score was significantly related to cancer-related fibroblasts (CAFs; r = 0.36), macrophages (r = 0.28), stromal score (r = 0.38), immune score (r = 0.35), estimate score (r = 0.39), as well as tumor purity (r = -0.39; all P < 0.05). Drug analysis showed that PI-103 was the common sensitive drug and cell line analysis indicated that PC3 was the common cell line of PI-103 and the definitive gene. In conclusion, we found that ARGPI could predict BCR, metastasis, and chemoresistance in PCa patients who underwent radical radiotherapy or prostatectomy.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prognosis , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatectomy , Drug Resistance , Aldehyde Dehydrogenase, Mitochondrial
11.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 223-229, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971017

ABSTRACT

We identified distinct senescence-related molecular subtypes and critical genes among prostate cancer (PCa) patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) or radical radiotherapy (RT). We conducted all analyses using R software and its suitable packages. Twelve genes, namely, secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (SFRP4), DNA topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A), pleiotrophin (PTN), family with sequence similarity 107 member A (FAM107A), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 14 (CXCL14), prostate androgen-regulated mucin-like protein 1 (PARM1), leucine zipper protein 2 (LUZP2), cluster of differentiation 38 (CD38), cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), vestigial-like family member 3 (VGLL3), apolipoprotein E (APOE), and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 family member (ALDH2), were eventually used to subtype PCa patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and GSE116918, and the molecular subtypes showed good correlations with clinical features. In terms of the tumor immune environment (TME) analysis, compared with cluster 1, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) scored significantly higher, while endothelial cells scored lower in cluster 2 in TCGA database. There was a statistically significant correlation between both CAFs and endothelial cells with biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival for PCa patients undergoing RP. For the GSE116918 database, cluster 2 had significantly lower levels of CAFs and tumor purity and higher levels of stromal, immune, and Estimation of STromal and Immune cells in MAlignant Tumor tissues using Expression data (ESTIMATE) scores than cluster 1; in addition, patients with high levels of CAFs, stromal scores, immune scores, and ESTIMATE scores and low levels of tumor purity tended to suffer from BCR. Based on the median of differentially expressed checkpoints, high expression of CD96, hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2 (HAVCR2), and neuropilin 1 (NRP1) in GSE116918 and high expression of CD160 and tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily member 18 (TNFSF18) in TCGA database were associated with a significantly higher risk of BCR than their counterparts. In conclusion, we first constructed distinct molecular subtypes and critical genes for PCa patients undergoing RP or RT from the fresh perspective of senescence.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Endothelial Cells , Ligands , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostate/pathology , Prostatectomy , Aldehyde Dehydrogenase, Mitochondrial , DNA-Binding Proteins , Transcription Factors
12.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 184-191, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971016

ABSTRACT

The circadian clock is an evolutionary molecular product that is associated with better adaptation to changes in the external environment. Disruption of the circadian rhythm plays a critical role in tumorigenesis of many kinds of cancers, including prostate cancer (PCa). Integrating circadian rhythm into PCa research not only brings a closer understanding of the mechanisms of PCa but also provides new and effective options for the precise treatment of patients with PCa. This review begins with patterns of the circadian clock, highlights the role of the disruption of circadian rhythms in PCa at the epidemiological and molecular levels, and discusses possible new approaches to PCa therapy that target the circadian clock.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Carcinogenesis , Circadian Clocks/physiology , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/physiopathology
13.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 914-919, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993948

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the efficacy of the biopsy strategy combining 6-core systematic and 3-core MRI-targeted biopsy on prostate cancer (PCa) detection in biopsy-na?ve patients.Methods:The clinical data of 121 biopsy-na?ve patients who underwent transperineal prostate biopsy in West China Hospital of Sichuan University from July 2018 to January 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The average age was (64.7±9.1) years old. Pre-biopsy prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was (12.4±7.5)ng/ml, f/t PSA was 0.13±0.05. Prostate volume was (43.1±26.1) ml and PASD was (0.35±0.27) ng/ml 2. The prostate-imaging and data system (PI-RADS) score of MRI before biopsy was reported to be 3 for 29 patients (24.0%), 4 for 54 patients (44.6%) and 5 for 38 patients (31.8%). All 121 patients underwent 12-core systematic biopsy combined with a 3-core or 5-core MRI-targeted biopsy, of which 61 patients underwent 3-core targeted biopsy and 60 underwent 5-core targeted biopsy. There was no significant difference in the pre-biopsy clinical data between the two groups ( P>0.05). A 6-core systematic biopsy was redefined as the results of 6 cores among the 12-core systematic biopsy. We compared the detection rates among the single 12-core systematic biopsy, 6-core systematic biopsy, MRI-targeted biopsy (3-core or 5-core), and different systematic biopsy combing with targeted biopsy for any PCa and clinically significant PCa, and we also analyzed the cumulative cancer detection rates for MRI-targeted biopsy of different cores. Results:Of the 121 patients in this study, the biopsy results were negative for 43 patients (35.5%) and positive for 78 (64.5%). The detection rate of clinically significant PCa was 55.4% (67/121). The detection rate of the 6-core systematic biopsy combined with MRI-targeted biopsy was 62.0% (75/121) for PCa and 55.4% (67/121) for clinically significant PCa, which was of no difference compared with that for the 12-core systematic biopsy combined with MRI-targeted biopsy ( P>0.05), but the 6-core systematic biopsy combined with MRI-targeted biopsy avoided the overdiagnosis of 3 patients with Gleason score 3+ 3. The detection rate of PCa for MRI-targeted biopsy was 57.9% (70/121), including 42.1% (51/121) for the first core, 55.4% (67/121) for the first two cores, and 57.9% (70/121) for the first three cores. Compared with the single-core targeted biopsy for suspicious lesions, the first 2-core targeted biopsy ( OR=1.7, 95% CI 1.0-2.8) and 3-core targeted biopsy ( OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.1) can significantly increase the detection rate of PCa, while the fourth or fifth core of targeted biopsy can not increase the detection rate additionally (60%, 36/60). Conclusion:For patients with suspected PCa, the prostate biopsy strategy combing 6-core systematic and 3-core MRI-targeted biopsy performs no inferior than the current 12-core systematic biopsy combined with MRI-targeted biopsy.

14.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 820-827, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927550

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Till date, the optimal treatment strategy for delivering adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in localized and locally advanced prostate cancer (PCa), as a lower stage in PCa progression compared with metastatic PCa, is still unclear. This study compares the efficacy of castration alone with complete androgen blockade (CAB) as adjuvant ADT in patients with localized and locally advanced PCa undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP).@*METHODS@#Patients diagnosed with PCa, without lymph node or distant metastasis, who received RP in West China Hospital between January 2009 and April 2019, were enrolled in this study. We performed survival, multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression, and subgroup analyses.@*RESULTS@#A total of 262 patients were enrolled, including 107 patients who received castration alone and 155 patients who received CAB. The survival analysis revealed that there was no significant difference between the two groups (hazard ratios [HR] = 1.07, 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] = 0.60-1.90, P = 0.8195). Moreover, the multivariable Cox model provided similarly negative results before and after adjustment for potential covariant. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the clinical recurrence between the two groups in both non-adjusted and adjusted models. Furthermore, our subgroup analysis showed that CAB achieved better biochemical recurrence (BCR) outcomes than medical castration alone as adjuvant ADT for locally advanced PCa (P for interaction = 0.0247, HR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.14-1.00, P = 0.0497).@*CONCLUSION@#Combined androgen blockade achieved better BCR outcomes compared with medical castration alone as adjuvant ADT for locally advanced PCa without lymph node metastasis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Androgens , Castration , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Prostatectomy/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies
15.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 10-16, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933154

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the safety and efficacy of individualized sunitinib schedule for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) according to the monitoring results of plasma drug concentration.Methods:The clinical data of patients with mRCC who received sunitinib treatment in our center from January 2014 to December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed, including 20 patients who underwent monitoring of plasma drug concentration (monitoring group), and 45 patients, matched by propensity score matching, received sunitinib but did not undergo monitoring of plasma drug concentration during the same period (unmonitored group). In the monitoring group, there were 12 males and 8 females. The mean age was 52.9 years, and ECOG score ≤1 in 16 cases (80%). Three patients were in the IMDC favorable-risk group, 15 patients were in the intermediate-risk group, and 2 patients were in the high-risk group. There were 18 cases of clear cell carcinoma and 2 cases of non-clear cell carcinoma, 5 cases of ISUP grade 1-2 and 11 cases of grade 3-4. In the unmonitored group, there were 31 males and 14 females. The mean age was 57.7 years, and 30 patients had ECOG score ≤1, 15 cases ≥2. There were 10 cases in IMDC favorable-risk group, 23 cases in intermediate-risk group, and 12 cases in high-risk group. Thirty-seven cases were clear cell carcinoma and 8 cases were non-clear cell carcinoma, 8 cases were in ISUP grade 1-2 and 28 cases in grade 3-4. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in the above parameters ( P>0.05). The monitoring group used the regimen of taking sunitinib for 4 weeks and stopping for 2 weeks (4/2 week) in the first cycle. The blood concentration of sunitinib was monitored before the first cycle and on days 4, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28, and personalized medication plan was formulated according to the curve of the blood concentration. The 4/2 week scheme was adopted in the undetected monitoring group.The two groups were compared in the incidence of adverse events (AEs), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), tumor treatment response and other clinical outcomes. Results:In the monitoring group, 90% (18/20) of patients receiving sunitinib had a steady-state plasma concentration of more than 150ng/ml, of which 10 patients (50%) had a plasma concentration of 150-200 ng/ml and 8 patients (40%) had a plasma concentration of more than 200 ng/ml. Meanwhile, all patients with plasma concentration higher than 150 ng/ml developed severe AEs (grade 3 and above) after treatment. The other two patients' plasma concentration were 100-150 ng/ml, and did not have severe AEs.All patients in the monitoring group received individualized medication schedule adjustment according to the plasma drug concentration and the occurrence point of severe AEs, ensuring that the peak plasma drug concentration was maintained at about 100-150 ng/ml. Among them, 6 patients were changed to take 2 weeks and stop for 1 week (2/1 week schedule), 4 patients were changed to take 10 days and stop for 5 days (10/5 d schedule), 7 patients were changed to take 7 days and stop for 3 days (7/3 d schedule), and 3 patients were changed to take 5 days and stop for 2 days (5/2 d schedule). The incidence of severe AEs significantly decreased from 90% (18/20) to 35% (7/20), and the difference was statistically significant ( P=0.003), while the incidence of grade 3 and higher AEs was 55.6% (25/45) in the standard group, which was statistically significant compared with the incidence of severe AEs before adjustment in the monitoring group ( P=0.006). Further analysis of the efficacy difference between the two groups showed that the overall objective response rate in the monitoring group (40%, 8/20) was higher than that in the standard group (20%, 9/45), although the difference was not statistically significant ( P=0.09). Median PFS and OS were significantly longer in the monitored group than in the standard group (PFS: 23 vs. 10 months, P=0.002; OS: not reached vs.25 months, P=0.005). Conclusions:The bioavailability of sunitinib is high in mRCC patients, which may lead to higher plasma drug concentration, adjustment of medication regimen based on blood concentration monitoring significantly improved patient safety and clinical outcomes. However, further validation by larger-scale, multi-center and prospective studies is needed.

16.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 209-214, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929559

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to see how different initial treatment regimens affected the long-term prognosis of patients with extranodal marginal zone mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma confining to the ocular adnexal (OAML) . Methods: Between April 2008 and April 2019, 109 patients with initial mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue confining to ocular adnexal were evaluated and followed-up, and the prognosis of various initial treatment regimens were examined. Results: A total of 36 patients underwent complete surgical resection of the lesions, and 73 patients had residual lesions after surgery, of which 37 patients chose watchful waiting, and 36 patients chose treatment. The treatment regimen included local radiotherapy and systemic treatment (chemotherapy, immunochemotherapy, the combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, etc.) , and no serious toxic and side effects were observed in patients receiving systemic treatment. The median follow-up time was 61 (10-142) months. The 5-year and 10-year progression-free survival (PFS) of monocular involvement patients were 78.2% and 76.0% . The 5-year and 10-year PFS rates of patients with binocular involvement were 64.4% and 23.5%. There was significant diference in PFS between patients with monocular and binocular involvement (P=0.010) . Patients who received additional treatment had higher PFS than those patients in the watchful waiting group (P=0.046) . The 5-year PFS was 71.4% and 90.1% among patients in the watchful waiting group and those who received additional treatment, whereas the 10-year PFS was 63.5% and 75.1% , respectively. Patients with OAML were still a risk of disease progression after 5 years. Conclusions: Patients with binocular involvement OAML at the start of the disease had a poor prognosis, but treatment could reduce the risk of recurrence/progression. Systemic therapy is one of the first-line treatment options for patients with OAML, who require long-term monitoring.


Subject(s)
Humans , Eye Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Lymphoid Tissue/pathology , Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone/therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
17.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 469-472, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-957410

ABSTRACT

Bladder cancer is a common malignancy in the genitourinary system and the current therapeutic approaches are unsatisfactory. Urinary cell-free DNA (ucf DNA) has the ability to give comprehensive and crucial information on cancer as it carries genetic messages from cells shedding directly into urine as well as transporting from circulation. The ucf DNA of patients with bladder cancer carries disease information, suggesting that ucf DNA may have the ability to detect, monitor, and prognosticate patients with bladder cancer. The ucf DNA analysis bridges the gap between current techniques and enhances diagnostic and detection capabilities, and has a very promising future in term of translation into clinical practice. This article reviewed the progress of clinical applications of ucf DNA in bladder cancer.

18.
Chinese Journal of Primary Medicine and Pharmacy ; (12): 1789-1793, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-955913

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of laparoscopically assisted ventriculoperitoneal shunting for the treatment of hydrocephalus in older adult patients.Methods:Sixty-four older adult patients with hydrocephalus who received treatment in Yiwu Fuyuan Private Hospital from June 2017 to December 2019 were included in this study. They were randomly divided into study and control groups, with 32 patients in each group. The control group was given ventriculoperitoneal shunting and the study group was given laparoscopically assisted ventriculoperitoneal shunting. The Fugl-Meyer assessment of motor recovery, the activity of daily life score, hydrocephalus grading score, excellent and good efficacy rate, and incidence of complications were compared between the two groups.Results:After treatment, the Fugl-Meyer score and activity of daily life score in the study group were (77.05 ± 18.54) points and (84.83 ± 17.75) points, which were significantly higher than (63.25 ± 16.18) points and (63.76 ± 15.04) points in the control group ( t = 3.17, P = 0.002; t = 5.12, P < 0.001). Hydrocephalus grading score in the study group was significantly lower than that in the control group [(3.77 ± 2.41) points vs. (6.61 ± 2.75) points, t = 4.39, P < 0.001]. Excellent and good efficacy rate in the study group was significantly higher than that in the control group [93.75% (30/32) vs. 75.00% (24/32), χ2 = 4.26, P < 0.05]. The incidence of complications in the study group was significantly lower than that in the control group [9.38% (3/32) vs. 40.63% (13/32), χ2 = 8.33, P < 0.005]. Conclusion:Laparoscopically assisted ventriculoperitoneal shunting can accurately locate the catheter and is more effective in the treatment of hydrocephalus in older adult patients compared with ventriculoperitoneal shunting. It can accelerate the recovery of neurological function and is highly safe.

19.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 305-310, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928535

ABSTRACT

To reduce treatment-related side effects in low-risk prostate cancer (PCa), both focal therapy and deferred treatments, including active surveillance (AS) and watchful waiting (WW), are worth considering over radical prostatectomy (RP). Therefore, this study aimed to compare long-term survival outcomes between focal therapy and AS/WW. Data were obtained and analyzed from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Patients with low-risk PCa who received focal therapy or AS/WW from 2010 to 2016 were included. Focal therapy included cryotherapy and laser ablation. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare overall mortality (OM) and cancer-specific mortality (CSM) between AS/WW and focal therapy, and propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to reduce the influence of bias and unmeasured confounders. A total of 19 292 patients with low-risk PCa were included in this study. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards model analysis, the risk of OM was higher in patients receiving focal therapy than those receiving AS/WW (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.79, P = 0.037), whereas no significant difference was found in CSM (HR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.23-4.11, P = 0.977). After PSM, the OM and CSM of focal therapy and AS/WW showed no significant differences (HR = 1.26, 95% CI: 0.92-1.74, P = 0.149; and HR = 1.26, 95% CI: 0.24-6.51, P = 0.782, respectively). For patients with low-risk PCa, focal therapy was no match for AS/WW in decreasing OM, suggesting that AS/WW could bring more overall survival benefits.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Propensity Score , Proportional Hazards Models , Prostatectomy/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Watchful Waiting
20.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 114-120, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905964

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the changes in oxidative stress and transforming growth factor-<italic>β</italic><sub>1</sub> (TGF-<italic>β</italic><sub>1</sub>)/Smad signaling pathway in hippocampal tissue of senile depressed mice after chronic unpredictable mild stress and to explore the possible anti-depression mechanism of Bushen Shugan prescription. Method:Ninety five-month-old mice were randomly divided into six groups, namely the normal group, senile depression model group, high-, medium-, and low-dose Bushen Shugan prescription groups, and fluoxetine group, with 15 in each group. Mice in all groups, except for the normal group, were exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) for inducing the senile depression. Since the first day of modeling, the mice in the high-, medium- and low-dose Bushen Shugan prescription groups were gavaged with 19.5, 9.75, 4.87 g·kg<sup>-1</sup> Bushen Shugan prescription, the ones in the fluoxetine group with 0.033 g·kg<sup>-1 </sup>fluoxetine, and those in the normal and senile depression model groups with an equal volume of normal saline for 21 successive days. The behavioral responses of mice in each group were evaluated in the open field test (OFT), and the hippocampal tissues of mice were collected for testing the relevant indexes. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) content was determined by WST-1 method, malondialdehyde (MDA) content by TBA method, glutathione (GSH) content by micro enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and mRNA expression of TGF-<italic>β</italic><sub>1</sub>, Smad2, Smad3, and Smad7 by Real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR). Result:Compared with the normal group, the senile depression model group exhibited significantly lowered horizontal and vertical scores in OFT, decreased SOD and GSH contents in hippocampal tissues, elevated MDA (<italic>P</italic><0.05), up-regulated TGF-<italic>β</italic><sub>1</sub>, Smad2, and Smad3 mRNA expression, and down-regulated Smad7 (<italic>P</italic><0.05). Compared with the senile depression model group, Bushen Shugan prescription at the high, medium, and low doses and fluoxetine all increased SOD and GSH contents in mouse hippocampal tissues, decreased the MDA content (<italic>P</italic><0.05), down-regulated the mRNA expression of TGF-<italic>β</italic><sub>1</sub>, Smad2, and Smad3 in hippocampal tissues, and up-regulated the Smad7 mRNA expression (<italic>P</italic><0.05). The comparison with the high-dose Bushen Shugan prescription group showed that the SOD and GSH contents in hippocampal tissues of mice in the medium- and low-dose Bushen Shugan prescription groups declined significantly, while the MDA contents rose significantly (<italic>P</italic><0.05). Besides, the mRNA expression levels of TGF-<italic>β</italic><sub>1</sub>, Smad2 and Smad3 in the hippocampal tissues of mice in the medium- and low-dose Bushen Shugan prescription groups were significantly up-regulated, and those of Smad7 were significantly down-regulated (<italic>P</italic><0.05). Conclusion:Bushen Shugan prescription alleviates the depression symptoms in aged SAPM8 mice possibly by regulating the hippocampal oxidative stress and TGF-<italic>β</italic><sub>1</sub>/Smad signaling pathway.

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