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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876703

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the monitoring data of Oncomelania hupensis in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2015 to 2019, so as to understand the changes of Oncomelania snail status in the schistosomiasis-endemic areas of China and to provide the scientific evidence for Oncomelania snail control. Methods According to the requirements of National Scheme for Schistosomiasis Surveillance in China (2014 Edition), national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were assigned in all schistosomiasis-endemic counties (cities, districts) and the potential endemic counties (cities, districts) in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas, and Oncomelania snail status was monitored according to different epidemic types. In endemic areas, Oncomelania snail survey was performed by means of systematic sampling and environmental sampling, and the occurrence of frames with Oncomelania snails and the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections in Oncomelania snails were calculated, while in potential endemic areas, the risk of imported Oncomelania snails and Oncomelania snails in floating debris were monitored. Results Oncomelania snail survey was performed covering an area of 116 834.16 hm2 in the national schistosomiasis surveillance of China from 2015 to 2019, with 35 007.62 hm2 Oncomelania snail habitats identified. A total of 6 908 292 frames were surveyed during the 5-year period, and there were 364 555 frames detected with Oncomelania snails, with a 5.28% mean occurrence of frames with Oncomelania snails. Among 997 508 living Oncomelania snails captured, no S. japonicum infections were detected, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay detected 18 positive mixed Oncomelania snail samples. During the period from 2015 to 2019, 147.20 hm2 emerging Oncomelania snail habitats were identified, with an overall tendency towards a rise seen in the proportion of emerging Oncomelania snail habitats in plain regions with waterway networks (0.12% to 92.00%), a tendency towards a rise followed by decline seen in marshland and lake regions (0 to 96.72%), and a large fluctuation in hilly regions (0 to 88.49%). A total of 831.10 hm2 re-emerging Oncomelania snail habitats were found in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2015 to 2019, with an overall tendency towards a rise seen in the proportion of re-emerging Oncomelania snail habitats in marshland and lake regions (16.05% to 79.66%), an overall tendency towards a decline seen in hilly regions (19.25% to 81.00%), and a minor fluctuation in plain regions with waterway networks (1.10% to 10.14%). During the 5-year period from 2015 to 2019, a total of 48 656 kg floating debris were captured in 4 surveillance sites in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas, and 2 204 snails were found, with no Oncomelania snails identified. Conclusions The areas of Oncomelania snail habitats tended to be stable in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China during the period from 2015 to 2019, however, there was a gradual rise in the area of Oncomelania snail habitats year by year, and LAMP assay identified positive Oncomelania snail samples, suggesting Oncomelania snail control is far from optimistic in China.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876702

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the morbidity due to Schistosoma japonicum in national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2015 to 2019, so as to provide insights into schistosomiasis control and elimination and provide the scientific evidence for formulating the new scheme for schistosomiasis surveillance in China. Methods According to the requirements of National Scheme for Schistosomiasis Surveillance in China (2014 Edition), national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were assigned in all schistosomiasis-endemic counties (cities, districts) and the potential endemic counties (cities, districts) in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas, and S. japonicum infections were monitored in local residents, mobile populations and livestock according to different epidemic types. The sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections, adjusted prevalence of human S. japonicum infections, characteristics of egg-positive individuals and prevalence of S. japonicum infections livestock were analyzed. Results S. japonicum infections were monitored in 453 schistosomiasis-endemic counties (cities, districts) from 13 provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) and 4 potential endemic counties (cities, districts) from the Three Gorges Reservoir areas in China from 2015 to 2019. During the 5-year period from 2015 to 2019, the sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections reduced from 3.35% to 1.63% among local residents and from 1.15% to 0.75% among mobile populations, while the adjusted prevalence of infections reduced from 0.05% to 0 among local residents and from 0.20% to 0.001 03% among mobile populations. There were significant differences in the sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections among local residents and mobile populations in terms of province, occupation and age (all P values < 0.05). A total of 132 egg-positives were identified during the 5-year period, including 97 local residents (inter-quartile range for ages, 47 to 61 years), and 35 mobile populations (inter-quartile range for ages, 26 to 48 years), and there was a significant difference in the age distribution between local residents and mobile populations (P < 0.05). There were totally 6 bovines (5 in 2015 and 1 in 2016) identified with S. japonicum infections in national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China, with no S. japonicum infections detected in bovines from 2017 to 2019. Conclusions The prevalence of schistosomiasis is very low in China. Further surveillance including more mobile surveillance sites seems justified to identify the risk of schistosomiasis as soon as possible and interrupt the transmission route, so as to facilitate the elimination of schistosomiasis in China.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873741

ABSTRACT

Since 2015 when the transmission of schistosomiasis was controlled in China, the country has been moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis, with the surveillance-response as the main interventions for schistosomiasis control. During the period of the 13th Five-Year Plan, the transmission of schistosomiasis had been interrupted in four provinces of Sichuan, Jiangsu, Yunnan and Hubei and the prevalence of schistosomiasis has been at the historically lowest level in China. As a consequence, the goal set in The 13th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China is almost achieved. However, there are multiple challenges during the stage moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis in China, including the widespread distribution of intermediate host snails and complicated snail habitats, many types of sources of Schistosoma japonicum infections and difficulty in management of bovines and sheep, unmet requirements for the current schistosomiasis control program with the currently available tools, and vulnerable control achievements. During the 14th Five-Year period, it is crucial to consolidate the schistosomiasis control achievements and gradually solve the above difficulties, and critical to provide the basis for achieving the ultimate goal of elimination of schistosomiasis in China. Based on the past experiences from the national schistosomiasis control program and the challenges for schistosomiasis elimination in China, an expert consensus has been reached pertaining to the objectives, control strategy and measures for The 14th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China, so as to provide insights in to the development of The 14th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873739

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis was once endemic in 12 provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) along and south of the Yangtze River basin, which seriously damages human health and hinders socioeconomic developments in China. Following the concerted efforts for 70 years, remarkable achievements have been gained in the national schistosomiasis control program of China. However, there are still multiple challenges for elimination of schistosomiasis in the country. This paper describes the current status of schistosomiasis and the challenges during the progress towards the elimination of schistosomiasis, and proposes the goals, key points and research priorities of schistosomiasis control in China during the 14th Five-Year Plan Period.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882026

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of current advanced schistosomiasis cases in China, so as to provide the scientific evidence for the precision management and medical care of advanced schistosomiasis. Methods The baseline data pertaining to the current advanced schistosomiasis cases in China were collected from the Epidemiological Dynamic Data Collection Platform (EDDC) operated by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The demographic characteristics, population and regional distribution and medical care of advanced schistosomiasis cases were analyzed with a descriptive method. Results A total of 31 889 cases with advanced schistosomiasis were reported in China by the end of June, 2019, and these cases were mainly identified in Hubei Province (7 737 cases) followed by in Jiangxi Province (7 256 cases), Hunan Province (5 615 cases), Anhui Province (5 236 cases) and Jiangsu Province (2 908 cases), accounting for 90.2% (28 752/31 889) of total cases in China. The current advanced schistosomiasis cases had a male/female ratio of 1.5∶1, and a mean age of (67.0 ± 11.2) years, with 92.6% (29 521/31 889) detected in individuals at ages of over 50 years. There were 97.6% (31 109/31 889) of the cases with an educational level of junior high school and lower, and 95.2% (30 359/31 889) with an occupation of farmers. Ascites (72.6%, 23 164/31 889) and splenomegaly types (26.3%, 8 386/31 889) were predominant in current advanced schistosomiasis cases in China, and there was a significant difference in the constituent ratio of disease types among current advanced schistosomiasis cases with different age groups (χ2 = 362.31, P < 0.01), with the ascites type as the predominant type of advanced schistosomiasis. Among the current advanced schistosomiasis cases, 88.9% (28 358/31 889) and 18.7% (5 973/31 889) had received medical treatment and surgical treatment, respectively. Conclusions The current advanced schistosomiasis cases are predominantly reported in five marshland and lake endemic provinces of China where schistosomiasis is not eliminated, and are mostly categorized as the ascites and megalosplenia types, with minor differences seen in gender and disease-type distributions. Precision medical care should be reinforced according to the epidemiological features of the current advanced schistosomiasis cases, and early screening and standard management and follow-up is required.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882025

ABSTRACT

This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2020, and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, Shanghai Municipality, Zhejiang Province, Fujian Province, Guangdong Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, and Sichuan and Jiangsu provinces maintained the criteria of transmission interruption, while Yunnan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan provinces maintained the criteria of transmission control by the end of 2020. A total of 450 counties (cites, districts) were found to be endemic for schistosomiasis in China, with 28 376 endemic villages covering 71 370 400 people at risk of infections. Among the 450 endemic counties (cities, districts), 74.89% (337/450), 21.87% (98/450) and 3.33% (15/450) achieved the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control of schistosomiasis, respectively. By the end of 2020, 29 517 cases with advanced schistosomiasis were documented in China. In 2020, 11 117 655 individuals received inquiry examinations and 1 798 580 were positive; 5 263 082 individuals received serological tests and 83 179 were sero-positive. A total of 273 712 individuals received stool examinations and 3 were positive, including one case of acute schistosomiasis. In 2020, snail survey was performed in 19 733 endemic villages in China and Oncomelania snails were found in 7 309 villages, accounting for 37.04% of all surveyed villages, with 15 villages identified with emerging snail habitats. Snail survey covered an area of 736 984.13 hm2 and 206 125.22 hm2 snail habitats were found, including 1 174.67 hm2 emerging snail habitats and 1.96 hm2 habitats with infected snails. In 2020, 544 424 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis-endemic areas of China, and 147 887 received serological examinations, with 326 positives detected, while 130 673 bovines received stool examinations, with no positives identified. In 2020, there were 19 214 patients with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and 964 103 person-time individuals and 266 280 herd-time bovines were given expanded chemotherapy. In 2020, molluscicide treatment was performed in 136 141.92 hm2 snail habitats, and the actual area of chemical treatment was 71 980.22 hm2, while environmental improvements were performed in snail habitats covering an area of 1 464.03 hm2. Data from the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections were both zero in humans and bovines in 2020, and no S. japonicum infection was detected in snails. The results demonstrate that the overall endemic status of schistosomiasis remains at a low level in China and the goal of the National Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for Schistosomiasis Control was achieved as scheduled; however, the endemic situation of schistosomiasis rebounded in local areas. Precision schistosomiasis control and intensified monitoring of the endemic situation and transmission risk of schistosomiasis are required to be performed to facilitate the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis steadily.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812927

ABSTRACT

Following the concerted efforts for nearly 70 years, great successes have been achieved in the national schistosomiasis control programme in China. Currently, the national schistosomiasis control programme in China is facing the challenges to solve the problems during the“final mile”stage towards schistosomiasis elimination, and contribute Chinese experiences, Chinese strategy and Chinese wisdom to the global schistosomiasis control programmes, so as to facilitate the transformation of the joint efforts in the Belt and Road Initiative to a high-quality development, thereby well supporting the activities on global health security. This paper analyzes the current global status of schistosomiasis and the challenges of the global schistosomiasis control programmes, describes the basis for the cooperation on schistosomiasis control among the countries along the Belt and Road Initiative, illustrates the challenges for translation of Chinese experiences and techniques in schistosomiasis control to other diseaseendemic countries, and proposes the patterns and prospects of the South-South cooperation on schistosomiasis control under the Belt and Road Initiative.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837614

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo characterize Torso-like (tsl) gene and investigate its expression characteristics in Anopheles dirus, so as to provide a theoretical basis for subsequent functional studies of the tsl gene. MethodsAccording to the coding sequences of Drosophila melanogaster and An. gambiae tsl genes, the complete genome of An. dirus was retrieved and the An. dirus tsl gene was characterized. Specific primers were designed and the target gene was amplified using PCR and reverse-transcription PCR assays. The physicochemical properties, signal peptide, transmembrane structure, secondary structure and tertiary structure of the encoded protein TSL were analyzed using bioinformatics tools, and a phylogenetic analysis was performed. In addition, the specific expression of the tls gene was detected in various tissues of An. dirus using a quantitative real-time PCR assay. Results The An. dirus tsl gene was 16 751 bp in length with a CDS region of 1 134 bp, encoding 377 amino acids, and the encoded TSL protein was a stably hydrophilic protein. The TSL protein was predicted to be a secretory protein that was located in extra-membrane regions containing signal peptides. The secondary structure of the TSL protein contained α-helix (51.72%), extended strand (12.20%), β-bridge (4.78%) and random coil (31.30%) in the secondary structure, and a 3D homology model was generated using 5cj9.1.A as a template. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close genetic relationship in the TSL protein between An. dirus and An. farauti. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR assay detected the tsl gene expression in the head, chest, abdomen and foot of An. dirus, with the highest expression in the head and low expression in the foot. Conclusions The tsl gene is characterized in An. dirus at a genomic level, and the prediction of the TSL protein structure and the elucidation of the tissue-specific tsl gene expression in An. dirus provide a basis for the further studies on the gene functions.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837609

ABSTRACT

This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2019, and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 455 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, Sichuan Province achieved transmission interruption, Jiangsu newly achieved the standard of transmission interruption and 5 provinces of Yunnan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan maintained transmission control by the end of 2019. There were 450 endemic counties (cities, districts) endemic for schistosomiasis, including 28 500 endemic villages covering 70 667 800 people at risk of infections. Among the 450 endemic counties (citis, districts), 66.89% (301/450), 28.44% (128/450) and 4.67% (21/450) kept the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control of schistosomiasis, respectively. By the end of 2019, a total of 30 170 advanced schistosomiasis cases were documented in China. In 2019, a total of 12 090 712 individuals received inquiry examinations and 1 740 764 were positive; 5 158 369 individuals received serological tests and 89 753 were seropositive. A total of 327 475 individuals received stool examinations and 5 were positive, including one case of acute schistosomiasis. In 2019, snail survey was performed in 19 726 endemic villages in China and Oncomelania snails were found in 7 322 villages, accounting for 37.12% of all surveyed villages, with 6 villages with emerging snail habitats. Snail survey covered an area of 585 286.24 hm2 and 174 270.42 hm2 snail habitats were found, including emerging snail habitats of 64.20 hm2; however, no infected snails were identified. In 2019, a total of 605 965 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas of China, and 183 313 received serological examinations, with 1 176 positives detected, while 134 978 bovines received stool examinations, with 7 positives identified. In 2019, there were 28 557 patients with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and expanded chemotherapy was given to 1 008 083 person-times; there were 7 bovines with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and 296 053 herd-times expanded chemotherapy was given to bovines. In 2019, snail habitats at an area of 128 754.26 hm2 were given chemical treatment, and the actual area of chemical treatment was 69 605.55 hm2, while environmental improvements were performed in snail habitats covering an area of 2 847.00 hm2. Data from the 455 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean Schistosoma japonicum infection rates were both zero in humans and bovines in 2019, and no infected snails were found. The results demonstrate that the overall endemic situation of schistosomiasis remains at a lower infection level in China; however, there is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission. To achieve the target set in the National Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for Schistosomiasis Control and consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis control, precision control on schistosomiasis still needs to be reinforced in China.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829578

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the implementation of schistosomiasis control activities in China during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, so as to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 epidemic on the national schistosomiasis control program in China. Methods On April 2020, 3 counties (districts) were randomly selected from each of the 12 schistosomiasis-endemic provinces (municipality, autonomous region), and a questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate the implementation of schistosomiasis control activities in these counties (districts) from January to March 2020. Then, the impact of the COVID-19 epidemics on the national schistosomiasis control program of China was evaluated using a comparative analysis approach. Results Among the 36 counties (cities, districts) sampled from 12 provinces (municipality, autonomous region), 66.67% were at a high and medium risk of COVID-19 epidemics. The implementation of schistosomiasis control activities assignment, human schistosomiasis examination and treatment, snail control with chemical treatment and health education reduced by 44.26% to 91.56% as compared to 2019 during the same time period, and the schistosomiasis control program was more affected by COVID-19 in transmission-controlled provinces. The gross funds invested into the schistosomiasis control program reduced by 23.39% in relative to the expected, while the total expenditure increased by 41.22%. In addition, all 36 surveyed counties (districts) considered that the COVID-19 epidemic had a short-term impact on the schistosomiasis control program, with the most predominant impact on schistosomiasis control activities assignment, human resources and monitoring of endemic situation of schistosomiasis. Conclusions The COVID-19 epidemics affect the routine schistosomiasis control program across the endemic-foci of China. Policy and financial support should be strengthened to ensure the completion of the schistosomiasis control program.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829572

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the prevalence of soil-borne nematode infections among residents living in urban/town areas of China, so as to provide insights into the control and elimination of soil-borne nematodiasis. Methods A total of 5 epidemic areas were classified in China according to the prevalence of human Clonorchis sinensis infections captured from the 2014–2015 national survey on major human parasitic diseases in China, and the total sample size was estimated according to the binomial distribution and Poisson’s distribution. Then, the total sample size was allocated proportionally to each province (autonomous region, municipality) of China based on the percentage of residents living in urban and town areas, and the number of survey sites in each province (autonomous region, municipality) was proportionally assigned according to the percentages of residents living in urban and town areas. Then, stratified sampling was performed at county, township and community levels according to the number of sampling sites in each province (autonomous region, municipality), and the survey site (community) was defined as the smallest sampling unit. All permanent residents in the survey sites were selected as the study subjects, and their stool samples were collected for identification and counting of parasite egg using a Kato-Katz technique. The prevalence and intensity of each parasite species were calculated. Results From 2014 to 2015, among the 133 231 residents detected in 31 provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities) of China, the overall prevalence of soil-borne nematode infections was 1.23% (1 636/133 231), and the prevalence rates of hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections were 0.77% (1 032/133 231), 0.32% (426/133 231) and 0.17% (224/133 231), respectively. The highest prevalence of soil-borne nematode infections was seen in Jiangxi (4.03%, 82/2 034) and Chongqing (4.03%, 524/13 012), followed by in Hainan (3.47%, 72/2 075). The prevalence of soilborne nematode infections was 1.07% (662/62 139) in men and 1.37% (974/71 092) in women, and the greatest prevalence was found in residents at ages of 65 to 70 years (2.56%, 219/8 569). With regard to occupations and education levels, herdsmen (2.47%, 2/81) and illiterate residents (3.33%, 226/6 795) were found to have the highest prevalence of soil-borne nematode infections, respectively. In addition, mild infections were predominantly identified in hookworm-, A. lumbricoides- and T. trichiura-infected individuals (all > 90%). Conclusions The overall prevalence of soil-borne nematodiasis remains low in urban and town areas of China; however, human infections are widespread. According to the epidemiological features, health education combined with deworming are recommended to reduce the prevalence of soil-borne nematode infections among residents living in urban and town areas of China.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829570

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the impact of the flood disaster on schistosomiasis transmission along the Yangtze River basin in 2020, so as to provide insights into schistosomiasis prevention and control in flood-affected areas. Methods The data pertaining to the endemic situation of schistosomiasis were collected from 5 provinces of Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Anhui and Jiangsu from 2013 to 2019, including Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans and livestock and snail distribution, and the warning water levels and actual water status were collected in water regions locating in these 5 provinces. The cumulative numbers of S. japonicum egg-positive individuals and bovines during the period from 2013 to 2019, the area of snail habitats in 2019 and the water level on July 12, 2020 were estimated at a county level and employed as parameters for classification of schistosomiasis transmission risk. Then, the cumulative value of each risk index was calculated to assess the risk of schistosomiasis transmission risk. Results After the flood disaster along the Yangtze River basin in 2020, there were 10, 5 and 9 counties (districts) at high risk of schistosomiasis transmission in 5 provinces of Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Anhui and Jiangsu based on number of egg-positive individuals, number of egg-positive bovines and snail distribution, respectively. Based on comprehensive risk indices, there were 10 (8 in Dongting Lake regions of Hunan Province and 2 in Poyang Lake regions of Jiangxi Province) and 15 counties (districts) (4 in Hubei Province, 7 in Hunan Province and 4 in Jiangxi Province) identified at grades 5 and 4 risk of schistosomiasis transmission. Conclusions Dongting Lake regions and Poyang Lake regions are the most severely flood-affected schistosomiasis-endemic foci of China in 2020, and the flood disaster may facilitate the transmission of schistosomiasis in affected areas. Therefore, schistosomiasis control requires to be intensified after the flood disaster to prevent the rebound of the disease.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821627

ABSTRACT

Objective To characterize a species of the genus Tricula and parasitized trematodes in schistosomiasis-endemic areas of Yunnan Province using a molecular analysis, so as to understand their taxonomic positions. Methods Tricula spp. and Oncomelania snails were collected from Xiangyun County, Yunnan Province, and cercaria parasitizing snails were observed using crushing followed by microscopy. Cercaria parasitizing Tricula snails at various morphologies were sampled using a shedding method. Genomic DNA was extracted from snail soft tissues and cercariae, and the 16S rRNA, COI, 28S rDNA genes in snails and the ND1 and 28S rDNA genes in cercariae were amplified using a PCR assay and sequenced. The species of Tricula snails and their parasitized trematodes was characterized using sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis. Results Among 382 Tricula snails detected, there were three types of trematode cercariae found, including the non-forked (20.94%, 80/382), double-forked (3.40%, 13/382) and swallow shapes (7.07%, 27/382). Sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that the 16S rRNA, COI and 28S rDNA gene sequences of this species of Tricula had high homology to those in Delavaya dianchiensis, and were clustered in a branch. Sequencing analysis of the ND1 and 28S rDNA genes revealed that the non-forked cercariae belonged to the family Pleu- rogenidae, the swallow-shaped cercariae belonged to the family Opecoelidae, and the double-forked cercariae belonged to another species of the genus Schistosoma that was different from S. sinensium and S. ovuncatum. Conclusion The species and taxonomy of Triculla spp. and their parasitized trematodes are preliminarily determined in schistosomiasis-endemic areas of Yunnan Province; however, further studies are required to investigate the more definite taxonomy and pathogenicity.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819003

ABSTRACT

In 1980s, Biomphalaria straminea, an intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, was found in Shenzhen City, Guangdong Province, China, and currently, this snail has colonized in Shenzhen City and spread to peripheral cities involving of Dongguan and Huizhou. Since imported cases infected with S. mamoni have been reported from time to time in China, Mainland China is facing the potential risk of transmission of schistosomiasis mansoni. With the deepening of the opening-up policy, notably the implementation of the Belt and Road Initiative, there is an increase in the risk of transmission of schistosomiasis mansoni in Mainland China. Increasing the understanding on schistosomiasis mansoni, improving the awareness toward schistosomiasis mansoni prevention and control, and identifying, reporting and managing imported cases with S. mansoni infection or pathogen carriers, are of particular importance to prevent the development of entire life cycle of S. mansoni and the resultant schistosomiasis mansoni transmission in China. To protect public health, a consensus has been reached pertaining to the surveillance and control strategy of imported schistosomiasis mansoni by Chinese infectious disease experts and parasitologists, with aims to improve the awareness and capability for the diagnosis, treatment and control of imported schistosomiasis mansoni among Chinese disease control and prevention institutions and medical institutions, and decrease and even eliminate the risk of schistosomiasis mansoni transmission in China.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819001

ABSTRACT

This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2018, and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 453 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, 5 provinces (municipality and autonomous region), including Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi, continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, Sichuan Province achieved transmission interruption and 6 provinces of Yunnan, Jiangsu, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan achieved transmission control by the end of 2018. There were 450 endemic counties (cities, districts) covering 260 million people, specifically including 28 456 endemic villages covering 70.059 7 million people at risk of infection. Among the 450 endemic counties (cities, districts), 58.44% (263/450), 27.56% (124/450) and 14.00% (63/450) reached the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control, respectively. By the end of 2018, a total of 29 214 advanced schistosomiasis cases were documented in China. In 2018, a total of 11.127 6 million individuals received inquiry examinations and 2.062 9 million were positive; 7.191 4 million individuals received serological tests and 138.5 thousand of them were positive, 532.2 thousand individuals received stool examinations and 8 were positive in China. In 2018, snail survey was performed in 19 821 endemic villages and Oncomehania snails were found in 7 321 villages, accounting for 36.94% of all surveyed villages, with 3 newly detected villages with snails in China. Snail survey covered an area of 590 241.01 hm2 and 168 319.41 hm2 snail habitats were found, including emerging snail habitats of 61.28 hm2; however, no infected snails were identified. In 2018, a total of 646 823 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas of China, and 225 258 received serological examinations, with 2 638 positives detected, while 164 803 bovines received stool examinations, with 2 positives identified. In 2018, there were 90 388 patients with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and expanded chemotherapy was given to 1 490 594 person-times; there were two bovines with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and expanded chemotherapy was given to 352 577 bovine-times; chemical treatment was conducted in an area of 141 660.87 hm2, including an actual mollusciciding area of 75 308.26 hm2, and environmental improvements were performed in an area of 4 738.37 hm2 in China. Data from the 453 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean Schistosoma japonicum infection rates were 0.001 5% and zero in humans and bovines in 2018, respectively, and no infected snails were found. The results demonstrate that the endemic situation of schistosomiasis appears a tendency towards a continuous decline in China; however, there is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission, and challenges remain in achieving the target set in the Thirteenth Five-Year National Plan for Schistosomiasis Control in 2020 in some regions.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818983

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the epidemic trend of schistosomiasis in China from 2010 to 2017 so as to provide the scientific evidence for schistosomiasis elimination. Methods The information of schistosomiasis control nationwide from 2010 to 2017 was collected, including the endemic of population, status of livestock control, and Oncomelania hupensis snail control. Microsoft Excel was applied for datum management and analysis. Results From 2010 to 2017, the epidemic of schistosomiasis in China dropped significantly. The decreasing amplitude of estimated number of patients nationwide was 88.46%. Seventy-one acute schistosomiasis patients were reported and 12.68% (9/71) of them were imported. The decreasing rate of cultivated cattle was 50.09%, and the accumulative number of schistosome-infected cattle was 17 239, and the average positive rate of stool examinations decreased from 1.04% to 0.000 22%. The area with snails nationwide was 373 596.18 to 363 068.95 hm2, and the new detected area with snails was 46.71 to 1 346.73 hm2. The area with schistosome-infected snails was 171.68 hm2 in 2012 and it was 9.25 hm2 in 2013. In 72 key monitoring points of 7 endemic provinces, there were 17 schistosome positive points of water body in 2010 and 6 points in 2016. There were some high risk-factors related to schistosomiasis transmission including schisto-some-infected cattle, dogs, and field rats, and the field stools, and the pasture in the area with snails in schistosomiasis monitoring points. Conclusions The endemic status of schistosomiasis in China has dropped significantly, and the transmission level is very low. However, the infectious source and risk factors in the endemic environments have not be eliminated. Therefore, the infectious source control, health education, snail control, and transmission monitoring should be strengthened, so as to promote the progress of schistosomiasis elimination.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818938

ABSTRACT

In China, the mountainous and hilly schistosomiasis-endemic areas are mainly distributed in 2 provinces of Sichuan and Yunnan. Although great success has been achieved in schistosomiasis control in mountainous and hilly areas, there is a risk of re-emerging schistosomiasis in local areas. Hereby, we described the emergency treatment of two schistosomiasis outbreaks that occurred in transmission-interrupted areas of Yunnan Province in 2011 and 2013, pointed out the risk of schistosomiasis rebounding in mountainous and hilly areas and proposed some suggestions.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818927

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the approaches used for the assessment of disability adjust life years (DALYs) for advanced schistosomiasis japonica, so as to provide scientific evidence for accurate assessment of the burden of advanced schistosomiasis japonica. Methods The patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica receiving treatment and assistance programs in Hunan Province in 2017 were enrolled, and the years lived with disability (YLD) for the patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica was calculated using the common global burden of disease (GBD) estimation method, the modified GBD method with addition of common syndromes of advanced schistosomiasis japonica, and the quality of life assessment method. Results The YLDs of patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica, the mean YLDs per capita, and the percentages of YLD were 673.94, 728.77 person-years and 1 761.99 person-years; 0.181, 0.196 person-years and 0.474 person-years; and 10.61, 11.48 person-years per 100 thousand persons and 27.75 person-years per 100 thousand persons with the common GBD method, modified GBD method and the quality of life method, respectively. The YLDs of the patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica in Hunan Province estimated with the modified GBD method and the quality of life method were 8.14% and 2.61 times higher than that with the common GBD method. Of the major symptoms included in the calculation, the 5 symptoms with the greatest contribution to the burden of advanced schistosomiasis japonica included ascites, moderate anemia, severe anemia, diarrhea and hematochezia. Conclusion The quality of life method may more comprehensively assess the YLDs in patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica than the common and modified GBD methods.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818925

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the spatial-temporal clustering distribution of schistosomiasis transmission risk in Yunnan Province from 2004 to 2015, so as to provide scientific evidence for the future schistosomiasis control and consolidation of the control achievements. Methods All data pertaining to endemic situation of human and bovine schistosomiasis and snail survey at a township level in Yunnan Province from 2004 to 2015 were collected. A descriptive epidemiological method and Joinpoint model were used to describe the changing trends of Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans, bovine and snails, and the hotspots and clusters of schistosomiasis transmission risk were identified using spatial autocorrelation analysis, hotspots analysis and retrospective space-time scan statistic in Yunnan Province from 2004 to 2015. Results The prevalence of S. japonicum infections appeared a continuous decline in humans, bovine and snails in Yunnan Province from 2004 to 2015, and the estimated number of schistosomiasis cases reduced from 43 056 in 2004 to 756 in 2015, with a decline rate of 98.24%. There were no acute cases since 2008 and no infected snails since 2014 in Yunnan Province. There were significant differences in the changing trends of human and bovine S. japonicum infections in Yunnan Province between 2012 and 2015 and between 2013 and 2015, respectively using the Joinpoint model (P < 0.05). In addition, there was a spatial autocorrelation in human S. japonicum infections in Yunnan Province from 2004 to 2013 (P < 0.01), and the hotspots areas for human S. japonicum infections were mainly distributed in some townships from Dali City, Weishan County and Eryuan County. Retrospective spatial-temporal scanning revealed that S. japonicum human, bovine and snail infections were clustered in 23, 15, 4 townships from Dali City, Weishan County, Eryuan County, Nanjian County and Heqing County, respectively, with relative risks of 6.25 to 28.75 (P < 0.01), which was almost consistent with the cluster areas detected by hotspots analysis. Conclusions The endemic situation of schistosomiasis significantly reduced in Yunnan Province from 2004 to 2015; however, there is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission. The monitoring and control of schistosomiasis should be intensified in the future in Yunnan Province.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818894

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the basic information and epidemic characteristics of new cases of cysticercosis in Dali Prefecture, Yunnan Province, so as to provide the evidence for formulating the prevention and control strategy of cysticercosis. Methods The data of inpatients in the Dali Parasitic Disease Prevention and Control Center from 2014 to 2017 were collected and the eligible data of new cases of cysticercosis were analyzed by the epidemiological method. Results There were 1 552 patients with cysticercosis, including 549 new cases of cysticercosis. Among the new cysticercosis patients, most were neurocysticer-cosis cases (484 / 549, 88.16%). The symptoms included epilepsy and headache (51.73%), headache (40.98%), and dizziness (18.76%). The new cysticercosis patients were mainly middle-aged male farmers of Bai nationality, and they were distributed in all counties (cities) of Dali Prefecture, especially in Eryuan County (26.78%), and Dali City (19.49%). The annual incidence rate was 4.423/105 in 2014, 3.837/105 in 2015, 3.765/105 in 2016, and 3.442/105 in 2017, and there was no significance among the different years’incidence ( χ2 = 4.595, P > 0.05). Conclusion Dali Prefecture is still an endemic area of cysticercosis. Therefore, the monitoring, prevention and control of the disease should be strengthened.

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