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1.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-379307

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Background</b> : Connective tissue disease (CTD) is an idiopathic autoimmune disorder which causes systemic chronic inflammation. Inflammation causes various cardiovascular diseases. Systemic steroid use, which is usually the sole treatment for CTD, also causes arteriosclerosis. Although cardiovascular surgery is often necessary in patients with CTD, preexisting multiple organ dysfunction related to CTD, in addition to systemic administration of steroids or other immunosuppressants, is thought to increase the risk of surgery. However, little is known about how the disease process of CTD influences early and late cardiovascular surgery outcomes. <b>Methods</b> : To better understand these issues, we reviewed 31 patients with CTD (study group) and compared their outcomes to those of other patients (control group) who underwent cardiovascular surgery at our institution between April 2008 and November 2013. <b>Results</b> : There were 26 women and 5 men, and the average age was 64.4±16.7 years. CTD types included rheumatoid arthritis in 7 patients, systemic lupus erhythematosus in 6, aortitis syndrome in 6, polymyalgia rheumatica in 3, scleroderma in 3, polymyositis in 3, and others. The procedures included 10 valve cases, 10 coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or CABG-valve combination cases, and 11 isolated or complicated thoracic aortic surgery cases. Prior to undergoing these procedures, 24 patients (77.4%) were treated with steroids and/or immunosuppressant, and 6 patients had been diagnosed with interstitial pneumonia in the study group. Moreover, the rate of peripheral artery disease and carotid artery stenosis in the study group was significantly higher than that in the control group. There were no perioperative deaths in the study group. There were no significant differences in terms of major complications such as ischemic events, infection, acute kidney injury, lung injury, and others between the groups. We conducted a follow-up survey for the study group with an average period of 27.8±16.0 months. During the follow-up period, there were 4 late deaths. In addition, 8 patients required readmission, 6 for cardiovascular events and 2 for poor wound healing. All the survivors in the study group showed improved cardiac function and were in the NYHA functional class I and II. <b>Conclusion</b> : Cardiovascular surgery for patients with CTD can provide acceptable early and mid-term results.</p>

2.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-378139

ABSTRACT

We report a case of 76 year-old woman who had previously undergone coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with the right internal thoracic artery (RITA) bypassed to the left anterior descending artery. Six years after CABG, she developed acute type A aortic dissection, and she was medically treated because the false lumen was thrombosed and it was considered that surgical intervention would be high risk for the patent RITA graft crossing between the sternum and the ascending aorta. During follow-up, her aortic aneurysm enlarged to 57 mm in diameter, and finally she was referred to our hospital for surgical intervention. In this case, preservation of the patent RITA graft was thought to be critical because the RITA graft was the only blood source for the left anterior descending artery. Prior to re-median sternotomy, we performed a right anterior minithoracotomy to make sufficient space between the sternum and the RITA graft, and then instituted peripheral cardiopulmonary bypass to decompress the heart. After re-sternotomy, we ensured minimum dissection of the RITA graft, and we successfully accomplished graft replacement of the ascending aorta to the aortic arch without injuring the patent RITA graft. In cases with a patent RITA graft and an ascending aortic aneurysm close to the sternum, our strategy is considered to be efficient for re-median sternotomy.

3.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-378131

ABSTRACT

<b>Objective</b> : The aim of this study is to describe a series of patients undergoing reoperation due to hemolytic anemia after mitral valve surgery and assess the mechanisms and surgical outcomes. <b>Methods</b> : Between 2009 and 2014, we performed redo mitral valve surgery in 11 patients who had refractory hemolytic anemia after mitral valve surgery at Kyoto University Hospital. The mean age of the patients was 72.2±6.8 years old, and there were 5 men. <b>Results</b> : Preoperative echocardiography demonstrated that only 3 patients had ≥ grade 3 mitral regurgitation (MR), the rest of the patients had only mild to moderate MR. The mechanisms of severe hemolysis included paravalvular leakage (PVL) after mitral valve replacement (MVR) in 8 patients, structural valve deterioration (SVD) after MVR using a bioprosthesis in one, and residual/recurrent mitral regurgitation after mitral valve plasty (MVP) in two. All the patients except one (re-MVP) underwent MVR. The mean interval between previous operation and current operation was 14.1±9.4 years in post-MVR cases, and 2.0±1.9 years in post-MVP cases. There were three late deaths, one of which was due to cardiac death (exacerbation of heart failure due to pneumonia). There was one patient who required re-MVR for recurrent hemolysis due to PVL after MVR. <b>Conclusion</b> : Although hemolytic anemia after mitral valve surgery is rare, it often requires reoperation regardless of the degree of MR at late follow-up period. Thus, patients after mitral valve surgery should be carefully followed-up.

4.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-377523

ABSTRACT

Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) is rarely associated with remarkably small left heart structures. In these types of cases, the hemodynamics resembles that of hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and the treatment strategy is controversial. We present the case of a 1-day-old girl with infracardiac TAPVC, small left heart structures (hypoplastic left heart complex), bilateral superior <i>vena cava</i>, and aberrant origin of the right subclavian artery. We performed a semi-emergent first-stage open palliation for repair of TAPVC, because of pulmonary venous obstruction. We concomitantly performed atrial septal defect (ASD) enlargement and bilateral pulmonary artery banding (BPAB). The postoperative course was uneventful and the left heart structures did not grow, so we performed the Norwood procedure and placed a right ventricle-pulmonary artery shunt with a 5.0 mm artificial graft. Subsequently, the left heart structures were not suitable for biventricular repair, so we chose univentricular repair. The patient underwent a bilateral bidirectional Glenn operation and Fontan completion at 6 and 23 months of age, respectively. TAPVC repair, BPAB, and ASD enlargement are reasonable surgical options for a patient with borderline small left heart structures and TAPVC, as they enable us to wait for growth in the left heart structures and to determine whether univentricular or biventricular repair is suitable.

5.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-362978

ABSTRACT

Although there have been several studies that compared the efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), the impact of off-pump CABG (OPCAB) has not been well elucidated. Among the 9,877 patients undergoing first myocardial revascularization enrolled in the CREDO-Kyoto Registry (a registry of first-time PCI using bare-metal stents and CABG patients in Japan), 6,327 patients with multivessel and/or left main disease were enrolled in the present study (PCI 3,877/CABG 2,450). Median follow-up was 3.5 years. Propensity-score-adjusted all-cause mortality after PCI was higher than that of CABG (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] : 1.37 [1.15-1.63], <i>p</i>< 0.01). The incidence of stroke was lower after PCI than that after CABG (0.75 [0.59-0.96], <i>p</i>=0.02). The predicted risk of operative mortality (PROM) of each patient of on-pump/off-pump CABG was calculated by the logistic EuroSCORE. Patients were divided into tertiles based on their PROM. The hazard ratio of the incidence of stroke in on-pump CABG compared with off-pump CABG in the high-risk tertile was 1.80 ([1.07-3.02], <i>p</i>=0.03). The adjusted overall mortality was not significantly different between the two procedures even in the high-risk tertile (1.44 [0.98-2.11], <i>p</i>=0.06). In patients with multivessel and/or left main disease, CABG was associated with better survival outcomes than PCI using bare-metal stents. Off-pump CABG as opposed to on-pump CABG is associated with short-and long-term benefits in stroke prevention in patients with higher risk as evaluated by the EuroSCORE. No survival benefit of OPCAB was shown, regardless of preoperative risk level.

6.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-362971

ABSTRACT

Extensive calcification of the mitral annulus presents a formidable technical challenge to surgeons and increases the risk of serious complications such as intractable hemorrhage, atrioventricular disruption, and ventricular rupture during mitral valve surgery. We present a case of aortic and mitral valve replacements for a patient with extensive calcification of an intervalvular fibrous body. A 76-year-old woman was admitted with dyspnea on effort, leg edema and syncope. Transthoracic echocardiography showed severe aortic stenosis, and mitral stenosis with regurgitation, and extensive mitral annular calcification. Decalcification was performed with CUSA and we selected a trans-aortic-valve approach for decalcification of the intervalvular fibrous body. The calcification was left to a certain extent in order to preserve annular strength. Postoperative echocardiography showed no perivalvular leakage from either prostheses. The patient was transferred to a local hospital for further rehabilitation.

7.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-362009

ABSTRACT

A 60-year-old man was admitted to our institution with abnormal ECG findings. Coronary CT and angiography showed coronary aneurysms from the left main trunk to the bifurcation of the left anterior descending artery, and the left circumflex artery, with severe stenosis and complete obstruction of the proximal right coronary artery. Morphological evaluation findings strongly suggested that the coronary aneurysms were highly related to childhood Kawasaki disease. We successfully performed triple vessel coronary artery bypass grafting. Here, we report a very rare case of coronary aneurysms presumed to be due to childhood Kawasaki disease in an elderly man.

8.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-361823

ABSTRACT

A 77-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for treatment of a ruptured thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) with a maximum diameter of 7cm. Considering her age and level of daily activity, the placement of an endovascular stent graft was performed as an emergency rescue procedure. For termination of the endoleak from the distal portion of the stent graft detected by CT the next day, another stent graft placement was added after establishment of blood supply to the superior mesenteric and celiac arteries by placing a Y-shaped graft from the abdominal aorta to each artery with success. The patient was discharged from our hospital 25days after surgery with disappearance of endoleak and good graft patency. A hybrid technique with grafting to abdominal branches, followed by placement of stent graft, can be an alternative treatment for such high-risk patients with ruptured TAAA.

10.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-367207

ABSTRACT

There is disagreement regarding the indications of surgery for cases of severe aortic stenosis (AS) with a decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) and a low aortic pressure gradient (PG), since there is a high perioperative risk associated with this condition. Hence, we investigated the surgical outcome of AS cases with impaired left ventricular function. Our department performed 144 aortic valve replacements (AVRs) for cases of AS and AS-dominant mild regurgitation (ASr) between January 2000 and September 2005. Among these cases, 9 patients had an EF under 35%, and these patients were selected as subjects and compared with a control group with an EF of more than 35%. Patients with accompanying coronary artery diseases that required treatment were excluded to avoid confounding effects on cardiac function. The mean age of the 9 subjects (4 men and 5 women) was 67.8±10.8 years old, with a range from 53 to 80 years old, and the subjects had the following mean background data: EF, 34.4±0.5%; left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVDd), 57.3±5.8mm; left ventricular end-systolic dimension (LVDs), 49.3±5.7mm; interventricular septum thickness (IVSth), 11.9±1.9mm; and left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWth), 11.1±2.6mm. Characteristics such as left ventricular dilatation and thinning of the left ventricle myocardium were noted in these data. The cases were classified as severe AS because the mean aortic valve area (AVA) was 0.58±0.2cm<sup>2</sup>, but the peak aortic pressure gradient (peak PG) (65.2±32.7mmHg) in the 9 subjects was lower than that of the control group (97.0±65.2mmHg). All 9 subjects underwent aortic valve replacements (AVRs), with simultaneous mitral annuloplasty (MAP) in 3 cases, mitral valve replacement (MVR) in 1 case and performance of a Maze procedure in 1 case. No deaths occurred while the patients were in hospital. Postoperative complications included 2 cases of transient atrial fibrillation and 1 case of postoperative bleeding requiring rethoracotomy for hemostasis. The EF in the late postoperative period showed improvement in 8 cases and was unchanged in the remaining case; the mean postoperative EF was 56.9% for the 9 subjects. All cases were rated as improved based on the NYHA classification of cardiac performance, and the significant improvement in EF in 8 of the 9 cases suggests that surgery is safe and can improve prognosis for patients with advanced AS with myocardium thinning and decreased EF.

11.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-367121

ABSTRACT

To evaluate a comparison for endovascular repair (EVAR) versus open repair (OR) for the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Data of all patients with infrarenal AAA treated electively, both with OR (107 cases) and EVAR (24 cases), at our institute between January 1999 and March 2004 were retrospectively reviewed. No difference was found between the 2 groups for sex, age, and AAA size. Cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (20.8% vs 6.5%, <i>p</i><0.04) and frequencies of laparotomy (25% vs 2.8%, <i>p</i><0.001) were significantly more in the EVAR group than the OR group. In the initial results, deployment of the stent grafts was successful in all cases and complete thrombosis of the aneurysm was achieved in 21 cases (87.5%). One graft occlusion and a wound infection occurred in the EVAR group. OR was successfully performed in all cases. These were 6 cases of paralytic ileus, 1 of re-operation for hemorrhage, 1 of respiratory failure, and 1 of ischemic colitis in the OR group. One hospital death occurred in each group. Mean blood transfusion (0ml vs 238±345ml) and operation time (131±53min vs 250±76min) were significantly less in the EVAR group than the OR group. In the long term results, the cumulative survival rate was 88.0±6.5% at 1 and 2 years, 80.6±9.2% at 3 years in the EVAR group; 99.0±0.9% at 1 year, 94.1±2.6% at 2 years, 87.7±3.9% at 3 years in the OR group, with no difference between the 2 groups regarding survival rate. Four new endoleak and 3 graft infections were encountered in the EVAR group. Freedom from stent graft-related complications was 81.3±8.5% at 1 year, 61.4±11.9% at 2 years, 47.8±12.6% at 3 years in the EVAR group, but 100% at 1, 2 and 3 years in the OR group. Freedom from procedure-related complications in the EVAR group was significantly lower than that in OR group. In the long term results, EVAR was associated with more procedure-related complications. This finding may justify reappraisal of currently accepted EVAR for AAA management strategies.

12.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-366744

ABSTRACT

A 37-year-old woman had a permanent transvenous cardiac pacemaker inserted previously in the left subclavian region to treat complete atrioventricular heart block. As infection occurred in the left subclavian subcutaneous pacemaker pocket after generator replacement, the generator was removed and a new permanent transvenous cardiac pacemaker was inserted in the right subclavian region. After two months, she developed fever and productive cough, and was admitted to our hospital. Echocardiography showed vegetation on the pacemaker electrodes and the tricuspid valve. Chest-computed tomography showed scattered bilateral peripheral nodules with various degrees of cavitation. We diagnosed right-sided infective endocarditis (IE) with septic pulmonary emboli (SPE) and performed cardiac surgery. We observed vegetation on the pacemaker electrodes and the tricuspid valve. The vegetation, the electrodes, and the generator were all removed and a permanent epicardial pacemaker was inserted subcutaneously in the left subcostal region. Methicillin sensitive <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> (MSSA) was isolated from cultures of vegetation. Postoperative antibiotic therapy was performed and SPE was completely cured. We removed the pacemaker and the electrodes, and performed postoperative antibiotic therapy.

13.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-366447

ABSTRACT

During the past 7 years from January 1991 through October 1997, we treated 30 cases of aortic root reconstruction by the Carrel patch method. The cases included annulo-aortic ectasia (AAE), root aneurysm with aortic regurgitation (AR), aortic dissection with AR, and true aneurysm (ascending and arch) with AR. The surgical treatment consisted of 28 modified Bentall operations and 2 aortic root remodelings, similar to the Yacoub operation. The aortic root and valve were resected, the coronary arteries were dissected free, mobilized, and then implanted into the composite graft. Coronary anastomosis was performed by mattress suture reinforced by Teflon felt strips. In 5 cases it was necessary to undergo coronary artery bypass grafting for myocardial ischemia. Blood transfusion was unnecessary in 11 cases. Post operative death was seen in only one patient who underwent an emergency operation for cardiac tamponade due to aortic dissection on the 25th postoperative day. The operative mortality rate was 3.3%. The complications of anastomosis, for example leakage and dilatation of the coronary ostia, were not seen in our experience. Reoperation and late death were not observed during the follow-up period (average 23 months). Cerebral hemorrhage occurred in only one case, at 5 years after the operation, and all other patients had an uneventful postoperative course. The event-free rate is 75% (<i>n</i>=1) at 6 years. The operative procedure is considered feasible in any anatomic variation of aortic root diseases, even if dislocation of the coronary ostia is minimal, and this method holds hope for the prevention of anastomotic pseudoaneurysm formation and long-term survival. Although further long-term follow-up study is necessary, our experience suggests that the Carrel patch procedure has few late term complications.

14.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-366445

ABSTRACT

We performed aortic remodeling using a tailored Dacron graft (Yacoub's procedure) in two cases of root aneurysm combined with aortic regurgitation. The cases were 20-year-old and 45-year-old women. The leaflets did not coapt at a central portion, but the lack of coaptation did not produce significant prolapse. No organic change was found, so we attributed aortic regurgitation to sinotubular junction. Remodeling of the root was selected as the operative procedure because degeneration in the annulus was unlikely in these two cases. All three sinuses were excised, with 3mm of the arterial wall left above the aortic annulus and a small button of the aortic wall around the ostia of the coronary arteries. Then each commissure was pulled up and the height of the commissure was measured. The proximal end of the graft was then tailored to a scallop shape, so that the top of the scallop matched the commissure level. The graft was then sutured to the aortic rim with continuous 5-0 polypropylene sutures. Both coronary arteries were reimplanted utilizing the Carrel patch method and the distal graft anastomosis was completed. The aortic crossclamp times were 147 minutes and 163 minutes and the total pump times were 166 minutes and 189 minutes. One patient has mild or 1+ aortic regurgitation on postoperative echocardiogram and aortography, but she has no activity restrictions, and no evidence of congestive symptoms. Yacoub's remodeling procedure which spares the aortic valve, requires no anticoagulant therapy in the post-operative period. Aortic valve-sparing replacement of the aortic root is an excellent procedure for any patient with an ascending aneurysm and an anatomically salvageable valve. Although further long-term follow-up is required, we believe that preserving the native aortic valve is useful for preventing complications associated with mechanical valves.

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