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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003773

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo identify the prototypical components and metabolites absorbed into blood and cerebrospinal fluid of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus(SCF) based on sequential metabolism combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. MethodBlood and cerebrospinal fluid samples of integrated metabolism, intestinal metabolism and hepatic metabolism were collected from male SD rats after gavage and in situ intestinal perfusion administration, and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/electrostatic field orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry(UPLC Q-Exactive Orbitrap MS) was used to analyze and compare the differences in the spectra of SCF extract, blank plasma, administered plasma, blank cerebrospinal fluid and administered cerebrospinal fluid with ACQUITY UPLC BEH Shield RP18 column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 µm), the mobile phase was acetonitrile(A)-0.1% formic acid aqueous solution(B) for gradient elution(0-7 min, 95%B; 7-12 min, 95%-35%B; 12-17 min, 35%-15%B; 17-20 min, 15%-12%B; 20-22 min, 12%-5%B; 22-23 min, 5%B; 23-25 min, 5%-95%B; 25-28 min, 95%B). And heated electrospray ionization(HESI) was used with positive and negative ion modes, the scanning range was m/z 100-1 500. The prototypical constituents and their metabolites absorbed into blood and cerebrospinal fluid of SCF were identified according to the retention time, characteristic fragments, molecular formulae and the information of reference substances. ResultA total of 42 chemical components were identified in the extract of SCF, including lignans, flavonoids, amino acids, tannins, and others, of which lignans were the main ones. A total of 27 prototypical components and 14 metabolites were identified in plasma samples from different sites. A total of 15 prototypical components and 9 metabolites were identified in cerebrospinal fluid. The main metabolic reactions involved in the formation of metabolites were mainly demethylation, methylation, demethoxylation and hydroxylation. ConclusionThrough the systematic identification of the prototypical components and metabolites of SCF in rats, it provides data support for further better exploring the material basis of SCF in the treatment of central nervous system diseases.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2111-2119, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999117

ABSTRACT

There are more than 60 million alcoholic liver disease (ALD) patients in China, which has become a public health problem that cannot be ignored. Moreover, the social problem of "alcohol culture" is still hardly to solve, so that safe and effective prevention and treatment for ALD are in urgent need clinically. Previous studies on ALD have focused on the direct damaging effects of alcohol and its toxic metabolites, while recent studies have shown that the pathogenesis of ALD also include alcohol metabolic reprogramming and endogenous metabolites disorder. Although the endogenous metabolites have no direct toxicity, its long-term effect should not be ignored. These endogenous metabolites could change epigenetic modifications, cause widespread and persistent abnormal gene expression and signal pathway activation abnormally to promote metabolic reprogramming and stamp it as "metabolic memory", which manifest pathological changes and promote ALD, especially liver fibrosis/cirrhosis and liver cancer. Based on this, the article reviews the important epigenetic modifications caused by related metabolites in ALD and their associated effects. The role of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and its active ingredients in regulating epigenetics was also analyzed. The results suggest that regulation of epigenetics and alteration of "metabolic memory" may be a novel mechanism of TCM in the prevention and treatment of ALD.

3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 3321-3329, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999074

ABSTRACT

Magnolol, a hydroquinone containing an allyl side chain, is one of the major active components of magnolia for antioxidation and anti-aging. To enhance the anti-aging activity and improve the intramolecular hydrogen bonding of magnolol, magnolol was reacted with cinnamic acid to obtain 2-O-cinnamic acid magnolol by esterification. The anti-aging activity of magnolol 2-O-cinnamate was investigated based on Caenorhabditis elegans model. The results showed that 2-O-cinnamic acid magnolol can reduce lipofuscin accumulation in the nematode body, and the effect is better than that of magnolol. 2-O-Cinnamic acid magnolol can extend nematode lifespan, reduce ROS levels in nematodes during normal aging and oxidative stress and improve nematode stress resistance under heat stress and oxidative stress. 2-O-Cinnamic acid magnolol could induce DAF-16 translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and upregulate the expression of the sod-3 gene encoding superoxide dismutase in the nematode TJ356 expressing DAF-16 fused with GFP. 2-O-Cinnamic acid magnolol did not improve the survival rate of hsp-16.2 gene deficient nematodes under oxidative stress, indicating that 2-O-cinnamic acid magnolol improves stress resistance of nematodes under oxidative stress may be associated with sod-3 and hsp-16.2. Moreover, 2-O-cinnamic acid magnolol did not extend the lifespan of daf-16 and age-1 mutants, indicating that age-1 and daf-16 are required for 2-O-cinnamic acid magnolol to delay aging. It showed that magnolol 2-O-cinnamic acid has the potential to improve antioxidant capacity and delay aging, and the mechanism may be related to the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986945

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate whether tanshinone ⅡA can protect the apoptosis of mice cochlear pericytes induced by high glucose and its specific protective mechanism, so as to provide experimental evidence for the prevention and treatment of diabetic hearing loss. Methods: C57BL/6J male mice were used to prepare type 2 diabetes model, which were divided into normal (NG) group, diabetic (DM) group, diabetic+tanshinone ⅡA (HG+tanshinone ⅡA) group and tanshinone ⅡA group. Each group had 10 animals. Primary cochlear pericytes were divided into NG group, HG group (high glucose 35 mmol/L), HG+tanshinone ⅡA (1, 3, 5 μmol/L) group, HG+Tanshinone ⅡA+LY294002 (PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitor) group, LY294002 group, tanshinone ⅡA group and DMSO group. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) was used to measure hearing threshold. Evans blue was used to detect the permeability of blood labyrinth barrier in each group. TBA methods were used to detect oxidative stress levels in various organs of mice. Morphological changes of stria vascularis were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE). Evans blue was used to detect the vascular labyrinth barrier permeability in cochlea. The expression of apoptosis protein in stria vascularis pericytes was observed by immunofluorescence. Pericytes apoptosis rate was observed by flow cytometry. DCFH-DA was combined with flow cytometry to detect intracellular ROS content, and Western blot was used to detect the expression of apoptotic proteins (Cleaved-caspase3, Bax), anti-apoptotic proteins (BCL-2) and pathway proteins (PI3K, p-PI3K, AKT, p-AKT). SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. Independent sample t test was performed, and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Animal experiments: Tanshinone ⅡA decreased the hearing threshold of DM group [(35.0±3.5) dB SPL vs. (55.3±8.1) dB SPL] (t=4.899, P<0.01), decreased the oxidative stress level in cochlea (t=4.384, P<0.05), improved the structure disorder, atrophy of cochlea vascular lines, vacuole increased phenomenon. Tanshinone ⅡA alleviated the increased permeability of the blood labyrinth barrier [Evans blue leakage (6.84±0.27) AU vs. (8.59±0.85) AU] in the cochlea of DM mice (t=2.770, P<0.05), reversed the apoptotic protein: Caspase3 (t=4.956, P<0.01) and Bax (t=4.388, P<0.05) in cochlear vascularis. Cell experiments: Tanshinone ⅡA decreased intracellular ROS content in a concentration-dependent way (t=3.569, P<0.05; t=4.772, P<0.01; t=7.494, P<0.01); Tanshinone ⅡA decreased apoptosis rate and apoptotic protein, and increased the expression of anti-apoptotic protein, p-PI3K/PI3K and p-AKT/AKT in concentration-dependent manner (all P values<0.05); LY294002 reversed the protective effect of tanshinone ⅡA on pericytes apoptosis (all P values<0.05). Conclusion: Tanshinone ⅡA can inhibit the apoptosis of cochlear pericytes induced by high glucose by reducing oxidative stress level and activating PI3K/AKT signaling pathway under high glucose environment, thus playing a protective role in diabetic hearing loss.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Apoptosis , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Evans Blue , Glucose , Hearing Loss , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pericytes/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Signal Transduction
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986872

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the status of depression and social anxiety in children and adolescents, and to analyze the association between body fat distribution and depression, social anxiety in children and adolescents.@*METHODS@#A total of 1 412 children aged 7 to 18 years in Beijing were included by stratified cluster random sampling method. Body fat distribution, including total body fat percentage (total BF%), Android BF%, Gynoid BF% and Android-to-Gynoid fat ratio (AOI), were obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorption method. Depression and social anxiety were evaluated by Children Depression Inventory and Social Anxiety Scale for Children. Multivariate linear regression and restricted cubic spline analysis were used to estimate the linear and non-linear correlation between body fat distribution and depression and social anxiety.@*RESULTS@#13.1% and 31.1% of the children and adolescents had depressive symptoms and social anxiety symptoms respectively, and the detection rate of depression and social anxiety in the boys and young groups was significantly lower than those in the girls and old groups. There was no significant linear correlation between total BF%, Android BF%, Gynoid BF%, AOI and depression and social anxiety in the children and adolescents. However, total BF% and Gynoid BF% had significant nonlinear correlation with depression, showing an inverted U-shaped curve relationship with the tangent points of 26.8% and 30.9%, respectively. In terms of the nonlinear association of total BF%, Android BF%, Gynoid BF% and AOI with depression and social anxiety, the change trends of the boys and girls, low age group and high age group were consistent. The overall anxiety risk HR of body fat distribution in the boys was significantly higher than that in the girls, and the risk HR of depression and social anxiety were significantly higher in the high age group than those in the low age group.@*CONCLUSION@#There was no significant linear correlation between body fat distribution and depression and social anxiety in children and adolescents. Total BF% and depression showed an inverted U-shaped curve, mainly manifested in Gynoid BF%, and this trend was consistent in different genders and different age groups. Maintaining children and adolescents' body fat distribution at an appropriate level is the future direction of the prevention and control of depression and social anxiety in children and adolescents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Male , Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , X-Rays , Depression/epidemiology , Absorptiometry, Photon/methods , Body Mass Index , Body Fat Distribution , Anxiety/epidemiology , Adipose Tissue , Body Composition
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986870

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the association between different growth patterns and metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents aged 7 to 17 years, and to provide suggestions for the prevention and control of metabolic syndrome in Chinese children and adolescents.@*METHODS@#Data were collected from the research project "Development and Application of Technology and Related Standards for Prevention and Control of Major Diseases among Students" of public health industry in 2012. This project is a cross-sectional study design. A total of 65 347 students from 93 primary and secondary schools in 7 provinces including Guangdong were selected by stratified cluster random sampling method. Given the budget, 25% of the students were randomly selected to collect blood samples. In this study, 10 176 primary and middle school students aged 7 to 17 years with complete physical measurements and blood biochemical indicators were selected as research objects. Chi-square test was used to compare the distribution differences of growth patterns under different demographic characteristics. Birth weight, waist circumference and blood biochemical indexes were expressed in the form of mean ± standard deviation, and the differences among different groups were compared by variance analysis. Binary Logistic regression model was used to analyze the relationship between different growth patterns and metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents aged 7 to 17 years.@*RESULTS@#The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents was 6.56%, 7.18% in boys and 5.97% in girls. The risk of metabolic syndrome was higher in the catch-down growth group than in the normal growth group (OR=1.417, 95%CI: 1.19-1.69), and lower in the catch-up growth group(OR=0.66, 95%CI: 0.53-0.82). After adjusting for gender, age and so on, the risk of developing metabolic syndrome in the catch-down growth group was higher than that in the normal growth group (OR=1.25, 95%CI: 1.02-1.52), but there was no significant difference between the catch-up growth group and the normal growth group (OR=0.79, 95%CI: 0.62-1.01). Stratified analysis showed that the association between different growth patterns and metabolic syndrome was statistically significant in the 7-12 years group, urban population, and Han Chinese student population.@*CONCLUSION@#There is a correlation between different growth patterns and metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. The risk of developing metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents with catch-down growth is higher than that in the normal growth group, which suggests that attention should be paid to the growth and development of children and adolescents, timely correction of delayed growth and prevention of adverse health outcomes.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Child , Adolescent , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Students , Urban Population , Asian People , China/epidemiology , Prevalence
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969886

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze and predict the epidemic trend of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents aged 7-18 years in China from 1985 to 2019. Methods: Data were collected from the Chinese National Survey on Students Constitution and Health in 1985, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2014, and 2019 with the sample size of 409 945, 204 931, 209 209, 234 420, 215 317, 214 353, and 212 711, respectively. Overweight and obesity were evaluated according to the "classification standard of the weight index value of overweight and obesity screening for Chinese school-age children and adolescents" of the Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC). The detection rate and average annual growth rate of overweight and obesity, and single obesity among children and adolescents aged 7-18 years were calculated, and ArcGis10.6 software was used to analyze the difference in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in different regions in 2019. Polynomial regression function was used to fit the prevalence and average annual growth rate of overweight and obesity, and single obesity among children and adolescents from 1985 to 2019, and to predict the prevalence of overweight and obesity and single obesity among children and adolescents in China. Results: In 2019, the total prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents aged 7-18 years in China was 23.4%, and the prevalence of single obesity was 9.6%. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among urban children and adolescents was higher than that in rural areas (25.4% vs. 21.5%), and the prevalence in boys was higher than that in girls (28.4% vs. 18.4%) (both P values<0.001). In 2019, there was a large regional disparity in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in different provinces, with the lowest in Guangdong (12.2%) and the highest in Shandong (38.9%), and the high epidemic areas were mainly concentrated in North China and Northeast China. From 1985 to 2019, the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents aged 7-18 years in China increased from 1.2% to 23.4%, with an increase of 18.1 times, while the prevalence of obesity alone increased from 0.1% to 9.6%, with an increase of 75.6 times. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in urban boys, urban girls, rural boys and rural girls increased from 1.3%, 1.5%, 0.5%, and 1.6% in 1985 to 31.2%, 19.4%, 25.6%, and 17.4% in 2019, with an increase of 22.3, 11.7, 54.2, and 10.1 times, respectively. According to the prediction model, the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents aged 7-18 years in China will increase from 23.4% in 2019 to 32.7% in 2030, and the prevalence of obesity alone will increase from 9.6% in 2019 to 15.1% in 2030. The growth of rural children and adolescents is obvious. By 2025, the prevalence of overweight and obesity among rural children and adolescents in China will comprehensively exceed that of urban, and there will be an "urban-rural reversal" phenomenon. At the same time, the prevalence of children's obesity in China's low, medium and high epidemic areas will also continue to increase. By 2035, the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in medium epidemic areas will exceed that in high epidemic areas, and there will be a "provincial reversal" phenomenon. Conclusion: From 1985 to 2019, the overweight and obesity of children and adolescents in China will continue to grow rapidly with large regional differences.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969884

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the prevalence trend of high normal blood pressure and elevated blood pressure in children and adolescents aged 7 to 17 years in China from 2010 to 2019. Methods: Students aged 7-17 years were selected from the Chinese National Survey on Students' Constitution and Health from 2010 to 2019. High normal blood pressure and elevated blood pressure were determined according to the "Reference of screening for elevated blood pressure among children and adolescents aged 7-18 years" (WS/T 610-2018). The Chi-square test was performed to determine whether there was a difference in the prevalence of high normal blood pressure and elevated blood pressure by gender, residence and age group. Results: In 2019, the prevalence of high normal blood pressure in children and adolescents aged 7-17 years was 15.3% (29 855/195 625), which was higher in boys (20.2%, 19 779/97 847) and rural areas (15.4%, 15 066/97 567) than that in girls (10.3%, 10 076/97 778) and urban areas (15.1%, 14 789/98 058), respectively (all P<0.05). The prevalence of elevated blood pressure was 13.0% (25 377/195 625), which was higher in girls (13.2%, 12 925/97 778) and rural areas (14.1%, 13 753/97 567) than that in boys (12.7%, 12 452/97 847) and urban areas (11.9%, 11 624/98 058) (all P<0.05). From 2010 to 2019, the prevalence of high normal blood pressure showed an increasing trend, with an annual average growth rate from 1.14% to 3.18%. The overall prevalence of elevated blood pressure also showed an increasing trend from 2010 to 2019 but decreased in 2014. The annual average growth rate of elevated blood pressure was-1.07% from 2010 to 2014 and 9.33% from 2014 to 2019. About 17 provinces had an increasing trend in the prevalence of elevated blood pressure from 2010 to 2014, and 22 provinces with an increasing trend from 2014 to 2019. There were obvious regional differences in the annual average growth rate of the prevalence of high normal blood pressure and elevated blood pressure. The regions with the highest annual average growth rate of the prevalence of high normal blood pressure were the Northeast (5.47%) from 2010 to 2014 and the Western region (5.21%) from 2014 to 2019. For elevated blood pressure, the Northeast had the highest annual average growth rate from 2010 to 2014 (12.35%), while the Central (15.79%) and Western (12.87%) had the highest growth rate from 2014 to 2019. Conclusion: From 2010 to 2019, the prevalence of high normal blood pressure and elevated blood pressure in Chinese Han children and adolescents aged 7 to 17 shows an increasing trend, with regional disparities.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969836

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the household secondary attack rates of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant and the associated factors. Methods: A COVID-19 outbreak caused by the Delta variant occurred in Nanjing in July 2021. A total of 235 cases with current addresses in Nanjing were reported from 171 households. The subjects in this study were selected from household close contact(s) of infected cases. The information on household index cases and their contacts were collected, and the household secondary attack rate (HSAR) and the risk factors were analyzed by the multi-factor logistic regression model. Results: A total of 234 cases of household close contacts and 64 household secondary cases were reported from 103 households, and the HSAR was 27.4% (64/234, 95%CI:22.0% to 33.4%). The proportions of household size for 2 to 3, 4 to 5, and 6 to 9 were 64.1% (66), 26.2% (27) and 9.7% (10), respectively. A total of 35 cases of household cluster outbreaks were reported (35/103, 34.0%). The number of the first case in the household (FCH) was 103 and males accounted for 27.2% (28 cases), with the median age (Q1, Q3) of 49 (9, 56). The number of household close contacts was 234 and males accounted for 59.0% (138 cases), with the median age (Q1, Q3) of 42 (20, 55) and the median exposure period (Q1, Q3) of 3 (1, 3) days. The multi-factor logistic regression model showed that the higher HSAR was observed in the FCH with the features of airport staff (OR=2.913, 95%CI:1.469-5.774), detection from home quarantine screening (OR=6.795, 95%CI:1.761-26.219) and detection from mass screening (OR=4.239, 95%CI:1.098-16.368). Meanwhile, higher HSAR was observed in cases with longer household exposure (OR=1.221, 95%CI:1.040-1.432), non-vaccination (OR=2.963, 95%CI:1.288-6.813) and incomplete vaccinations (OR=2.842, 95%CI:0.925-8.731). Conclusion: The generation interval of the Delta variant is shortened, and the ability of transmission within the household is enhanced. In the outbreak in Nanjing, the associated factors of HSAR are occupation, detection route, vaccination and exposure period.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Incidence , Family Characteristics
10.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 1188-1194, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010924

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate whether ferroptosis exists in sepsis induced intestinal injury, and to verify the association between ferroptosis in sepsis induced intestinal injury and intestinal inflammation and barrier function by stimulating and inhibiting the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2/glutathione peroxidase 4 (Nrf2/GPX4) pathway.@*METHODS@#Forty-eight SPF grade male Sprague-Darvley (SD) rats with a body weight of 220-250 g were divided into sham operation group (Sham group), sepsis group (CLP group), sepsis+iron chelating agent deferoxamine (DFO) group (CLP+DFO group) and sepsis+ferroptosis inducer Erastin group (CLP+Erastin group) using a random number table method, with 12 rats in each group. The sepsis model was established by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The Sham group was only performed with abdominal opening and closing operations. After modeling, the CLP+DFO group received subcutaneous injection of 20 mg/kg of DFO, the CLP+Erastin group was intraperitoneally injected with 20 mg/kg of Erastin. Each group received subcutaneous injection of 50 mg/kg physiological saline for fluid resuscitation after surgery, and the survival status of the rats was observed 24 hours after surgery. At 24 hours after model establishment, 6 rats in each group were selected. First, live small intestine tissue was taken for observation of mitochondrial morphology in smooth muscle cells under transmission electron microscopy and determination of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Then, blood was collected from the abdominal aorta and euthanized. The remaining 6 rats were sacrificed after completing blood collection from the abdominal aorta, and then small intestine tissue was taken. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of intestinal injury markers such as Claudin-1 and ferroptosis related proteins GPX4 and Nrf2. Observe the pathological changes of small intestine tissue using hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and complete Chiu score; Detection of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukins (IL-1β, IL-6) levels in serum using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The levels of serum iron ions (Fe3+), malondialdehyde (MDA), and D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) were measured.@*RESULTS@#(1) Compared with the Sham group, the 24-hour survival rate of rats in the CLP group and CLP+Erastin group significantly decreased (66.7%, 50.0% vs. 100%, both P < 0.05), while there was no significant difference in the CLP+DFO group (83.3% vs. 100%, P = 0.25). (2) Western blotting results showed that compared with the Sham group, the expressions of GPX4 and Claudin-1 in the small intestine tissue of the CLP group, CLP+DFO group, and CLP+Erastin group decreased significantly, while the expression of Nrf2 increased significantly (GPX4/β-actin: 0.56±0.02, 1.03±0.01, 0.32±0.01 vs. 1.57±0.01, Claudin-1/β-actin: 0.60±0.04, 0.96±0.07, 0.41±0.01 vs. 1.40±0.01, Nrf2/β-actin: 0.88±0.02, 0.72±0.01, 1.14±0.01 vs. 0.43±0.02, all P < 0.05). Compared with the CLP group, the expressions of GPX4 and Claudin-1 were significantly increased in the CLP+DFO group, while the expression of Nrf2 was significantly reduced. In the CLP+Erastin group, the expressions of GPX4 and Claudin-1 further decreased, while the expression of Nrf2 further increased (all P < 0.05). (3) Under the light microscope, compared with the Sham group, the CLP group, CLP+DFO group, and CLP+Erastin group showed structural disorder in the small intestinal mucosa and submucosal tissue, significant infiltration of inflammatory cells, and destruction of glandular and villous structures. The Chui score was significantly higher (3.25±0.46, 2.00±0.82, 4.50±0.55 vs. 1.25±0.45, all P < 0.05). (4) Under transmission electron microscopy, compared with the Sham group, the mitochondria in the other three groups of small intestinal smooth muscle cells showed varying degrees of volume reduction, increased membrane density, and reduced or disappeared cristae. The CLP+Erastin group showed the most significant changes, while the CLP+DFO group showed only slight changes in mitochondrial morphology. (5) Compared to the Sham group, the CLP group, CLP+DFO group, and CLP+Erastin group had serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, MDA, D-LDH, and ROS in small intestine tissue were significantly increased, while the serum Fe3+ content was significantly reduced [TNF-α (ng/L): 21.49±1.41, 17.24±1.00, 28.66±2.72 vs. 14.17±1.24; IL-1β (ng/L): 108.40±3.09, 43.19±8.75, 145.70±11.00 vs. 24.50±5.55; IL-6 (ng/L): 112.50±9.76, 45.90±6.52, 151.80±9.38 vs. 12.89±6.11; MDA (μmol/L): 5.61±0.49, 3.89±0.28, 8.56±1.17 vs. 1.86±0.41; D-LDH (kU/L): 39.39±3.22, 25.38±2.34, 53.29±10.53 vs. 10.79±0.52; ROS (fluorescence intensity): 90 712±6 436, 73 278±4 775, 110 913±9 287 vs. 54 318±2 226; Fe3+ (μmol/L): 22.19±1.34, 34.05±1.94, 12.99±1.08 vs. 51.74±11.07; all P < 0.05]. Compared with CLP group, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, MDA, D-LDH and ROS in CLP+Erastin group were further increased, and the content of Fe3+ was further decreased, the CLP+DFO group was the opposite (all P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Ferroptosis exists in the intestinal injury of septic rats, and stimulating or inhibiting ferroptosis through the Nrf2/GPX4 pathway can effectively intervene in the inflammatory state and intestinal mechanical barrier of the body.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Ferroptosis , Reactive Oxygen Species , Actins , Claudin-1 , Interleukin-6 , Sepsis/metabolism , Iron
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971106

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of mTOR inhibitors everolimus (EVE) and gemcitabine (GEM) on the proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell line U2932, and further explore the molecular mechanisms, so as to provide new ideas and experimental basis for the clinical treatment of DLBCL.@*METHODS@#The effect of EVE and GEM on the proliferation of U2932 cells was detected by CCK-8 assay, the IC50 of the two drugs was calculated, and the combination index (CI=) of the two drugs was calculated by CompuSyn software. The effect of EVE and GEM on apoptosis of U2932 cells was detected by flow cytometry with AnnexinV-FITC/PI staining. Flow cytometry with propidium iodide (PI) staining was used to detect the effect of EVE and GEM on the cell cycle of U2932 cells. Western blot assay was used to detect the effects of EVE and GEM on the channel proteins p-mTOR and p-4EBP1, the anti-apoptotic proteins MCL-1 and Survivin, and the cell cycle protein Cyclin D1.@*RESULTS@#Both EVE and GEM could significantly inhitbit the proliferation of U2932 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner (r=0.465, 0.848; 0.555, 0.796). According to the calculation of CompuSyn software, EVE combined with GEM inhibited the proliferation of U2932 cells at 24, 48 and 72 h with CI=<1, which had a synergistic effect. After treated U2932 cells with 10 nmol/L EVE, 250 nmol/L GEM alone and in combination for 48 h, both EVE and GEM induced apoptosis, and the difference was statistically significant compared with the control group (P<0.05). The apoptosis rate was significantly enhanced after EVE in combination with GEM compared with single-agent (P<0.05). Both EVE and GEM alone and in combination significantly increased the proportion of cells in G1 phase compared with the control group (P<0.05). The proportion of cells in G1 phase was significantly increased when the two drugs were combined (P<0.05). The expression of p-mTOR and effector protein p-4EBP1 was significantly downregulated in the EVE combined with GEM group, the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins MCL-1, Survivin and cell cycle protein cyclin D1 was downregulated too (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#EVE combined with GEM can synergistically inhibit the proliferation of U2932 cells, and the mechanism may be that they can synergistically induce apoptosis by downregulating the expression of MCL-1 and Survivin proteins and block the cell cycle progression by downregulating the expression of Cyclin D1.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gemcitabine , Everolimus/pharmacology , Survivin/pharmacology , Cyclin D1/pharmacology , Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases , Apoptosis , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins , Cell Cycle Proteins , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970466

ABSTRACT

As one of the most frequent complications of diabetes, diabetic neuropathy often involves peripheral and central nervous systems. Neuroinflammation is the key pathogenic factor of secondary nerve injury in diabetes. NOD-like receptor pyrin domain-containing 3(NLRP3) inflammasome is a group of subcellular multiprotein complexes, including NLRP3, apoptosis associated speck-like protein(ASC), and pro-cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase 1(pro-caspase-1). NLRP3 inflammasome is an inducer of innate immune responses. Its activation stimulates the inflammatory cascade reaction, promotes the release of inflammatory mediators, triggers cell death and uncontrolled autophagy, activates glial cells, facilitates peripheral immune cell infiltration, and initiates amyoid β(Aβ)-tau cascade reactions. As a result, it contributes to the central nerve, somatic nerve, autonomic nerve, and retinal nerve cell damage secondary to diabetes. Therefore, due to its key role in the neuroinflammation responses of the body, NLRP3 inflammasome may provide new targets for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy. With multi-target and low-toxicity advantages, traditional Chinese medicine plays a vital role in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy. Accumulating evidence has shown that traditional Chinese medicine exerts curative effects on diabetic neuropathy possibly through regulating NLRP3 inflammasome. Although the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in diabetes and related complications has been investigated in the literature, systematical studies on drugs and mechanism analysis for secondary neuropathy are still lacking. In this article, the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in diabetic neuropathy was explored, and the research progress on traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy through NLRP3 inflammasome was reviewed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Diabetic Neuropathies/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Neuroinflammatory Diseases , Inflammation , Diabetes Mellitus
13.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 150-155, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970199

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine the value of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) for excimer laser ablation (ELA) combined with drug-coated balloon (DCB) in treating lower limb arteriosclerotic obliterans (ASO). Methods: As a prospective case series study, patients who underwent ELA combined with DCB for lower limb ASO with the guidance of IVUS from September 2021 to March 2022 at Department of Vascular Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University were enrolled prospectively. Lesion characteristics, procedure-related outcomes and complications were collected. The therapy outcomes were compared with baseline data by paired t test. Results: There were 8 males and 2 females, aged (72.0±5.9) years (range: 61 to 81 years). Of all the 11 lesions, there were 8 lesions in superficial femoral artery and 3 in popliteal artery. The lesion length was (7.0±2.4) cm (range: 3.2 to 9.8 cm). There were 4 chronic totally occlusion and 7 severe stenosis. All patients underwent the operation successfully. The technical success rate was 10/11. Bailout stenting was performed in one lesion because of flow-limiting dissection. Four lesions were grade 3 to 4 in peripheral artery calcium score system, and 9 lesions with calcification arc≥180°. Larger diameter drug-coated balloons were selected in 5 lesions after measurement of intravascular ultrasound. The follow-up time was (6.0±1.9) months (range: 3 to 9 months). The ankle-brachial index of the patient was significantly improved immediately after surgery (0.97±0.13 vs. 0.48±0.18, t=-7.60, P<0.01) and at 3 months after surgery (0.95±0.12 vs. 0.48±0.18, t=-7.17, P<0.01). The 3-month primary patency rate was 11/11, the target lesion reintervention was 0 and ulcer healing rate was 3/4. Conclusion: IVUS assisted ELA in the treatment of lower limb artery lesions is safe and effective in early stage.


Subject(s)
Female , Male , Humans , Laser Therapy , Lower Extremity , Ultrasonography , Femoral Artery , Ultrasonography, Interventional
14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 320-329, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-965719

ABSTRACT

Developmental changes in children can affect drug disposition and clinical effects. A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model is a mathematical model that can be used to predict blood drug concentrations in children and gain insight into age-dependent physiological differences in drug disposition impact. Pediatric PBPK (P-PBPK) models have attracted attention over the past decade. With the concerted efforts of academia, pharmaceutical companies, and regulatory agencies, there are more and more examples of pediatric clinical studies using PBPK models. Nevertheless, the number of P-PBPK models and their predictive performance still lag behind adult models. By referring to the literature, we study the process of children adapting to adult absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) parameters and analyze the general principles of P-PBPK model establishment. In addition, we summarize the functions and application examples of commonly used P-PBPK modeling software to provide a basis for the rational application of modeling software.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-964942

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the mechanism of Dihuang Yinzi in improving astrocyte injury and protecting synaptic structure and function in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice. MethodForty male APP/PS1 transgenic mice aged four months were randomly divided into a model group and a model + Dihuang Yinzi (0.25 g·kg-1) group, with 20 mice in each group. Forty C57BL/6J mice with the same background and same age were randomly divided into a control group and a control + Dihuang Yinzi (0.25 g·kg-1) group, with 20 mice in each group. The mice in the control + Dihuang Yinzi group and the model + Dihuang Yinzi group were administered with Dihuang Yinzi by gavage, and those in the control group and the model group received an equal volume of sterilized normal saline, once a day for 150 days. The learning and memory ability of mice was tested by the light-dark box test and Y-maze spontaneous alternation test. The content of glutamate (Glu) and glutamine (Gln) was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Long-term potentiation (LTP) assay was used to detect synaptic plasticity in brain tissues. The protein expression levels of excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2), postsynaptic density protein95 (PSD95), and synaptophysin (SYN) in brain tissues were measured by Western blot. Immunofluorescence was used to assess the localization and expression of EAAT2. Colorimetry was performed to detect Na+-K+ ATPase activity in mouse brain tissues. ResultAs compared with the control group, the model group showed shortened residence latency (P<0.01), increased number of errors (P<0.01) in the light-dark box test, reduced spontaneous alternation behaviors (P<0.01), no significant difference in the total number of arm entries in the Y-maze spontaneous alternation test, down-regulated expression of EAAT2, PSD95, and SYN (P<0.01), blunted activity of Na+-K+ ATPase (P<0.01), up-regulated Glu level (P<0.01), down-regulated Gln level (P<0.01), and reduced relative population spike (PS) amplitude and the slope of excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) (P<0.05, P<0.01), while the above experimental indexes were not significantly different in the control + Dihuang Yinzi group. Compared with the model group, the model + Dihuang Yinzi group displayed prolonged residence latency (P<0.05), decreased number of errors (P<0.01) in the light-dark box test, increased spontaneous alternation behaviors (P<0.01), no significant difference in the total number of arm entries in the Y-maze spontaneous alternation test, up-regulated expression of EAAT2, PSD95, and SYN (P<0.01), potentiated activity of Na+-K+ ATPase (P<0.01), reduced Glu level (P<0.01), up-regulated Gln level (P<0.01), and increased PS amplitude and EPSP slope (P<0.01). ConclusionDihuang Yinzi can improve cognitive dysfunction in AD mice by protecting astrocytes, increasing Glu uptake to reduce its abnormal accumulation, and protecting synaptic structure and function.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-964941

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo explore the mechanism of Dihuang Yinzi (DHYZ)in improving astrocyte injury in the brain and regulating energy metabolism and autophagy disorder in Alzheimer's disease (AD) model mice. MethodForty male APP/PS1 transgenic mice aged four months were randomly divided into a model group and a model + DHYZ group (2.5 g·kg-1), with 20 mice in each group. Forty C57BL/6J mice with the same background and same age were randomly divided into a control group and a control + DHYZ group (2.5 g·kg-1), with 20 mice in each group. The mice in the control group and the model group were administered with an equal volume of sterilized normal saline by gavage, once a day for 150 days. Novel object recognition test and step-down test were performed to evaluate the learning and memory ability of mice. The expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in astrocytes was detected by immunofluorescence and Western blot. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to detect adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) in brain tissues of mice, and the data obtained were used to calculate energy charge (EC) levels. The phosphorylation levels of liver kinase B1 (LKB1), adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), UNC-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the expression levels of autophagy-related proteins Beclin-1, microtuble-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ, and p62 in mouse brain were measured by Western blot. ResultCompared with the control group, the model group showed decreased novel object recognition index, shortened retention latency, increased error times in the step-down test, up-regulated protein expression of GFAP, decreased content of ATP, ADP, and EC in brain tissues, elevated AMP , increased levels of p-AMPK, p-LKB1, and p-mTOR, and protein expression of p62 , and down-regulated p-ULK1 level and protein expression of Beclin-1 and LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ(P<0.01), while the above experimental indexes were not significantly different in the control + DHYZ group. Compared with the model group, the model + DHYZ group showed increased novel object recognition index(P<0.05), prolonged retention latency(P<0.01), decreased error times(P<0.01) in the step-down test, reduced protein expression of GFAP(P<0.05), increased content of ATP, ADP, and EC in brain tissues (P<0.05, P<0.01), decreased AMP content(P<0.05), reduced p-AMPK, p-LKB1, and p-mTOR levels and protein expression of p62, and up-regulated p-ULK1 level and protein expression of Beclin-1 and LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ(P<0.01). ConclusionBy protecting astrocytes, DHYZ can improve energy metabolism and autophagy disorder in AD mice to improve the learning and memory ability of model mice.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-964940

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo explore the mechanism of Dihuang Yinzi in improving astrocyte injury and glycolysis in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice via regulating the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway, thereby improving the cognitive function of AD mice. MethodForty male APP/PS1 transgenic mice aged four months were randomly divided into a model group and a model + Dihuang Yinzi (0.25 g·kg-1) group, with 20 mice in each group. Forty C57BL/6J mice with the same background and same age were randomly divided into a control group and a control + Dihuang Yinzi (0.25 g·kg-1) group, with 20 mice in each group. The mice in the control + Dihuang Yinzi group and the model + Dihuang Yinzi group were administered with Dihuang Yinzi by gavage, and those in the control group and the model group received an equal volume of sterilized normal saline, once a day for 150 days. Morris water maze test was performed to test the ability of navigation and space exploration of mice. The protein expression of p-PI3K, PI3K, p-Akt, Akt, phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1), and aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family member B2 (ALDH3B2) in mouse brain tissues was measured by Western blot. An immunofluorescence assay was performed to detect astrocyte morphology and the expression level of ALDH3B2. ResultAs compared with the control group, the model group showed prolonged escape latency during the 2nd to 5th days of the location-based navigation (P<0.05, P<0.01), reduced number of times crossing the target area of the platform, shortened residence time in the target quadrant (P<0.05, P<0.01), prolonged residence time in the opposite quadrant (P<0.05), increased surface area of the cell body and total length of cell protrusions of astrocytes (P<0.05, P<0.01), and down-regulated protein expression of p-PI3K, p-Akt, ALDH3B2, and PFK-1 (P<0.01), while the above experimental indexes were not significantly different in the control + Dihuang Yinzi group. Compared with the model group, the model + Dihuang Yinzi group showed shortened escape latency of APP/PS1 mice during the 2nd to 5th days of the location-based navigation (P<0.05, P<0.01), increased number of times crossing the platform, prolonged target quadrant residence time (P<0.05, P<0.01), shortened residence time in the opposite quadrant (P<0.05), reduced surface area of the cell body and total length of cell protrusions of astrocytes (P<0.05), and up-regulated protein expression of p-PI3K, p-Akt, ALDH3B2, and PFK-1 (P<0.01). ConclusionDihuang Yinzi can improve the learning and memory ability of AD mice by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and up-regulating the protein expression of PFK-1 and ALDH3B2 to protect against astrocyte injury in brain tissues and improve glycolysis.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-964939

ABSTRACT

Astrocytes are important nerve cells in the central nervous system (CNS), which mainly play a key role in nutrition and support. Astrocytes and neurons undergo close energy coupling and substance coupling, which are closely related and interact with each other. In recent years, many studies have shown that the astrocyte-neuron coupling imbalance plays a central role in the occurrence and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and serves as an important therapeutic target receiving increasing attention. According to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory, the main pathogenesis of AD is kidney deficiency and marrow inadequacy, and in clinical medication, kidney-tonifying and marrow-filling TCM prescriptions are often employed with satisfactory results achieved. As reported, many kidney-tonifying and marrow-filling prescriptions exhibit regulatory and protective effects on the imbalance of astrocyte-neuron coupling, suggesting that the effect of kidney-tonifying and marrow-filling prescriptions in treating AD may have some internal relationship with its regulation of the imbalance of astrocyte-neuron coupling. This article reviewed the underlying internal relationship between the imbalance of astrocyte-neuron coupling and the pathogenesis of kidney deficiency and marrow inadequacy in AD and the research progress in the intervention mechanism of TCM for tonifying the kidney and filling the marrow.

19.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2166-2170, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936580

ABSTRACT

A randomized, open, fasting, single dose, two sequence, two cycle and double cross administration trial design was adopted. Took the test or reference efavirenz tablets of 200 mg orally in a single time. The plasma concentration of efavirenz in healthy subjects was determined by LC-MS/MS. WinNonLin8.1 software was used to calculate the main pharmacokinetic parameters of efavirenz and to evaluate the bioequivalence. The main pharmacokinetic parameters within 72 h: tmax were 2.574 ± 0.871 and 2.808 ± 0.912 h; Cmax were 1 586.732 ± 424.538 and 1 549.518 ± 366.086 ng·mL-1; AUC0-72 h were 28 464.672 ± 5 682.518 and 27 828.826 ± 5 082.487 h·ng·mL-1; t1/2 were 63.524 ± 26.037 and 58.748 ± 20.950 h; λz were 0.013 ± 0.006 and 0.013 ± 0.005 h-1. The main bioequivalence indicators were as follows: The 90% confidence interval of Cmax was 95.62%-107.15%, and the geometric mean ratio was 101.22%; The 90% confidence interval of AUC0-72 h was 100.43%-104.38%, and the geometric mean ratio was 102.38%. The results showed that the main pharmacokinetic parameters of the test drug and the reference drug were similar, and the two preparations had bioequivalence. This human bioequivalence clinical study was approved by the drug clinical trials ethics committee of the Second Hospital of Anhui Medical University (ethics approval No.: YW2021-110).

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941016

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effects of isobavachalcone (IBC) on cell death of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and explore the possible mechanism.@*METHODS@#MCF-7 cells were treated with different concentrations of IBC, and the changes in cell proliferation were assessed using MTT assay. Apoptosis of MCF-7 cells following treatment with 10, 20, and 40 μmol/L IBC was analyzed using flow cytometry with annexin V-FITC/PI double staining and fluorescence microscopy, and the expressions of apoptosis- and autophagy-related proteins (Bax, Bcl-2, Akt, p-Akt, p62, and LC3) were detected with Western blotting. Electron microscopy was used to observe the changes in submicrostructure of the cells following treatment with 40 μmol/L IBC. JC-1 assay kit, ATP assay kit, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) kit were used to determine the effect of IBC on mitochondrial function of the cells.@*RESULTS@#MTT assay showed that IBC significantly inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, with IC50 values of 38.46, 31.31, and 28.26 μmol/L at 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. IBC also concentration-dependently induced apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. IBC-induced cell death was inhibited by z-VAD-fmk, a caspase inhibitor (P < 0.05), but not by the necroptosis inhibitor necrostatin-1 (Nec-1). Western blotting showed that IBC-induced MCF-7 cell apoptosis by increasing Bax expression and down-regulating the expressions of Bcl-2, Akt and p-Akt-473 (all P < 0.05). With the increase of IBC concentration, the expression of autophagy-related protein p62 and the LC3-II/I ratio increased progressively. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of autophagic bodies in IBC-treated MCF-7 cells. IBC treatment also resulted in decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular ATP level and increased ROS accumulation in MCF-7 cells (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#IBC is capable of inducing both apoptosis and autophagy in MCF-7 cells, suggesting the potential value of IBC as a lead compound in the development of anti-breast cancer agents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenosine Triphosphate , Cell Death , Chalcones , MCF-7 Cells , Neoplasms , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein
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