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1.
Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 588-597, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-870174

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can cause great damage to the elderly patients and lead to high mortality. The clinical presentations and auxiliary examinations of the elderly patients with COVID-19 are atypical, due to the physiological ageing deterioration and basal pathological state. The treatment strategy for the elderly patients has its own characteristics and treatment protocol should be considered accordingly. To improve the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of COVID-19 in the elderly, the Expert Committee of Geriatric Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, China Society of Geriatrics established the "Expert consensus for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 in the elderly" . We focused on the clinical characteristics and key points for better treatment and prevention of COVID-19 in the elderly. (1) For diagnosis, atypical clinical presentation of COVID-19 in the elderly should be emphasized, which may be complicated by underlying disease. (2) For treatment, strategy of multiple disciplinary team (mainly the respiratory and critical care medicine) should be adopted and multiple systemic functions should be considered. (3) For prevention, health care model about integrated management of acute and chronic diseases, in and out of hospital should be applied.

2.
Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 859-864, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-869490

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the clinical characteristics of hospitalized elderly patients with varying degrees of corona virus disease 2019(COVID-19), hoping to help improve the understanding and management of COVID-19.Methods:A total of 70 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with complete clinical data collected between February 7, 2020 and April 6, 2020 were enrolled.Epidemiological features, underlying conditions, clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes were analyzed.Patients were divided into the elderly group and the non-elderly group based on age and were also divide into the normal group, the severe group and the critical group based on severity.Early warning indicators of severe disease were compared and analyzed.Results:Seventy hospitalized COVID-19 patients aged from 28-92 years, with an average age of 59.2 years.Epidemiological characteristics of the patients were mainly clusters of fever within 14 days of onset, with 13(18.57%)patients with diabetes, 22(31.43%)with hypertension, 5(7.1%)with coronary heart disease and 10(14.29%)with malignant tumor.Patients with more than 2 comorbidity diseases had a poor prognosis, characterized by long hospital stays, recurrent complications and fatal complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS), sepsis and death.In this study, 4 patients died.Hospital stays were prolonged, peripheral blood neutrophil count increased, lymphocyte count decreased, and levels of transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein and interleukin(IL)-6 were elevated with increasing severity of COVID-19( P<0.01). Conclusions:People of all ages are susceptible to COVID-19.Clinical warning signs of exacerbation for the common type become more prominent with increasing severity of COVID-19.

3.
Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 146-150, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-505468

ABSTRACT

Objectives To investigate the incidence rate of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome(ACOS)in elderly male patients with stable COPD by following-up,and to explore the characteristics and clinical significance of pulmonary function for ACOS.Methods According to GOLD and Spain's guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of COPD,we screened ACOS patients in 299 elderly male patients with stable COPD by following up in Beijing Hospital between 2003 and 2014.All patients were divided into 2 groups of 51 ACOS patients and 248 non-ACOS patients with COPD.All patients underwent pulmonary function tests and bronchial dilation test in the stable condition.The differences in pulmonary functions were compared between stable ACOS patients and non-ACOS patients with COPD.Results Among 299 elderly male patients with stable COPD,ACOS patients accounted for 17.1 % (51/299).Compared with nonACOS patients with stable COPD,ACOS patients had significantly lower baseline values in forced expiratory volume in 1 seconds(FEV1) [(61.0 ± 14.5) % pred vs.(74.4 ± 20.0) % pred],in forced expiratory volume in 3 seconds(FEV3) [(71.6± 14.3)% pred vs.(82.7± 19.6)% pred]and in forced vital capacity(FVC) [(84.6 ± 16.4)% pred vs.(93.8 ± 20.6)% pred],and also had significantly higher values in residual volume(RV)[(139.4±55.8)% pred vs.(118.8±46.6)% pred]and in RV/total lung capacity(TLC) [(52.7±10.7)% pred vs.(48.1±10.9)% pred],all P<0.05.After bronchodilation test,there was no significant difference in FEV1,FEV3 and FVC between the two groups(all P>0.05).Patients with stable ACOS had lower value in forced expiratory flow rat (FEF25%±75%)than those with non-ACOS in baseline [FEF25%-75% % pred(26.8± 11.5) % vs.(36.1 ±17.5) % (P<0.05)],and the improvement of small airway function was significantly better in ACOS patients than in non-ACOS patients after bronchodilation test (P<0.05).Conclusions ACOS is very common in the elderly patients with COPD,stable ACOS patients have lower time vital capacity as compared with non-ACOS patients with stable COPD.But after bronchodilation test,the two groups have similar ventilation function,and the small airway function in ACOS patients improves more significantly.The ACOS patients have unique characteristics of pulmonary functions and suitable treatment may improve the prognosis.

4.
Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 417-421, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-608236

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the evolution of nonspecific manifestations of pulmonary function in elderly people.Methods Retrospective analysis of the data of nonspecific pulmonary function(NSPF) on the initial PF testing in elderly people from the same PFT apparatus in Beijing Hospital were collected from January 2004 to December 2012.All the patients with complete clinical data and reexamination at least one time were enrolled into this analysis.NSPF was defined as normal FEV1/FVC and TLC combined with a decreased FEV1 or FVC or both.All the patients with complete clinical data were divided into blocking group,restricted group,NFSP group and normal group according to their PF.The comparison was performed among these groups.Kaplan-Meier was used for analysis of the turnover and outcome of elderly NSPF patients,log-rank test was used for comparing the difference of turnover and outcome and COX regression was used for analyzing single and multiple factors of different turnover and outcome.Results Overall 59 patients were diagnosed as NSPF,with male:female ratio of 52:7,the average age of(71.8 ± 8.8)years and at a median follow-up of 4 years.The statistically significant differences in age,sex,body mass index(BMI),smoking status,both the clinical manifestations and chest CT performance at first visit and during the following-up were not found among the groups(all P >0.05).The pulmonary functions of NSPF patients were transformed into an obstructive pattern(19.6 %),into a restrictive pattern(7.6 %)and into a normal pattern(8.8 %) in 4 years cumulative incidence rate,with statistically significant in differences(x2 =7.411,P =0.024).An invariant pulmonary function in NSPF patients accounted for 64.0% in the most,and the second was obstructive ventilation function disability.Monomial and multinomial Cox regression analysis showed that emphysema and bulla in the initial CT scan was the predictor of the change to the obstructive pattern from NSPF during follow-up(HR=4.325,P=0.045),age was the predictor of the change to the restrictive pattern(HR=1.143,P=0.020).And pleural thickening and disappearing of pleural effusion were the predictor of change to the normal pattern (HR =8.889,P =0.018) respectively.Conclusions Most NSPF in elderly people could exist consistently.Obstructive pattern is the maximal likelihood of NSPF changing to the other pattern.Emphysema and bulla in the initial CT scan is the predictor of the obstructive pattern.The change is related with emphysema and bulla in the initial CT scan.

5.
Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 428-432, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-608230

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the prevalence rate and risk factors for aspiration pneumonia in elderly inpatients,and to identify a high-risk population for aspiration pneumonia.Methods Totally 398 inpatients aged ≥ 60 years in Beijing Hospital from April 2014 to April 2015 were selected.A questionnaire survey was performed for aspiration risk factors,including gender,age,smoking and drinking history,swallowing function,basal diseases,medication history,activities of daily living(ADL),occurrence of aspiration pneumonia over the past year.The patients were divided into aspiration pneumonia group and non-aspiration pneumonia group,and the prevalence rate and risk factors for aspiration pneumonia were studied.Results 364 cases with complete data were collected,and 14.3% (52/364)were identified definitively as aspiration pneumonia over the past year.The ADL score was (77.0± 33.9) scales in aspiration pneumonia group,and (88.0 ± 22.2) scales in non-aspiration pneumonia group,with statistically significant difference (P< 0.05).The incidence rate of aspiration pneumonia was increased along with the increase of the age of patients.Risk factors for aspiration pneumonia were different in different age group.The proportion of patients aged 60-69,70-79 and over 80 years were 23.1% (12 cases),36.5% (19 cases),40.4% (23 cases)in the aspiration pneumonia group,respectively.Under the condition of a propensity score-matched case-control pair design on 104 subjects with versus without aspiration pneumonia,the logistic regression analysis showed that smoking history,coronary heart disease,Parkinson's disease,dementia,chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD),gastro-esophageal reflux disease(GERD),long-term uses of theophylline,calcium antagonists,nitrates,diazepam,antidepressants,anti-Parkinson drugs were the risk factors for aspiration pneumonia in elderly(all P<0.05).Conclusions Smoking history,basal diseases and medication history are associated with the incidence rate of aspiration pneumonia in elderly.Assessment of these risk factors for aspiration pneumonia should be emphasized,and preventive measures should be considered conscientiously to lower the incidence rate of aspiration pneumonia in elderly.

6.
Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 256-259, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-488676

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the clinical phenotype of airways disease in elderly patients using hierarchical cluster analysis.Methods A total of 67 elderly patients with respiratory symptoms were enrolled in a prospective study.Demographic and clinical data,such as respiratory symptoms,cumulative tobacco cigarette consumption,acute exacerbation,atopic symptoms and peak flow diary were collected.Pulmonary function tests,blood tests (total serum IgE level and blood eosinophil level) were performed in each patient during the stable stage.Then patients with different clinical phenotype were identified by hierarchical cluster analysis.Results Four clusters were identified with the following characteristics by hierarchical cluster analysis:cluster 1,atopic patients with no smoking,normal lung function,but increased total serum IgE levels and asthma symptom;cluster 2,patients with no smoking and normal pulmonary function with wheezing but without chronic cough;cluster 3,patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and smoking,severe airflow limitation and poor quality of life;cluster 4,patients with asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome and smoking,airflow limitation and increased total serum IgE levels.The forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) / forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio,FEV1/predicted value,rate of FEV1 change,maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF)/ predicted value,the diffusion lung capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO)/alveolar volume (VA)/predicted value,residual volume (RV)/ predicted value,total serum Ig E levels,cumulative tobacco cigarette consumption,the St.George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score had significant differences in patients before versus after treatment (all P<0.05 or P<0.01).Conclusions Based on hierarchical cluster analysis,distinct clinical phenotypes of airways disease in elderly patients can be identified.Conclusions With patients having asthma or COPD alone,patients with Asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) always experience a more rapid decline in lung function and frequent exacerbations,having poor health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) outcomes,which deserve our high attention.

7.
Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 679-683, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-502473

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the distinct clinical phenotype of chronic airway diseases by hierarchical cluster analysis and two-step cluster analysis.Methods A population sample of adult patients in Donghuamen community,Dongcheng district and Qinghe community,Haidian district,Beijing from April 2012 to January 2015,who had wheeze within the last 12 months,underwent detailed investigation,including a clinical questionnaire,pulmonary function tests,total serum IgE levels,blood eosinophil level and a peak flow diary.Nine variables were chosen as evaluating parameters,including pre-salbutamol forced expired volume in one second(FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio,pre-salbutamol FEV1,percentage of post-salbutamol change in FEV1,residual capacity,diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide/alveolar volume adjusted for haemoglobin level,peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability,serum IgE level,cumulative tobacco cigarette consumption (pack-years) and respiratory symptoms (cough and expectoration).Subjects' different clinical phenotype by hierarchical cluster analysis and two-step cluster analysis was identified.Results (1) Four clusters were identified by hierarchical cluster analysis.Cluster 1 was chronic bronchitis in smokers with normal pulmonary function.Cluster 2 was chronic bronchitis or mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with mild airflow limitation.Cluster 3 included COPD patients with heavy smoking,poor quality of life and severe airflow limitation.Cluster 4 recognized atopic patients with mild airflow limitation,elevated serum IgE and clinical features of asthma.Significant differences were revealed regarding pre-salbutamol FEV1/FVC%,pre-salbutamol FEV1% pred,postsalbutamol change in FEV1 %,maximal mid-expiratory flow curve (MMEF)% pred,carbon monoxide diffusing capacity per liter of alveolar(DLCO)/(VA)% pred,residual volume(RV)% pred,total serum IgE level,smoking history (pack-years),St.George' s respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ) score,acute exacerbation in the past one year,PEF variability and allergic dermatitis (P < 0.05).(2) Four clusters were also identified by two-step cluster analysis as followings,cluster 1,COPD patients with moderate to severe airflow limitation;cluster 2,asthma and COPD patients with heavy smoking,airflow limitation and increased airways reversibility;cluster 3,patients having less smoking and normal pulmonary function with wheezing but no chronic cough;cluster 4,chronic bronchitis patients with normal pulmonary function and chronic cough.Significant differences were revealed regarding gender distribution,respiratory symptoms,pre-salbutamol FEV1/FVC%,pre-salbutamol FEV1 % pred,post-salbutamol change in FEV1 %,MMEF% pred,DLCO/VA% pred,RV% pred,PEF variability,total serum IgE level,cumulative tobacco cigarette consumption (pack-years),and SGRQ score (P < 0.05).Conclusion By different cluster analyses,distinct clinical phenotypes of chronic airway diseases are identified.Thus,individualized treatments may guide doctors to provide based on different phenotypes.

8.
Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 966-971, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-482876

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the characteristics of clinical features,diagnosis,treatment and prognosis in acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP) patients.Methods We described an 80-year-old woman who was diagnosed with AFOP and got better after treatment with glucocorticoids.Clinical data of 51 patients which have been published in literatures in China and abroad were retrospectively analyzed.The differences in characteristics of clinical features were compared between the elderly and non-elderly patients.Results The case reported herein,who was a 80-year-old female with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA),presented with fever,dry cough and progressive dyspnea.Chest CT scan showed bilateral multiple patchy consolidation.CT-guided needle aspiration was performed and the pathological examination finding was consistent with AFOP.The patient was treated with oral methylprednisolone and experienced a significant improvement in symptoms and imaging manifestations.But she presented with deterioration with relapsing clinical symptoms when she discontinued corticosteroid treatment by herself,and the clinical symptoms were improved by retreatment.Clinical data of 51 reported cases with AFOP including 27 males and 24 females aged 38 d to 80 years were enrolled and analyzed in the study.Patients aged 60 years and over accounted for 47.1% (24 cases).No risk or predisposing factor was found in most of cases.Autoimmune diseases were the most common combined diseases in AFOP patients.The top three symptoms were dyspnea (80.4%,41 cases),cough (64.7%,33 cases) and fever (52.9%,27 cases).The incidence of dyspnea was lower in elderly patients than in non-elderly patients [66.7% (16/24) vs.92.6% (25/27),P<0.05],and ground glass opacity in the chest image was also less in elderly patients than in non-elderly patients (P<0.05).15 patients (29.4%) got definitive diagnosis by minimally invasive procedures including percutaneous lung puncture biopsy or transbronchial lung biopsy.Corticosteroids were the main drug treatment,and 39 cases (76.5 %) received antibacterial drugs.The mortality rate of AFOP was 37.3% (15 cases).The average time from symptom onset to final diagnosis was shorter in dead cases than in recovered patients (19 days vs.40 days,P<0.05).The rate of using mechanical ventilation was higher in dead cases than in recovered patients [57.9 % (11/19) vs.9.4% (3/32),P<0.05].Conclusions There are no specific clinical and imaging features in AFOP,which is easily misdiagnosed as infectious diseases.AFOP is more common in elderly patients.Dyspnea and other symptoms can easily be ignored,and minimally invasive biopsy and pathological examination findings is helpful for diagnosis.The mortality rate of AFOP is high,and insufficient course of therapy is associated with the increased risk of AFOP relapse.Rapid progression of disease and the invasive mechanical ventilation predispose poor outcomes.

9.
Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 270-273, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-469833

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare and analyze clinical and pathological data of autopsyconfirmed invasive fungal disease (IFD) in elderly patients in order to achieve a better understanding of the clinical and pathological characteristics of IFD.Methods A total of 18 cases of IFD were diagnosed by autopsy from 1984 to 2014 at Beijing Hospital.Clinical and pathological data of IFD,including risk factors,clinical manifestation,X-ray and pathological characteristics,were analyzed retrospectively.Results The 18 cases were all male wvith an average age of (83.7±7.2) years and each patient had at least one risk factor for IFD.Of them,14 patients (77.8%) suffered malignancies of various origins.With respect to the pathogens,Mucor (6 cases) was the most common one,followed by Aspergilla (4 cases),Mycotoruloides (4 cases) and Cryptococci (2 cases).The lung was the most frequently implicated organ wvith 13 cases (72.2%),followed by the gastrointestinal tract.Vascular erosion was an important pathological characteristic of fungal infection,whose presentations included vasculitis,hemorrhage and embolism in tissues and organs.14 patients died from fungal infection-related causes,of which.massive hemorrhage as a result of vascular erosion by fungal infection was responsible for four patients' deaths.Conclusions Malignancies are an important risk factor for invasive fungal disease in elderly patients.Vascular erosion is a significant character of fungal infection.

10.
Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 129-133, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-443314

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare clinical features,pulmonary functions,chest imaging and prognosis between combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema syndrome (CPFE) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis(IPF) without emphysematous changes in elderly patients.Methods 88 elderly IPF patients in Beijing hospital from January 2000 to October 2012 were divided into CPFE (n=30) and IPF (n =58) groups according to the CT imaging.Clinical features,blood gas analysis,pulmonary function,chest CT and survival time were compared between the two groups.Results 30 CPFE patients with the mean age of(75.5 ±7.6) years and 58 IPF patients without emphysema with the mean age of(73.7±6.8) years were enrolled.The proportions of male patients,smoking history and mortality were higher in CPFE patients than in IPF group(86.7% vs.63.8%,28 vs.36,76.7% vs.43.1%,x2 =5.09,9.74,8.98,P<0.05 or 0.01).CPFE patients had a higher force vital capacity(FVC) and total lung capacity(TLC) as compared with IPF group [(2.6±0.9) L vs.(2.1± 0.5) L,(5.4±1.9) L vs.(4.4±1.1) L,t=2.69,2.35,P<0.01 or 0.05].There were no significant differences in forced expiratory volume in one second(FEV1) and the diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide(DLCO) between the two groups.The main type of emphysema by HRCT scan were centrilobular emphysema in CPFE patients.There were lower median survival time in CPFE group than in IPF group [(3.0±0.2) years vs.(4.0±1.0) years,x2=4.50,P<0.05].Conclusions The majority of elderly CPFE patients are males and smokers.The lung volume is increased in elderly CPFE patients as compared with IPF patients.Centrilobular emphysema is the primary type in CPFE patients.The prognosis is worse in elderly CPFE patients than in IPF patients.

11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1201-1205, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-322302

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common infectious disease throughout the world and the incidence continues to grow as the population ages. Aspiration is an important pathogenic mechanism for pneumonia in the elderly and the management of patients with community-acquired pneumonia with aspiration factors is a major medical problem. Our study aimed to assess whether moxifloxacin in comparison to levofloxacin plus metronidazole are effective and safe in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia with aspiration factors.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>In this prospective, multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled trial, 77 patients with mild-to-moderate community-acquired pneumonia with aspiration factors were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive moxifloxacin or levofloxacin plus metronidazole. The primary efficacy variables were clinical outcomes in evaluable patients at a follow-up visit 7 to 14 days after the end of therapy.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Seven days after the end of therapy a clinical cure was achieved for 76.7% (23 of 37) of efficacy-evaluable patients in the moxifloxacin group and 51.7% (15 of 40) of patients in the levofloxacin plus metronidazole group. There was a significant difference between the two groups (χ(2) = 4.002, P < 0.05). Bacteriological success rates were similar in the moxifloxacin group (93.3%) and levofloxacin plus metronidazole group (96.4%), there was no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The overall adverse event rate was 10.8% (4/37) in the moxifloxacin group versus 17.5% (7/40) in the levofloxacin plus metronidazole group, there was no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). No serious adverse events were observed.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Moxifloxacin is effective and safe for treatment of community-acquired pneumonia with aspiration factors. And the regimen of moxifloxacin monotherapy is more convenient compared with levofloxacin plus metronidazole.</p>


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Community-Acquired Infections , Drug Therapy , Fluoroquinolones , Therapeutic Uses , Levofloxacin , Therapeutic Uses , Metronidazole , Therapeutic Uses , Pneumonia , Drug Therapy , Prospective Studies
12.
Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 484-487, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-446755

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1)on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced apoptosis of human alveolar epithelial cell (AECs).Methods The expression levels of SIRT1 protein were examined by Western Blotting in A549 cells that were treated with CSE at different concentrations.The impairment models of A549 cells induced by CSE were established.The concentration of CSE was 20.0% and the treatment time of CSE was 24 hours.A549 cells were pretreated with 20 μmol/L resveratrol(Res)or 5 mmol/L nicotinamide (NAM) for 2 h before CSE treatment.The protein levels of SIRT1,Bax and Bcl2 were further explored by Western blotting.The proportion of apoptotic A549 cells was measured using MTT.Results The expression of SIRT1 was reduced after treatment with CSE in a dose-dependent manner(P<0.05).Compared with the control group,the group of CSE treatment with 2.5%,5.0%,10.0%,20.0%and 40.0% CSE for 24h showed that the expression of SIRT1 in A549 cells was decreased by 25.6%(P<0.05),35.2%(P<0.05),38.7% (P<0.05),57.9% (P<0.05)and 64.0%(all P<0.05)separately; that A549 cell viability was decreased in a dose-dependent manner; and that A549 cell viability was decreased by 10.2%(t=2.035,P<0.05),18.4%(t=4.269,P<0.05),27.7% (t=5.963,P<0.05),59.0%(t=21.140,P<0.05)and 88.1%(t=58.827,P<0.05)separately.CSE plus 20 μmol/L Res pretreatment reversed the expression levels of SIRT1,Bax and Bcl2 in A549 cells (all P<0.05)and reduced the apoptosis of A549 cells.The effects of CSE on inhibiting SIRT1 pathways were aggravated by NAM (an inhibitor of SIRT1) in the A549 cells (P< 0.05).Conclusions SIRT1 plays important role in regulating the apoptosis of human alveolar epithelial A549cell induced by CSE.SIRT1 may inhibit apoptosis by up-regulating Bcl2 expression and downregulating Bax expression,which has a protective effect on A549 cells apoptosis induced by CSE.

13.
Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 1069-1072, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-442787

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the diagnosis and treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease with severe renal insufficiency,and to provide a basis for improving the clinical diagnosis and treatment of MAC lung disease with severe renal insufficiency.Methods Clinical data of an elderly patient with MAC lung disease confirmed by induced sputum culture and complicated with chronic kidney disease (CKD 4) was reported.The related literatures at home and abroad were reviewed.Results A male patient aged 80 years with poor nutrition was suffering from progressive weight loss,exhaustion and night sweats.His weight was only 43-44 Kg.Chest CT showed that multiple small nodules,small spot pieces of shadow and ground glass shadows in bilateral lung tissues.PET/CT indicated that spot pieces and nodules with metabolic activity in high performance.Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) inspection was negative.MAC was identified by induced sputum culture through high permeability brine induced sputum.It was difficult to choose drugs for the treatment of MAC lung disease due to his poor kidney function [GFR of left kidney:9.0 ml /min,GFR of right kidney:18.8 ml/min].Conventional anti-mycobacterium drugs showed a low to high resistance to MAC.Moxifloxacin was discontinued for renal insufficiency.His condition was stable after choosing trimodality therapy including azithromycin 0.25 g/d tiw,rifapentine 0.3 g/d biw,ethambutol 0.375 g /d tiw and the joining immunotherapy.Conclusions PET/ CT is not useful in identifying tuberculosis and MAC lung disease.The treatment of MAC lung disease is difficult in elderly patients with severe renal insufficiency and low weight.Individual therapy combined with immunotherapy and improving the nutrition state is a good choice for the treatment of MAC lung disease in elderly patients with severe renal insufficiency.The anti-MAC drugs should be carefully selected and the adverse reactions should be closely observed in order to obtain the satisfactory clinical results.

14.
Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 50-54, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-432220

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effects,safety and economic cost of long-term home noninvasive ventilation (NIV) therapy in elderly patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure.Methods A total of 128 elderly patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure were randomly assigned to two groups:the NIV group (n=66) with conventional therapy in addition to long-term home NIV therapy,and the control group (n=62) with conventional therapy alone.Compared were parameters before and after two year follow up,which included dyspnea grade,scale for accessory muscle use,scoring for emotional disorders,mean pulmonary pressure (mPAP) by electrocardiography,arterial blood gas,the times of pulmonary infection and hospitalization rates,the duration of hospitalization invasive ventilation,the duration of in RICU and in hospital stay,tracheal intubation rates and mortality.The medical cost was calculated.Results After two years,the differences in the dyspnea grade,scale for accessory muscle use,anxiety scores,depression scores,mPAP,arterial PaCO2 and PaO2,hospitalization rates,the times of pulmonary infection,the days of hospitalization for exacerbation in the home NIV group [2.2± 0.2,2.4 ± 0.3,4 ± 1,5.3 ± 1.2,(36.6±5.2)mm Hg,(50.2±4.5)mm Hg,(63.5±4.2)mm Hg,(1.3±0.2) times/year,(2.4±0.2) times/year,(15.8 ± 4.4) days/times] were statistically significant compared to the control group [4.1±0.2,4.9±0.5,12±3,11.3±1.6,(45.2±5.2)mm Hg,(67.3±4.5) mm Hg,(48.3±4.3)mm Hg,(5.4±0.4)times/year,(8.9 ±0.3) times/year,(38.5± 6.3) days/times] (all P<0.01).The duration of invasive ventilation,the days in RICU and in hospital stay,tracheal intubation rates on admission to the hospital were significantly decreased in the home NIV group [(8.2 ± 2.2)days,(9.6±3.1) days,(15.8±4.4) days,(2±0.2) times/two years],as compared with the control group [(15.8±3.4) days,(18.6±4.4)days,(38.5±6.3)days,(8.0±0.8) times/two years].The mortality was decreased significantly in the home NIV group (3.0 %)compared with the control group (29.0%) (P<0.05).The medical cost in two years was significant lower in the home NIV group [(6.4 ± 0.5) thousand yuan],compared with the control group (18.4 ±0.6) thousand yuan (P<0.01).Conclusions Long-term home NIV therapy in patients with chronic hypercapinc respiratory failure is effective,safe and can decrease the mortality and medical cost.

15.
Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 154-157, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-430229

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the therapeutic effects and complications of modified facial mask for non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in elderly patients with respiratory failure.Methods A total of 132 elderly patients(107 males and 25 female,aged 78.5±8.6 years) treated with NIV from February 2008 to May 2011 were randomized into two groups:modified facial mask(group A,n=68,56 males and 12 females,aged 78.8±22.2 years) and control facial mask(group B,n=64,64 males and 13 females,aged 76.6±20.4 years).Duration of NIV,time in RICU(respiratory intensive care unit),length of hospital stay,risk for hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP),risk for invasive ventilation,cure rates,in-hospital mortality,NIV failure rate and cost were compared between the two groups.The complications of NIV,such as oropharyngeal dryness,skin damage of face and nose,abdominal bloating,gas leakage from mask were also compared between the two groups.Results Compared with group B,duration of NIV(12.2±2.3 d vs.18.4±3.6d),time in RICU(7.3±3.2d vs.14.6t5.4d),length of in hospital stay(16.6±4.2d vs.28.2±6.2)d,and cost(2.23±0.12 ten thousand yuan vs.4.23± 0.24 ten thousand yua) in group A were significantly decreased(t=9.72,14.91,13.08,10.81 respectively,all P<0.05).The risk for invasive ventilation [2.9% (2 cases) vs.43.8%(28 cases)],NIV failure rate [5.9% (4 cases) vs.12.5% (28 cases)] were also decreased in group A compared with group B(x2 =31.26,25.74,both P<0.05).Compared with group B,The complications of NIV such as skin damage of face and nose[4.4% (3 cases) vs.37.5% (24 cases)],abdominal bloating [2.9% (2 cases) vs.28.1% (18 cases)],gas leakage from mask [8.8 % (6 cases)vs.50%(32 cases)] in group A were significantly decreased(x2 =31.26,25.74,all P<0.05).Conclusions Modified facial mask for NIV is effective in the treatment of elderly patients with respiratory failure.The complications and in-hospital mortality are reduced with the application of modified facial mask for NIV and it is highly tolerated by patients.Modified facial mask for NIV is the first choice in the treatment in elderly patients with respiratory failure.

16.
Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 229-232, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-418434

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the diagnosis and treatment of non traumatic chylothorax in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and to understand the differences in diagnosis and treatment between chylothorax and pseudochylothorax. Methods The patient aged 83 years was confrimed as chylothorax and NHL after lymph node biopsy.We reviewed literatures about chylothorax in NHL to analyse the possible mechanism,its diagnosis and treatment. Results The patient was sufferring from unilateral chylothorax diagnosed as true chylothorax by thoracentesis,and progressed to bilateral chylothorax after 1 year.PET/CT examination showed intrathoracic and right cervical lymph nodes enlargement and an increasing metabolic activity.Cervical lymph node biopsy revealed diffuse large B cell type non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.The patient refused any other treatment except the diet therapy and died after 19 months.We searched 19 cases with NHL chylothorax in associated literatures about the treatments including radiotherapy (6/6 improved),chemotherapy (6/11 improved),thoracic duct ligation (I/1 improved),thoracic duct ligation and drug pleurodesis(1/1 improved). Conclusions PET/CT is useful in finding the hidden clues of chylothorax in NHL.There is no standard mangement for NHL chylothorax and the treatment must be individualized. The overall prognosis of NHL chylothorax is similar to that of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and the patient needs early diagnosis and general treatment in order to prolong the survival time.

17.
Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 378-381, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-389704

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore whether the patients aged over 65 years with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) are able to tolerate continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)while compared with patients aged less than 65 years.And to investigate the factors that affect compliance to CPAP in OSAHS patients.Methods A total of 147 OSAHS patients diagnosed with overnight polysomnography (PSG) were divided into two groups:≥65 years old group (n=46),<65 years old group (n = 101 ).Clinical data and PSG parameters were included in a computerized database.The pressure level of CPAP,the duration of respirator use were followed up.Results Compared with <65 years old group,there were higher prevalences of COPD (16% vs.4%,P=0.02),cardiovascular disease (23% vs.10%,P=0.04),apnea (43% vs.26%,P=0.03),regular alcohol consumption (61% vs.38%,P=0.007) and lower incidence of snoring (31% vs.54%,P= 0.03),shorter total sleeping time (378 min vs.423 min,P=0.001),longer wake after sleep onset periods (162 min vs.115 min,P=0.004),lower sleep efficiency (69% vs.77%,P<0.001),higher percentage of stage 1 sleep (29% vs.20%,P=0.001),lower percentage of stage 3-4 sleep (6% vs.9%,P=0.016) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (12% vs.15%,P=0.001) in ≥65 years old group.The percentages of acceptance to CPAP at 3 months,6 months,1 year,2 years and 3 years were 91%,89%,84%,82% and 82% respectively in ≥65 years old group,and were 92%,86%,81%,72% and 67% in <65 years old group.Average use time of CPAP were (5.1±1.5) h/night in ≥65 years old group,and were (3.9±1.2) h/night in <65 years old group (P=0.022).By analysis of multivariate logistic regression,a high pressure CPAP was associated with higher objective CPAP compliance in OSAHS patients.Conclusions Compliance to CPAP in older OSAHS patients is not decreased when compared to younger adults.A high CPAP pressure is the only significant independent predictor of better CPAP compliance.

18.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 464-469, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-323849

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE</b>The expression of TSLC1 is downregulated or abrogated in many kinds of tumors, and its downregulation is highly associated with DNA hypermethlyation. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between TSLC1 silencing and DNA methylation of its promoter region in lung cancer cells.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>We detected the expression pattern of TSLC1 in human normal lung tissue and three lung cancer cell lines (A549, NCI-H446 and Calu-3) by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Real-time PCR. Then we detected the status of DNA methylation in TSLC1 promoter region with bisulfite sequencing in above normal lung tissue and lung cancer cell lines. After treatment of above cell lines with the inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC), we detected the expression change of TSLC1 by Real-time PCR before and after the treatment of 5-Aza-dC.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>There was no methylation in TSLC1 promoter region in normal lung tissue and A549 cell line in which TSLC1 expressed; while there was DNA hypermethylation in TSLC1 promoter region in NCI-H446 and Calu-3 cell lines in which TSLC1 was abrogated, also the expression of TSLC1 in NCI-H446 and Calu-3 cell lines could be restored after treatment of 5-Aza-dC.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The silencing of TSLC1 in lung cancer cells is due to the hypermethylation of its promoter region.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Azacitidine , Pharmacology , Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 , Cell Adhesion Molecules , Genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , DNA Methylation , Gene Silencing , Immunoglobulins , Genetics , Lung Neoplasms , Genetics , Pathology , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Tumor Suppressor Proteins , Genetics
19.
Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 413-415, 2008.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-400343

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the clinical and pathological features of 21 elderly patients with tuberculosis detected at autopsy. Methods Retrospectively analyzed the data of underlying diseases,clinical characteristics,clinical diagnosis,and causes of death for these 21 elderly patients with tuberculosis detected at autopsy. Results All the 21 patients were man,mean age was(88.0±6,9)years and had one or more concomitant diseases.Cough,sputum and fever were frequent due to other complicated respiratory infection.Anemia,hypoalbuminemia,decreased body mass index,increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate were very common in elderly patients,sputum acid-fast bacillus was positive in 11.8%cases.There was no primary tuberculosis.There were 9 secondary tuberculosis,3 disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis,19 tuberculous pleurisy and 9 non-pulmonary tuberculosis detected at autopsy.Compared with the result of autopsy,the clinical and radiography diagnosis accuracies were poor.Only 5 patients were clinically diagnosed as tuberculosis.All 5patients received antitubereulous chemotherapy,2 of them ceased therapy due to liver or renal toxicity. Conclusions Tuberculosis is a systemic disease in elderly patients.Because of medical aspects of ageing,co-morbid states,ignorance and mis-perception of symptoms,and atypical manifestation of disease,the diagnosis is difficult in this population.Our study confirms the importance of considering tuberculosis as a diagnosis in elderly even in the absence of typical clinical radiological presentations.

20.
Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 510-513, 2008.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-399890

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the elinical characteristics and the effects of thrombolytic and anti-coagulation therapy on pulmonary embolism(PE)in over 60-year-old patients. Methods The clinical findings,diagnostic techniques,effects of thrombolytic and anti coagulation therapy in 72 patients with PE aged over 60-year were analyzed retrospectively. Results Each one of 72 patients in this study suffered from two or more chronic diseases.Hypertension(56.9%)and deep venous thrombosis(DVT)in lower limbs(53.6%)were the most common thrombosis risk factors in the study.The clinical findings were atypical in elderly patients with PE.Different degree of dyspnea was the main characteristics(91.7%).Other findings were cough(30.6%),chest pain(27.8%),cyanosis (18.1%),faint(13.9%)and emptysis(12.5%).The objective signs showed edema of lower extremity (44.4%),moist rales(31.9%),P2 accentuation(18.1%),vascular murmur(5.6%).Blood gas analysis in 61 cases showed that 53 patients suffered from hypoxemia(86.9%)along with 37 cases of hypocapnia(60.7%).The alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient was increased in 27/31 cases(87.1%)and blood D-dipolymer was positive in 50/61 cases(82.0%).Spiral CT pulmonary angiogram(CTPA)in 62 cases and radioactive nuclear ventilation perfusion scan in 16 cases demonstrated PE in 58(93.5%) and 16(100%)patients respectively.The cure rate of thrombolytic therapy combined with anti-coagulation versus anti-coagulation therapy alone was 86.2%versus 30.2%(P=0.000).There was no haemorrhagia phenomenon during thrombolytic and anti-coagulation therapy. Conclusions The most common risk factors of PE in the elderly are hypertension and DVT in Iower limbs.The clinical symptoms are atypical and variable.Dyspnea is the main characteristics.Thrombolytic with anti-coagulation therapy is safe and effective,but anti-coagulation therapy alone has no benefit.

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