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1.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 1170-1185, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010819

ABSTRACT

OX40 is a costimulatory receptor that is expressed primarily on activated CD4+, CD8+, and regulatory T cells. The ligation of OX40 to its sole ligand OX40L potentiates T cell expansion, differentiation, and activation and also promotes dendritic cells to mature to enhance their cytokine production. Therefore, the use of agonistic anti-OX40 antibodies for cancer immunotherapy has gained great interest. However, most of the agonistic anti-OX40 antibodies in the clinic are OX40L-competitive and show limited efficacy. Here, we discovered that BGB-A445, a non-ligand-competitive agonistic anti-OX40 antibody currently under clinical investigation, induced optimal T cell activation without impairing dendritic cell function. In addition, BGB-A445 dose-dependently and significantly depleted regulatory T cells in vitro and in vivo via antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. In the MC38 syngeneic model established in humanized OX40 knock-in mice, BGB-A445 demonstrated robust and dose-dependent antitumor efficacy, whereas the ligand-competitive anti-OX40 antibody showed antitumor efficacy characterized by a hook effect. Furthermore, BGB-A445 demonstrated a strong combination antitumor effect with an anti-PD-1 antibody. Taken together, our findings show that BGB-A445, which does not block OX40-OX40L interaction in contrast to clinical-stage anti-OX40 antibodies, shows superior immune-stimulating effects and antitumor efficacy and thus warrants further clinical investigation.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor/physiology , Receptors, OX40 , Membrane Glycoproteins , Ligands , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology
2.
International Journal of Stem Cells ; : 326-341, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000516

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease that leads to the progressive destruction ofarticular cartilage. Current clinical therapeutic strategies are moderately effective at relieving OA-associated pain but cannot induce chondrocyte differentiation or achieve cartilage regeneration. We investigated the ability of wedelolactone, a biologically active natural product that occurs in Eclipta alba (false daisy), to promote chondrogenic differentiation. @*Methods@#and Results: Real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemical staining, and immunofluorescence staining assays were used to evaluate the effects of wedelolactone on the chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). RNA sequencing, microRNA (miRNA) sequencing, and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation analyses were performed to explore the mechanism by which wedelolactone promotes the chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs. We found that wedelolactone facilitates the chondrogenic differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived MSCs and rat bone-marrow MSCs. Moreover, the forkhead box O (FOXO) signaling pathway was upregulated by wedelolactone during chondrogenic differentiation, and a FOXO1 inhibitor attenuated the effect of wedelolactone on chondrocyte differentiation. We determined that wedelolactone reduces enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2)-mediated histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation of the promoter region of FOXO1 to upregulate its transcription. Additionally, we found that wedelolactone represses miR-1271-5p expression, and that miR-1271-5p post-transcriptionally suppresses the expression of FOXO1 that is dependent on the binding of miR-1271-5p to the FOXO1 3’-untranscribed region. @*Conclusions@#These results indicate that wedelolactone suppresses the activity of EZH2 to facilitate the chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs by activating the FOXO1 signaling pathway. Wedelolactone may therefore improve cartilage regeneration in diseases characterized by inflammatory tissue destruction, such as OA.

3.
Digital Chinese Medicine ; (4): 367-376, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-964346

ABSTRACT

@#Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are major disease burdens with high mortality worldwide. Early prediction of cardiovascular events can reduce the incidence of acute myocardial infarction and decrease the mortality rates of patients with CVDs. The pathological mechanisms and multiple factors involved in CVDs are complex; thus, traditional data analysis is insufficient and inefficient to manage multidimensional data for the risk prediction of CVDs and heart attacks, medical image interpretations, therapeutic decision-making, and disease prognosis prediction. Meanwhile, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used for treating CVDs. TCM offers unique theoretical and practical applications in the diagnosis and treatment of CVDs. Big data have been generated to investigate the scientific basis of TCM diagnostic methods. TCM formulae contain multiple herbal items. Elucidating the complicated interactions between the active compounds and network modulations requires advanced data-analysis capability. Recent progress in artificial intelligence (AI) technology has allowed these challenges to be resolved, which significantly facilitates the development of integrative diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for CVDs and the understanding of the therapeutic principles of TCM formulae. Herein, we briefly introduce the basic concept and current progress of AI and machine learning (ML) technology, and summarize the applications of advanced AI and ML for the diagnosis and treatment of CVDs. Furthermore, we review the progress of AI and ML technology for investigating the scientific basis of TCM diagnosis and treatment for CVDs. We expect the application of AI and ML technology to promote synergy between western medicine and TCM, which can then boost the development of integrative medicine for the diagnosis and treatment of CVDs.

4.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 544-547, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-755600

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the role of group Ⅱ metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in cognitive decline caused by multiple administrations of ketamine in mice and the relationship with hippocampal glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β) expression.Methods Forty-five SPF healthy female C57BL/6 mice,aged 6-8 weeks,weighing 20-30 g,were randomized into 3 groups (n=15 each) using a random number table method:control group (group C),ketamine group (group K) and mGluR agonist LY354740 group (group L+K).In K and L+K groups,ketamine 30 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected three times a day at an 30-min interval for 14 consecutive days.LY354740 was intraperitoneally injected at 30 min before the first injection of ketamine in group L+K.The equal volume of normal saline was given instead in group C.Morris water maze test was performed the day after the last administration.The mice were then sacrificed,and hippocampi were harvested to determine the expression of GSK3β,NR2A and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95) by Western blot.Results Compared with group C,the escape latency was significantly prolonged,the time of staying at the original platform quadrant was shortened,the frequency of crossing the original platform was decreased,the expression of GSK3β3 and NR2A was up-regulated,and the expression of PSD95 was down-regulated in group K (P<0.05),and no significant change was found in the parameters mentioned above in group L+K (P>0.05).Compared with group K,the escape latency was significantly shortened,the time of staying at the original platform quadrant was prolonged,the frequency of crossing the original platform was increased,the expression of GSK3β and NR2A was down-regulated,and the expression of PSD95 was up-regulated in group L+K (P<0.05).Conclusion Group Ⅱ mGluRs are involved in the process of cognitive decline caused by multiple administrations of ketamine in mice,which is associated with up-regulated expression of hippocampal GSK-3β.

5.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 477-480, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-709792

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the role of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in cognitive decline in aged mice with sepsis.Methods Forty-five SPF healthy aged female C57BL/6 mice,aged 10-12 months,weighing 20-30 g,were assigned into 3 groups (n=15 each) using a random number table:control group (group C),sepsis group (group Sep) and NF-κB selective inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) group (group PDTC).Lipopolysaccharide 250 μg/kg was injected intraperitoneally once a day for 7 consecutive days in Sep and PDTC groups,and in addition PDTC 50 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally at 30 min before lipopolysaccharide injection once a day for 7 consecutive days in group PDTC.The equal volume of normal saline was given in group C.Five mice in each group were sacrificed at 2 h after the last administration,cardiac puncture was performed and blood samples were collected,and then the mice were sacrificed and hippocampi were harvested for determination of the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α),interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 in plasma and hippocampal tissues using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Cognitive function was assessed using open field,elevated plus maze and Morris water maze tests at 24 h after the last administration in the other mice left in each group.Results Compared with group C,the levels of TNF-α,IL-1β and IL-6 in plasma and hippocampal tissues were significantly increased,the time of movement at the central region was shortened,the percentage of time spent in the open arms and number of entries into the open and closed arms were decreased,the escape latency was prolonged,the time of staying at the original platform quadrant was shortened,and the frequency of crossing the platform was decreased in group Sep (P<0.05).Compared with group Sep,the levels of TNF-α,IL-1β5 and IL-6 in plasma and hippocampal tissues were significantly decreased,the time of movement at the central region was prolonged,the percentage of time spent in the open arms and number of entries into the open and closed arms were increased,the escape latency was shortened,and the time of staying at the original platform quadrant was prolonged in group PDTC (P<0.05).Conclusion NF-κB is involved in cognitive decline in aged mice with sepsis.

6.
Practical Oncology Journal ; (6): 368-371, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-499315

ABSTRACT

Tumor derived microparticles are released by activated or apoptotic tumor cells.They are ex-tracellular vesicles which are 0.1~1.0μm in diameters.Tumor derived microparticles carry abundant bioactive molecules,such as nucleic acids and proteins,which resemble that of the parental cell.In this review,we summa-rize the role of tumor derived microparticles in the occurrence,development,diagnosis and treatment of tumor.

7.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 580-583, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-476459

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the efficacy of pressure support ventilation ( PSV ) in the infants undergoing laparoscopic hernia repair under sevoflurane anesthesia. Methods Thirty ASA physical statusⅠpediatric children, aged 9 months-1 yr, weighing 8.0-11.5 kg, undergoing elective laparoscopic hernia repair, were randomly assigned into 3 groups ( n=10 each) using a random number table: pressure control ventilation ( PCV) used for muscle relaxants in combination with low?concentration sevoflurane group ( group PCV1 ) , PCV used for high?concentration sevoflurane group ( group PCV2 ) , and PSV used for low?concentration sevoflurane group ( group PSV) . Anesthesia was induced with inhalation of 4%-6%sevoflurane and iv fentanyl 2 μg∕kg and succinylcholine 1.5 mg∕kg. The pediatric children were endotracheally intubated and mechanically ventilated. In PCV1 and PCV2 groups, PCV was used during operation. In group PSV, PCV was used first after intubation, and then PSV was applied after spontaneous breathing recovered. Anesthesia was maintained as follows: in group PCV1 , the end?tidal concentration of sevoflurane was maintained at 2.5% - 3.0%, and cisatracurium besylate 0.1 mg∕kg was injected intermittently as required; in group PCV1 , the end?tidal concentration of sevoflurane was maintained at 3.5%-4.0%; in group PSV, the end?tidal concentration of sevoflurane was maintained at 2.5%-3.0%, and succinylcholine 1.0 mg∕kg was injected intravenously before pneumoperitoneum. Narcotrend index value was maintained at 50-60 in PCV1 and PSV groups, or at 37-45 in PCV2 group. Heart rate ( HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded before induction of anesthesia (baseline), at the beginning of pneumoperitoneum, at 5 and 10 min of pneumoperitoneum, at the end of pneumoperitoneum, at the end of operation and immediately after extubation. The time interval from the end of surgery to extubation was recorded. Results Pulse oxygen saturation was 100% during anesthesia, and>95% during recovery from anesthesia in the three groups. Compared with the baseline value, HR was significantly faster, and MAP was increased during extubation in PCV1 and PCV2 groups, and no significant change was found in HR and MAP at each time point in group PSV. The time interval from the end of surgery to extubation was 30.3± 5.4, 18.4±4.3 and (4.1±1.2) min in PCV1, PCV2 and PSV groups, respectively. Compared with PCV1 and PCV2 groups, the time interval from the end of surgery to extubation was significantly shortened in group PSV. Conclusion When PSV is applied in the infants undergoing laparoscopic hernia repair under sevoflurane anesthesia, it can provide adequate ventilation, recovery from anesthesia is rapid, and no cardiovascular responses occur during extubation.

8.
Chinese Journal of Behavioral Medicine and Brain Science ; (12): 388-390, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-412834

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effects of different concentrations of isoflurane on the caspase-3 expression in the hippocampus and S100β level of plasma in fetal rats. Methods 18 pregnant rats at gestational day 21 were divided into control group, 1. 3% isoflurane group,3% isoflurane group. Rats in the control group spontaneously breathed 100% oxygen for 1 h. Rats in the treatment groups breathed 1.3% or 3% isoflurane in 100% oxygen through an endotracheal tube, with mechanical ventilation for 1 h. Rat pups were delivered by cesarean section 6 h after treatment, and fetal blood was sampled from the left ventricle of each fetal heart and evaluated for S100β. Fetal brains were then evaluated for apoptosis, using caspase-3 immunohistochemistry in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Results Compared to the control group ((1. 48 ± 0. 08) μg/L) and the 1. 3% isoflurane group( (1.53 ±0. 12)μg/L) ,the 3% isoflurane group showed significantly higher level of S100β( (3. 12 ±0. 15) μg/L, P<0.05) . There was no differences in densities of caspase-3-positive cells between the control ((33 ±4) cell/mm ) and 1.3% isoflurane groups((31 ±5)cell/mm2). Compared to 1.3% isoflurane,isoflurane at a concentration of 3%((75 ± 7) cell/mm2, P<0.05) for lh increased neurodegeneration in the hippocampal CA1 area in the developing brain of fetal rats. Conclusion Isoflurane can dose-dependently induce brain damage. Isoflurane at a concentration of 3% for lh can induce apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 area and increase S100β levels of fetal rats.

9.
Chinese Journal of Emergency Medicine ; (12): 1052-1055, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-422145

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of precondition with Toll-like receptor 4 monoclonal antibody (TLR4mAb) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced acute lung injury in mice.Methods A total of 45 male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 3 groups:the control group ( group C),the sepsis group (group S) and the pretreatment group (group P).Mice in the group P and group S were injected intraperitoneally with LPS ( 10 mg/kg) to produce acute lung injury models.Mice in the group P was injected intraperitoneally with TLR4mAb (5 μg/g) 1 h before the injection of LPS.Expression of TLR4mRNA in lung tissue,expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in serum,water content of lung,and the pathomorphologic changes of lung were detected after 6 h,12 h and 24 h.One-way ANOVA was used for inter-group comparison and two-way ANOVA was used for intra-group comparison.Results Compared to group C,water content significantly increased at 12 h and 24 h in group S and group P; compared to group S,water content significantly decreased in group P at 12 h and 24 h.Compared to group C,the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α significantly increased in group S and group P at 6 h,12 h and 24 h; compared to group S,the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α significantly decreased at 6 h,12 h and 24 h in group P.Compared to group C,the expression of TLR4 mRNA increased significantly in group S and group P at 6 h,12 h and 24 h; compared to group S,the expression of TLR4 mRNA decreased significantly in group P at6 h,12 h and 24 h.Compared to group S,pathological damage of the lung was improved significantly in group P.Conclusions Precondition with TLR4mAb can attenuate LPS-induced acute lung injury,suppress the expression of inflammatory factors.Regulation of TLR4 pathway may be a promising therapeutic strategy for ALI.

10.
Chinese Journal of Behavioral Medicine and Brain Science ; (12): 208-210, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-414240

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effects of propofol on the development of spatial learning and memory and neuron proliferation of neonatal rats at different doses. Methods 60 neonatal rats were divided into four groups among per litter by using a randomized block design. Three different doses of propofol group were induced with propofol 10 mg/kg( group P10) ,50 mg/kg( group P50) or 50 mg/kg twice( group P50D) by subcutaneous injection respectively. Neuron proliferation at dentate gyrus was detected by using BrdU marker 3 days later.Morris water maze test was carried out on postnatal day 28. Escape latency,time in probe quadrant were recorded.Results Compared to the control group,neuron marked with BrdU at dentate gyrus in group P50D was significantly decreased( (840±76) vs (225 ±66), P<0.05) ,group P10 was significantly increased( (840 ±76) vs ( 1225± 154), P<0.05). Compared to the control group,latency of group P50D was significantly increased( ( 15.12 ±3.43 ) s vs (42.68 ± 6. 18 ) s, P < 0. 05 ), time in probe quadrant of group P50D were significantly decreased ( ( 55.66 ± 8.57 ) s vs (32. 18 ± 5. 38 ) s, P< 0. 05 ). Compared to the control group, there was no significant difference between group P50 and group P10. Conclusion Propofol given to seven-day-old rats with 50 mg/kg twice by subcutaneous injection suppresses neuron proliferation and impairs development of memory and learning in neonatal rats,but propofol given with 10 mg/kg once promotes neuron proliferation.

11.
Chinese Journal of Emergency Medicine ; (12): 17-21, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-396933

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the changes of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and blood brain barrier in cardiopulmonary resuscitation rats and effects of MMP-9 inhibitor on them.Method One hundred and twenty Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups:the sham-operated group,the resuscitation with treatment group and the resuseimfion without treatment group as control.The experiment was made in the animal experiment center of Sun Yat-sen University in Gtlangzhou.The rat eardiopulmonary resuscitation model was made by clipping trachea until asphyxia,and the restoration of spontaneous circulation(ROSC)Was defined by restoration of superventricular rhythm and mean artery pressure (MAP)≥60 mmHg for more than 5 min utes.The rats of sham-operated group were anesahetized only and endotracheal intubation WaS performed.In the resuscitation with treaUnent group ss-3cr(25,ng/ks body weight)Was given intraperitoneally after ROSC.The rats were sacrificed and samples of the brain tissue were taken inmaediately and 3 h,9 h,24 h and 48 h later.After that,the expression of MMP-9 and MMP-9 mRNA in brain tissue were detected.Water oontent and Evans blue in brain tissue Were observed.The uhmmicrostructure of brain tissue was observed under electron microscope.Analysis ofvariance wilE, done with Spssll.0 software.Results 11le expressions of MMP.9 and MMP-9m RNA ofbraintissueiUthe shanloperated group didn't show significant changees in all specimens taken at different intervals and neither the water content and tvans blue did.The Pvalue were 1.0000,0.6831,0.7124 and 0.99r75,respectively.There was no u1.tramicrostruclure change in the sham-operated group.The expressions of MMP_9 and MMP-9 mRNA in the resuscitation control group obviously increased after eardiopulmonary resuscitation,80 did the water content and Evans blue content.Compared with sham-operated group,the P value were 0.0264,0.0163,0.0000 and 0.0412,respee.tively.111e elge of ultmmicrostmeture in the resuscitation control group at different intervals were obvious.The changes of obove biomarkers in the resuscitation treatment group Was siroilar to but less in magnitude than those in the resuscitation control group.The P valHe were 0.0392,0.0373,0.O004 and 0.0180,respectively.Conclusions The expressions of MMP-9 and MMP.9 mRNA obviously increases in the cerebral ischemia model of rats with CPR,and reaches peak at 24 h.Water content and Evans blue content in brain risque obviously increases in the cerebral ischemia model of rats with CPR.BBB iS destroyed.and the peak time iS at 24 h.The injury of ultrami.crostructure of brain tissue under electron microscope iS obvious,and the peak time is at 24 h.The SB-3CT.specif-iC inhibitor of MMP-9 could decrease the expression of MMP-9 and decrease cerebral edema in the cerebral is.chemia modeJ of rats with CPR,and the protection from cerebral isehemia/reperfusion injury after CPR is obvious.

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