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1.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 181-199, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922672

ABSTRACT

The glymphatic system plays a pivotal role in maintaining cerebral homeostasis. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, arising from small vessel disease or carotid stenosis, results in cerebrometabolic disturbances ultimately manifesting in white matter injury and cognitive dysfunction. However, whether the glymphatic system serves as a potential therapeutic target for white matter injury and cognitive decline during hypoperfusion remains unknown. Here, we established a mouse model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion via bilateral common carotid artery stenosis. We found that the hypoperfusion model was associated with significant white matter injury and initial cognitive impairment in conjunction with impaired glymphatic system function. The glymphatic dysfunction was associated with altered cerebral perfusion and loss of aquaporin 4 polarization. Treatment of digoxin rescued changes in glymphatic transport, white matter structure, and cognitive function. Suppression of glymphatic functions by treatment with the AQP4 inhibitor TGN-020 abolished this protective effect of digoxin from hypoperfusion injury. Our research yields new insight into the relationship between hemodynamics, glymphatic transport, white matter injury, and cognitive changes after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Ischemia , Carotid Stenosis/drug therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Digoxin , Disease Models, Animal , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , White Matter
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920744

ABSTRACT

Objective To identify the differentially expressed proteins in different liver tissues in the mouse model of alveolar echinococcosis using high-resolution mass spectrometry with data independent acquisition (DIA), and to identify the key proteins contributing to the pathogenesis of alveolar echinococcosis. Methods Protoscoleces were isolated from Microtus fuscus with alveolar echinococcosis and the experimental model of alveolar echinococcosis was established in female Kunming mice aged 6 to 8 weeks by infection with Echinococcus multilocularis protoscoleces. Mice were divided into the experimental and control groups, and animals in the experimental group was injected with approximately 3 000 protoscoleces, while mice in the control group were injected with the same volume of physiological saline. Mouse liver specimens were sampled from both groups one year post-infection and subjected to pathological examinations. In addition, the lesions (the lesion group) and peri-lesion specimens (the peri-lesion group) were sampled from the liver of mice in the experimental group and the normal liver specimens (the normal group) were sampled from mice in the control group for DIA proteomics analysis, and the differentially expressed proteins were subjected to bioinformatics analysis. Results A total of 1 020 differentially expressed proteins were identified between the lesion group and the normal group, including 671 up-regulated proteins and 349 down-regulated proteins, and 495 differentially expressed proteins were identified between the peri-lesion group and the normal group, including 327 up-regulated proteins and 168 down-regulated proteins. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis revealed that these differentially expressed proteins were involved in peroxisome, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and fatty acid degradation pathways, and the peroxisome and PPAR signaling pathways were found to correlate with liver injury. Several differentially expressed proteins that may contribute to the pathogenesis of alveolar echinococcosis were identified in these two pathways, including fatty acid binding protein 1 (Fabp1), Acyl-CoA synthetase long chain family member 1 (Acsl1), Acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (Acox1), Enoyl-CoA hydratase and 3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (Ehhadh) and Acetyl-Coenzyme A acyltransferase 1B (Acaa1b), which were down-regulated in mice in the experimental group. Conclusion A large number of differentially expressed proteins are identified in the liver of the mouse model of alveolar echinococcosis, and Fabp1, Acsl1, Acox1, Ehhadh and Acaa1b may contribute to the pathogenesis of alveolar echinococcosis.

3.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 332-337, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913092

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To study the content changes of ch emical constituents of processed products of Terminalia chebula at different temperatures ,and to compare its anti-ulcerative colitis effect. METHODS Processed products of T. chebula at different temperatures(160,180,200,220,240,260,280,300 ℃)were prepared by sand scalding technology. HPLC method was adopted to determine the contents of gallic acid ,chebulagic acid ,chebulinic acid and ellagic acid in crude drug and processed products of T. chebula at different temperatures. The mice were divided into blank group ,model group ,Mesalazin enteric-coated tablets group (positive control ,0.4 g/kg),crude drug and processed products groups of T. chebula at different temperatures (1.3 g/kg),with 10 mice in each group. Except for blank group ,other groups were given 6% acetic acid 0.1 mL via anus to induce ulcerative colitis model. After modeling ,blank group and model group were given water intragastrically ,and other groups were given relevant drug intragastrically ,20 mL/kg,once a day ,for consecutive 7 days. The general physical signs of mice in each group were observed and the body weight was recorded. The colorectal length and index ,serum levels of related inflammation indexes [superoxide dismutase (SOD),malondialdehyde (MDA),interleukin-10 (IL-10),IL-1 β ,tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)] were detected. The pathomorphological changes of colon and rectum were observed ,and the comprehensive score of pharmacodynamics was performed. RESULTS With the increase of processing temperature ,the contents of chebulagic acid and chebulinic acid decreased gradually ,the content of gallic acid increased first and then decreased ,and the content of ellagic acid increased. Compared with model group ,the general physical signs ,body weight ,colorectal length ,colorectal index and related inflammation indexes were all improved significantly in crude drug and processed products groups of T. chebula at different temperatures(P<0.05 or P<0.01). The glandular recess structure of colorectal tissue was repaired ,the infiltration of inflammatory cells was reduced ,and the comprehensive score of efficacy of processed products prepared at 260 ℃ was the highest. CONCLUSIONS The contents of chemical components in T. chebula processed at different temperatures change significantly and their anti-ulcerative colitis effects are different. The processed products of T. chebula prepared at 260 ℃ show the best anti-ulcerative colitis effect.

4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 637-650, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929316

ABSTRACT

Receptor activity-modulating proteins (RAMPs) are accessory molecules that form complexes with specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and modulate their functions. It is established that RAMP interacts with the glucagon receptor family of GPCRs but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, we used a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) approach to comprehensively investigate such interactions. In conjunction with cAMP accumulation, Gα q activation and β-arrestin1/2 recruitment assays, we not only verified the GPCR-RAMP pairs previously reported, but also identified new patterns of GPCR-RAMP interaction. While RAMP1 was able to modify the three signaling events elicited by both glucagon receptor (GCGR) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R), and RAMP2 mainly affected β-arrestin1/2 recruitment by GCGR, GLP-1R and glucagon-like peptide-2 receptor, RAMP3 showed a widespread negative impact on all the family members except for growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor covering the three pathways. Our results suggest that RAMP modulates both G protein dependent and independent signal transduction among the glucagon receptor family members in a receptor-specific manner. Mapping such interactions provides new insights into the role of RAMP in ligand recognition and receptor activation.

5.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 360-378, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929162

ABSTRACT

Rice stripe virus (RSV) transmitted by the small brown planthopper causes severe rice yield losses in Asian countries. Although viral nuclear entry promotes viral replication in host cells, whether this phenomenon occurs in vector cells remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, we systematically evaluated the presence and roles of RSV in the nuclei of vector insect cells. We observed that the nucleocapsid protein (NP) and viral genomic RNAs were partially transported into vector cell nuclei by utilizing the importin α nuclear transport system. When blocking NP nuclear localization, cytoplasmic RSV accumulation significantly increased. In the vector cell nuclei, NP bound the transcription factor YY1 and affected its positive regulation to FAIM. Subsequently, decreased FAIM expression triggered an antiviral caspase-dependent apoptotic reaction. Our results reveal that viral nuclear entry induces completely different immune effects in vector and host cells, providing new insights into the balance between viral load and the immunity pressure in vector insects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Nucleus , Hemiptera/metabolism , Insect Vectors/genetics , Insecta , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Oryza , Plant Diseases , Tenuivirus/metabolism , Virus Replication
6.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 275-289, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929084

ABSTRACT

How to quickly predict an individual's behavioral choices is an important issue in the field of human behavior research. Using noninvasive electroencephalography, we aimed to identify neural markers in the prior outcome-evaluation stage and the current option-assessment stage of the chicken game that predict an individual's behavioral choices in the subsequent decision-output stage. Hierarchical linear modeling-based brain-behavior association analyses revealed that midfrontal theta oscillation in the prior outcome-evaluation stage positively predicted subsequent aggressive choices; also, beta oscillation in the current option-assessment stage positively predicted subsequent cooperative choices. These findings provide electrophysiological evidence for the three-stage theory of decision-making and strengthen the feasibility of predicting an individual's behavioral choices using neural oscillations.


Subject(s)
Aggression/physiology , Brain , Electroencephalography , Interpersonal Relations
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928999

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Heparin is mainly used as an anticoagulant in clinic, and it also has a certain anti-inflammatory effect. At present, after portal vein islet transplantation in diabetic patients, heparin is mainly infused through the peripheral veins of the limbs to achieve the purpose of anticoagulation and protection of the graft, rather than through the portal vein. In this study, animal experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of heparin infusion via the portal vein and marginal ear vein on the instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction (IBMIR) after portal vein islet transplantation, which is the choice of anticoagulation methods for clinical islet transplantation to provide a basis for decision-making.@*METHODS@#A total of 50 neonatal pigs (Xeno-1 type, 3-5 days) were selected. Islets were isolated and purified from the pancreas of neonatal pigs. Ten non-diabetic Landrace pigs (1.5-2.0 months) served as recipients, and 12 000 IEQ/kg neonatal porcine islets were transplanted into the liver through the portal vein. All recipients received bolus injection of 50 U/kg of heparin 10 minutes before transplantation. After the bolus injection of heparin, the experimental group received heparin via the portal vein [10 U/(kg·h), 5 recipients], and the control group received heparin via the marginal ear vein [10 U/(kg·h), 5 recipients]. The superior vena cava blood was collected from the 2 groups pre-operation at 1, 3, 24 h post-operation of the transplantation. The portal vein blood was collected from the experimental group at 1 and 3 h after the transplantation as well. The levels of complement C3a, C5a, thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), β-thromboglobulin (β-TG), and D-dimer as well as activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) in superior vena cava blood from 1 and 3 h post-transplantation were detected in the 2 groups, and the levels of anti-Xa and anti-IIa in the portal vein and superior vena cava blood from 1 and 3 h post-transplantation in the experimental group were detected. Twenty four hours after the transplantation, the liver tissues in the 2 groups were collected for pathological examination to observe the inflammatory cell infiltration and peripheral thrombosis around the islets graft in liver.@*RESULTS@#Before transplantation, there was no statistically significant difference in C3a, C5a, TAT, β-TG, D-dimer levels and APTT between the 2 groups (all P>0.05). At 1 and 3 h after transplantation, the C3a, TAT, and D-dimer levels in the experimental group were significant decreased than those in the control groups (all P<0.05), and at 3 h after transplantation the C5a was significant decreased than that in the control group (P<0.05). At 1 and 3 h after transplantation, the anti-Xa and anti-IIa levels in the portal vein blood were significantly increased than those in the superior vena cava blood in the experimental group (all P<0.05). Pathological results showed the presence of islet cell clusters in the liver blood vessels. The thrombus formation and neutrophil infiltration around islet graft was not obvious in the experimental group, while massive thrombus formation and neutrophil infiltration in the control group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Compared with marginal ear vein infusion of heparin, the direct infusion of heparin in the portal vein has a certain inhibitory effect on complement system, coagulation system activation and inflammatory cell infiltration in portal vein islet transplantation, which may attenuate the occurrence of IBMIR.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Islets of Langerhans/pathology , Islets of Langerhans Transplantation/physiology , Portal Vein , Swine , Vena Cava, Superior
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928861

ABSTRACT

Advances in digital pathology technology have enabled pathologists and laboratory physicians to perform quick, easy, accurate and reproducible analysis of digital images of tissues and cells with the aid of electronic screens and software tools, rather than relying solely on traditional optical microscopy observations. The conventional clinical cytology testing practice is to be replaced by a digital workflow, which includes both digital imaging and image analysis. This article provides an overview of the basic principles of digital pathology techniques, the advances of development of device in cytology digital pathology, and their clinical applications in bone marrow morphology, and existing problems and prospects of digital pathology application in hematology.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Microscopy , Software , Technology
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928851

ABSTRACT

This study evaluates the static balance ability of human body based on lower limb rehabilitation robot.According to the balance parameters obtained from the movement trajectory of the center of human pelvis, SPSS statistical software was used to verify that there was significant difference between the two groups (P<0.01). Principal component analysis is used to allocate the weight of each parameter and establish the comprehensive evaluation value. The comprehensive evaluation value of the control group was 0.383±0.038, and the experimental group was 0.875±0.136. When the subject's comprehensive evaluation value is between 0.739 and 1.011, it indicates the presence of balance dysfunction, and when it is between 0.345~0.421, it indicates that the balance of the lower limbs of the subject is normal. Experimental results show that this evaluation method can objectively and quantitatively reflect the static equilibrium state of human body.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lower Extremity , Movement , Pelvis , Postural Balance
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928829

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between long non-coding RNA (lncRNA)-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and susceptibility to silicosis.@*METHODS@#First, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data were comprehensively analyzed in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of eight participants (four silicosis cases and four healthy controls) exposed to silica dust to identify differentially expressed lncRNAs (DE-lncRNAs). The functional SNPs in the identified DE-lncRNAs were then identified using several databases. Finally, the association between functional SNPs and susceptibility to silicosis was evaluated by a two-stage case-control study. The SNPs of 155 silicosis cases and 141 healthy silica-exposed controls were screened by genome-wide association study (GWAS), and the candidate SNPs of 194 silicosis cases and 235 healthy silica-exposed controls were validated by genotyping using the improved Mutiligase Detection Reaction (iMLDR) system.@*RESULTS@#A total of 76 DE-lncRNAs were identified by RNA-seq data analysis (cut-offs: fold change > 2 or fold change < 0.5, P < 0.05), while 127 functional SNPs among those 76 DE-lncRNAs were identified through multiple public databases. Furthermore, five SNPs were found to be significantly correlated with the risk of silicosis by GWAS screening (P < 0.05), while the results of GWAS and iMLDR validation indicated that the variant A allele of rs1814521 was associated with a reduced risk of silicosis (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.62-0.94, P = 0.011).@*CONCLUSION@#The presence of the SNP rs1814521 in the lncRNA ADGRG3 is associated with susceptibility to silicosis. Moreover, ADGRG3 was found to be lowly expressed in silicosis cases. The underlying biological mechanisms by which lncRNA ADGRG3 and rs1814521 regulate the development of silicosis need further study.


Subject(s)
Case-Control Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Silicosis/genetics
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928690

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical significance of magnetic resonance imaging water-fat separation (Dixon) technique in patients with multiple myeloma.@*METHODS@#A total of 41 newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma who underwent Dixon in The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University from April 2019 to April 2021 were included in this study. Patients were divided into observation group and control group according to whether Dixon performance was normal or not. The differences of clinical data and fat fraction (FF) between the two groups were compared. The correlation between FF and clinical data, disease stages and differences before and after treatment were also compared. The receiver operator characteristic curve of patients was drawn to analyze the diagnostic value of FF combined with serum alkaline phosphatase for bone destruction in patients with multiple myeloma.@*RESULTS@#Among the 41 patients, there were 12 cases in the control group and 29 cases in the observation group. There was no significant difference in age and sex between the two groups. In the observation group, β2-microglobulin concentration and M protein were significantly higher than those in the control group, while serum alkaline phosphatase and FF were lower (P<0.05). In all 41 patients included in the study, there was a significant negative correlation between FF value and β2-microglobulin concentration (r=-0.57), and a significant positive correlation between FF value and serum alkaline phosphatase (r=0.31). After treatment, FF value increased, while myeloma cell percentage, β2-microglobulin concentration and M protein decreased in 11 patients who completed 4 cycles of chemotherapy, and the differences before and after treatment were statistically significant (P<0.05). The value of serum alkaline phosphatase combined with FF value in predicting bone destruction is higher than that of FF value or serum alkaline phosphatase alone.@*CONCLUSION@#Dixon's different imaging manifestations can reflect the severity of the disease. FF value is correlated with clinical examination results and R-ISS staging, and there is a significant difference before and after treatment. Serum alkaline phosphatase combined with FF value is better than two indicators alone in predicting bone destruction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multiple Myeloma/diagnostic imaging , Technology , Water
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928619

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the association between functional dyspepsia (FD) and serum levels of brain-gut peptides including calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), nesfatin-1, and ghrelin in children.@*METHODS@#A total of 38 children with FD who attended Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University from November 2019 to December 2020 were enrolled as the FD group. Thirty-four healthy children were enrolled as the control group. Serum samples were collected from all of the children. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure serum levels of CGRP, ghrelin, and nesfatin-1 for comparison between the two groups. The scores of clinical symptoms were determined for the children with FD. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to investigate the correlation of symptom scores with the serum levels of brain-gut peptides.@*RESULTS@#The FD group had significantly higher serum levels of nesfatin-1 and CGRP than the control group (P<0.05), while there was no significant difference in the serum level of ghrelin between the two groups (P>0.05). The serum level of nesfatin-1 was positively correlated with the symptom score of early satiety (rs=0.553, P<0.001), but was not significantly correlated with the total score of FD (rs=0.191, P=0.250). The serum level of CGRP was positively correlated with the scores of abdominal pain (rs=0.479, P=0.002) and belching (rs=0.619, P<0.001) and the total score of FD (rs=0.541, P<0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#CGRP and nesfatin-1 may play an important role in the pathophysiological process of FD.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Brain , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide , Child , Dyspepsia/diagnosis , Ghrelin , Humans
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928456

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the molecular reasons of weak expression of B antigen on the red cell.@*METHODS@#Serological test for blood group was carried out, including red cell and plasma grouping, and anti-A1 and anti-H testing, and confirming weak A or B antigens by adsorption and elution. Exons 1-7 were sequenced directly, and one of them was cloned and sequenced.@*RESULTS@#All of the 23 samples showed the weak B antigen by serological method. The alleles of the subgroups were identified by DNA sequencing, including 2 Bel subgroup, 4 B3 subgroup, 14 Bw subgroup, 2 CisAB subgroup and a novel allele. The novel allele showed a nucleotide substitution 662G>A in the exon 7, and the sequence was submitted to Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database, and the novel allele was named Bel10.@*CONCLUSION@#Nucleotide substitution in exon results in blood subgroup, which showed that the antigens were weakened, and Bw phenotype was the most frequently subgroup.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System/genetics , Alleles , Exons , Genotype , Humans , Nucleotides , Phenotype
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928415

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To detect loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci in a Chinese patient with leukemia after haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.@*METHODS@#HLA genotyping was carried out on peripheral blood, hair follicle and buccal swab samples derived from the patient after the transplantation as well as peripheral blood samples from his parents by using PCR-sequence specific oligonucleotide probe method and PCR-sequence based typing method. Short tandem repeat (STR) loci were detected by using a 23 site STR assay kit and a self-developed 6 STR loci assay for the HLA regions.@*RESULTS@#After the transplantation, the HLA genotype of the peripheral blood sample of the patient was identical to his father. The patient was HLA-A*02:01,24:02, C*03:03,03:04, B*13:01,15:01, DRB1*08:03,12:02, DQB1*03:01,06:01 for his hair follicle specimen. However, homozygosity of the HLA loci was found in his buccal swab sample. Only the HLA-A*24:02-C*03:03-B*15:01-DRB1*08:03-DQB1*06:01 haplotype from his father's was present, while the HLA-A*02:01-C*03:04-B*13:01-DRB1*12:02-DQB1*03:01 haplotype from his mother was lost. After the transplantation, the alleles of the 23 STR sites in the patient's peripheral blood sample were consistent to his father, with no allelic loss detected in his buccal swab sample. However, at least 4 STR loci in the HLA region were lost in his buccal swab sample.@*CONCLUSION@#LOH at the HLA loci has been detected in the buccal swab sample of a patient with leukemia who received haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.


Subject(s)
HLA Antigens/genetics , HLA-A Antigens/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Humans , Leukemia/genetics , Loss of Heterozygosity
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928201

ABSTRACT

Lower limb ankle exoskeletons have been used to improve walking efficiency and assist the elderly and patients with motor dysfunction in daily activities or rehabilitation training, while the assistance patterns may influence the wearer's lower limb muscle activities and coordination patterns. In this paper, we aim to evaluate the effects of different ankle exoskeleton assistance patterns on wearer's lower limb muscle activities and coordination patterns. A tethered ankle exoskeleton with nine assistance patterns that combined with differenet actuation timing values and torque magnitude levels was used to assist human walking. Lower limb muscle surface electromyography signals were collected from 7 participants walking on a treadmill at a speed of 1.25 m/s. Results showed that the soleus muscle activities were significantly reduced during assisted walking. In one assistance pattern with peak time in 49% of stride and peak torque at 0.7 N·m/kg, the soleus muscle activity was decreased by (38.5 ± 10.8)%. Compared with actuation timing, the assistance torque magnitude had a more significant influence on soleus muscle activity. In all assistance patterns, the eight lower limb muscle activities could be decomposed to five basic muscle synergies. The muscle synergies changed little under assistance with appropriate actuation timing and torque magnitude. Besides, co-contraction indexs of soleus and tibialis anterior, rectus femoris and semitendinosus under exoskeleton assistance were higher than normal walking. Our results are expected to help to understand how healthy wearers adjust their neuromuscular control mechanisms to adapt to different exoskeleton assistance patterns, and provide reference to select appropriate assistance to improve walking efficiency.


Subject(s)
Aged , Ankle/physiology , Ankle Joint/physiology , Biomechanical Phenomena/physiology , Electromyography , Exoskeleton Device , Gait/physiology , Humans , Muscle Contraction , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Walking/physiology
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928154

ABSTRACT

This study aims to develop an HPLC-DAD method for simultaneous determination of 11 components(6 phenolic acids and 5 iridoids) in Lonicera japonica flowers(LjF) and leaves(LjL), and compare the content differences of LjF at different development stages, LjL at different maturity levels, and between LjF and LjL. One-way ANOVA, principal component analysis(PCA), and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) were employed to compare the content of the 11 components. The content of total phenolic acids, total iridoid glycosides, and total 11 components in LjF showed an overall downward trend with the development of flowers. The content of total phenolic acids, total iridoid glycosides, and total 11 components in young leaves were higher than those in mature leaves. The results of PCA showed that the samples at different flowering stages had distinguishable differences in component content. The VIP value of OPLS-DA showed that isochlorogenic acid A, chlorogenic acid, and secologanic acid were the main differential components of LjF at different development stages or LjL with different maturity levels. LjF and LjL have certain similarities in chemical composition while significant differences in component content. The content of total phenolic acids in young leaves was significantly higher than that in LjF at various development stages. The content of total iridoid glycosides in young leaves was similar to that in LjF before white flower bud stage. The total content of 11 components in young leaves was significantly higher than that in LjF at green flower bud stage, before and during completely white flower bud stage. LjL have great potential for development. Follow-up research on the pharmacodynamic equivalence of LjF and LjL(especially young leaves) should be carried out to speed up the development and application of LjL.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Flowers/chemistry , Iridoid Glycosides/analysis , Lonicera/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928140

ABSTRACT

Essential oils(EOs) from Chinese medicinals, which can be used as adjuvants and exert certain therapeutic effect, are directly used in Chinese medicine formulas. Conventional research strategy for EOs from Chinese medicinals is to compare the efficacy of the prescriptions before and after the addition of EOs, and the penetration-enhancing mechanisms of EOs remain unclear. In modern research on EOs from Chinese medicinals, the method for studying chemical penetration enhancers is often used, which fails to reflect the overall efficacy of EOs. This study clarified the property regularity of EOs from Chinese medicinals as transdermal penetration enhancers, and thereby proposed a research model which integrated the medicinal and adjuvant properties of EOs from Chinese medicinals via "component-delivery-effect" characterization route. The core concept is that constituents of EOs from Chinese medicinals and their delivery process play a key role in their external application. This research model is expected to serve as a reference for further research on EOs from Chinese medicinals for transdermal application.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic , Administration, Cutaneous , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928123

ABSTRACT

The quality markers(Q-markers) of Shujin Huoxue Capsules were comprehensively discriminated based on the five principles of transfer and traceability, specificity, compatibility, effectiveness and measurability. The compounds that could be transferred from the original medicinal materials to the preparation were selected with the principle of transfer and traceability. The specific components in the prescription were screened by reviewing literature with the principle of specificity. According to the principle of compatibility, the attributes of compounds were evaluated by the sovereign, minister, assistant and guide combination rules of the original medicinal materials in the prescription. According to the principle of measurability, the measurable components were summarized by reference to the pharmacopoeia and literature combined with the content. The mechanism of Shujin Huoxue Capsules in the treatment of osteoporosis was studied through network pharmacology based on the principle of effectiveness, which was the evaluation index of effectiveness. The chemical components screened out above were regarded as candidate Q-markers, and the cobweb model was plotted to obtain the comprehensive score of Q-markers. Hydroxysafflor yellow A, trachelosid, eleutheroside B, α-cyperone, protocatechuic acid, protocatechualdehyde and 4-methoxy salicylaldehyde were discriminated as the Q-markers of Shujin Huoxue Capsules based on the five principles combined with cobweb model.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Capsules , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928094

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effects and mechanisms of 6-gingerol on adipose tissue insulin resistance in naturally aging rats with glycolipid metabolism disorders. Twenty-seven aging male SD rats were randomly divided into a model group(aged, n=9) and two groups treated with 6-gingerol at 0.05 mg·kg~(-1)(G-L, n=9) and 0.2 mg·kg~(-1)(G-H, n=9). Six young rats were randomly assigned to a normal control group(NC). Rats were treated for seven weeks by gavage. Non-esterified fatty acid(NEFA) and insulin content was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), and adipose tissue insulin resistance index(Adipo-IR) was calculated. HE staining was used to observe the size of adipocytes in epididymal white adipose tissue(eWAT). The gene and protein expression levels of adiponectin receptor 1(AdipoR1), AMP-activated protein kinase α(AMPKα), phosphorylated AMPK(p-AMPKα~(Thr172)), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α(PGC-1α), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(PI3 K), protein kinase B(Akt), phosphorylated Akt(p-Akt~(Ser473)), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2(JNK1/2), phosphorylated JNK1/2(p-JNK~(Thr183/Tyr185)), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), and interleukin-6(IL-6) in adiponectin(APN), insulin, and inflammatory factor signaling pathways were detected by Western blot and real-time RCR, respectively. The results showed that 6-gingerol at a high dose could significantly decrease the fasting plasma content of NEFA and insulin and reduce Adipo-IR. Additionally, 6-gingerol at a high dose significantly increased the protein and mRNA expression of APN, AdipoR1, PGC-1α, and PI3 K in eWAT, elevated the relative expression of p-AMPK~(Thr172) and p-Akt~(Ser 473), reduced the protein and mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6 in eWAT, and decreased the relative expression of p-JNK1 and p-JNK2. This study reveals that 6-gingerol can improve insulin sensitivity of adipose tissues in aging rats with glycolipid metabolism disorders, and this effect is presumedly achieved by enhancing the PI3 K/Akt signaling pathway, inhibiting adipose tissue inflammation, increasing APN synthesis, enhancing AdipoR1 expression, and activating its downstream AMPK/PGC-1α signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Aging , Animals , Catechols , Fatty Alcohols , Insulin Resistance , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928081

ABSTRACT

There are 200-500 species of Potentilla(Rosaceae) worldwide, among which 90 species are widely distributed in China and have a long history of ethnic medicinal use. According to our statistics, a total of 367 compounds have been isolated and identified from plants of this genus, including terpenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids, tannins, and phenylpropanoids. The medicinal materials made from these plants mainly have antioxidative, blood sugar-lowering, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, cardiovascular system-protecting, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective activities. This study systematically reviews the research progress on chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Potentilla plants to provide a basis for further research and clinical application.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Potentilla
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