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1.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 7-14, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762461

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rapid and accurate diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is critical for initiating effective treatment and achieving better prognosis. We investigated the performance of copeptin for early diagnosis of AMI, in comparison with creatine kinase myocardial band (CK-MB) and troponin I (TnI). METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 271 patients presenting with chest pain (within six hours of onset), suggestive of acute coronary syndrome, at an emergency department (ED). Serum CK-MB, TnI, and copeptin levels were measured. The diagnostic performance of CK-MB, TnI, and copeptin, alone and in combination, for AMI was assessed by ROC curve analysis by comparing the area under the curve (AUC). Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of each marker were obtained, and the characteristics of each marker were analyzed. RESULTS: The patients were diagnosed as having ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI; N=43), non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI; N=25), unstable angina (N=78), or other diseases (N=125). AUC comparisons showed copeptin had significantly better diagnostic performance than TnI in patients with chest pain within two hours of onset (AMI: P=0.022, ≤1 hour; STEMI: P=0.017, ≤1 hour and P=0.010, ≤2 hours). In addition, TnI and copeptin in combination exhibited significantly better diagnostic performance than CK-MB plus TnI in AMI and STEMI patients. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of TnI and copeptin improves AMI diagnostic performance in patients with early-onset chest pain in an ED setting.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acute Coronary Syndrome , Angina, Unstable , Area Under Curve , Chest Pain , Creatine Kinase , Diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Myocardial Infarction , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Troponin I
2.
Korean Journal of Blood Transfusion ; : 159-164, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836488

ABSTRACT

In some cases, hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) show differences in the D antigen. In previous studies, there have been few cases of de novo anti-D alloimmunization, and even rarer cases of serious side effects or the outcomes. De novo anti-D alloimmunization has been reported to occur more frequently in minor D mismatch than in major D mismatch. For the RhD type of blood components, RhD-negative type is recommended in transfusion in RhD mismatch HSCT without anti-D in donors and recipients. But in situations of insufficient RhD-negative blood supply, this study suggests that the RhD type of blood components depends on the patients’ RhD type before transplantation, and it depends on the donors’ RhD type after transplantation, and an RhD-positive platelet transfusion may be available.

3.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 484-486, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717049

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Hemostasis
4.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 79-86, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-89168

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was aimed at analyzing the serotypes of group B streptococcus (GBS) isolated from Korean infants with invasive disease and evaluating their association with disease manifestation. METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected from invasive GBS infections at Gachon University Gil Medical Center from January 2006 to June 2012 and at Samsung Medical Center from April 2010 to November 2012. Serotypes were determined by slide agglutination test. RESULTS: A total of 37 cases were identified, which included 22 full-term infants and 15 preterm infants. Fifteen cases (40.5%) were early-onset, 19 (51.4%) was late-onset, and three (8.1%) was very late-onset. Early-onset diseases among preterm infants were higher than those among full-term infants (60.0% [9/15] vs. 27.3% [6/22], P =0.17). The most common manifestation was bacteremia (70.3%), followed by meningitis and septic arthritis. Among 24 isolates retrievable for serotyping, serotype III (41.7%) was most common, followed by V (16.7%), Ia, Ib, and II (12.5%, respectively), and non-typeable (4.2%). Serotype III was more common in isolates from full-term infants (10/22) than from preterm infants (0/15), whereas serotype V was more common in isolates from preterm infants (4/15) than from full-term infants (0/22) (P =0.002). No penicillin-resistant strain was detected, and resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin were both 64.9%. CONCLUSIONS: GBS is an important pathogen in both preterm and full-term infants, and serotype distribution of GBS causing invasive diseases can differ between preterm and full-term infants. It is necessary to monitor the nationwide epidemiology of GBS diseases, including in preterm infants, in order to prepare preventive measures without underestimating early-onset diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Agglutination Tests , Arthritis, Infectious , Bacteremia , Clindamycin , Epidemiology , Erythromycin , Hospitals, University , Infant, Premature , Korea , Meningitis , Retrospective Studies , Serogroup , Serotyping , Streptococcus , Streptococcus agalactiae
6.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 34-36, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100534

ABSTRACT

Cases of pediatric eosinophilic meningitis following duraplasty with a bovine graft have been reported. These patients recovered following the surgical removal of the dural graft or steroid therapy. Decompression for Chiari malformation is a common procedure in both pediatric and adult neurosurgery. We describe the case of a 33-yr-old male patient with eosinophilic meningitis following Chiari decompression via bovine graft duraplasty. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) study showed 49 red blood cells/μL and 129 leukocytes/μL with 17% eosinophils. There was no evidence of infectious disease. To our knowledge, this is the first report of adult eosinophilic meningitis after bovine graft duraplasty in Korea.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Arnold-Chiari Malformation , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Communicable Diseases , Decompression , Eosinophils , Korea , Meningitis , Neurosurgery , Transplants
7.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 35-41, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-153459

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cumulative blood culture data provide clinicians with important information in the selection of empiric therapy for blood stream infections. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed blood culture data from a university hospital during the period from 2006 to 2015. Only the initial isolates of a given species for each patient were included. RESULTS: The number of blood cultures per 1,000 inpatient-days increased from 64 in 2006 to 117 in 2015. The ratio of significant pathogens to total isolates was 0.56-0.63. The most common organisms were Escherichia coli in 2006-2010 but changed to coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) in 2011. The proportion of Staphylococci aureus was decreased during the study period, but Klebsiella pneumoniae was increased. Enterococci were increased, especially E. faecium, which was more frequently isolated than E. faecalis in 2015. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was decreased during the study, but Acinetobacter baumannii was increased. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) changed from 62.2% to 53.9%, while vancomycin-resistant E. faecium increased to 35.8%. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae increased to 25% and 34%, respectively, in 2015. Starting in 2008, three E. coli and 11 K. pneumoniae isolates were carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), and three were carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). The prevalence of imipenem-resistant A. baumannii rapidly increased during the study period. CONCLUSION: About 60% of all blood isolates were significant pathogens. The most common isolates changed from E. coli to CoNS in 2011. ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae, vancomycin-resistant E. faecium, and imipenem-resistant A. baumannii were increased during the study, while the proportion of MRSA tended to decrease slightly. Of the total isolates, 14 were CRE, and 3 were CPE.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acinetobacter baumannii , Bacteremia , beta-Lactamases , Enterobacteriaceae , Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Methicillin Resistance , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Pneumonia , Prevalence , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Retrospective Studies , Rivers
8.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 291-299, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-48343

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mutations in calreticulin (CALR) have been reported to be key markers in the molecular diagnosis of myeloid proliferative neoplasms. In most previous reports, CALR mutations were analyzed by using Sanger sequencing. Here, we report a new, rapid, and convenient system for screening CALR mutations without sequencing. METHODS: Eighty-three bone marrow samples were obtained from 81 patients with thrombocytosis. PCR primers were designed to detect wild-type CALR (product: 357 bp) and CALR with type 1 (product: 302 bp) and type 2 mutations (product: 272 bp) in one reaction. The results were confirmed by Sanger sequencing and compared with results from fragment analysis. RESULTS: The minimum detection limit of the screening PCR was 10 ng for type 1, 1 ng for type 2, and 0.1 ng for cases with both mutations. CALR type 1 and type 2 mutants were detected with screening PCR with a maximal analytical sensitivity of 3.2% and <0.8%, respectively. The screening PCR detected 94.1% (16/17) of mutation cases and showed concordant results with sequencing in the cases of type 1 and type 2 mutations. Sanger sequencing identified one novel mutation (c.1123_1132delinsTGC). Compared with sequencing, the screening PCR showed 94.1% sensitivity, 100.0% specificity, 100.0% positive predictive value, and 98.5% negative predictive value. Compared with fragment analysis, the screening PCR presented 88.9% sensitivity and 100.0% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: This screening PCR is a rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective method for the detection of major CALR mutations.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Base Sequence , Bone Marrow/metabolism , Calreticulin/chemistry , DNA Mutational Analysis , Follow-Up Studies , Genotype , Janus Kinase 2/chemistry , Mutation , Myeloproliferative Disorders/complications , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Thrombocytosis/complications
10.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 234-238, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-28863

ABSTRACT

Actinomyces meyeri is a Gram positive, strict anaerobic bacterium, which was first described by Meyer in 1911. Primary actinomycotic osteomyelitis is rare and primarily affects the cervicofacial region, including mandible. We present an unusual case of osteomyelitis of a long bone combined with myoabscess due to A. meyeri. A 70-year-old man was admitted for pain and pus discharge of the right elbow. Twenty-five days before admission, he had hit his elbow against a table. MRI of the elbow showed a partial tear of the distal triceps tendon and myositis. He underwent open debridement and partial bone resection for the osteomyelitis of the olecranon. Biopsy showed no sulfur granules, but acute and chronic osteomyelitis. The excised tissue grew A. meyeri and Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus. Intravenous ceftriaxone was administered and switched to oral amoxicillin. Infection of the extremities of actinomycosis often poses diagnostic difficulties, but it should not be neglected even when the characteristic pathologic findings are not present.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Actinomyces , Actinomycosis , Amoxicillin , Biopsy , Ceftriaxone , Debridement , Elbow , Extremities , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mandible , Myositis , Olecranon Process , Osteomyelitis , Sulfur , Suppuration , Tears , Tendons
11.
Korean Journal of Pancreas and Biliary Tract ; : 34-39, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-98131

ABSTRACT

Infected walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN) is dangerous complication of acute pancreatitis. Open necrosectomy and post-operative irrigation of necrotic cavity have been conventional treatment for infected pancreatic necrosis, however, recently minimally invasive techniques such as endoscopic necrosectomy has been regarded as preferred treatment method for infected WOPN. Endoscopic necrosectomy provides a targeted approach with a reduction in the systemic inflammatory response and avoidance of wound complications. Non alcohol related Wernicke encephalopathy is rare disease caused by thiamine deficiency due to intravenous feeding, and presented an encephalopathy, oculomotor dysfunction, gait ataxia. We report herein a case of Wernicke encephalopathy after successful endoscopic necrosectomy for infected WOPN.


Subject(s)
Gait Ataxia , Necrosis , Pancreatitis , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing , Parenteral Nutrition , Rare Diseases , Thiamine Deficiency , Wernicke Encephalopathy , Wounds and Injuries
12.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 169-172, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65763

ABSTRACT

Ramsay Hunt syndrome is caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus in the geniculate ganglion of the sensory branch in the face and ears. It is characterized by peripheral facial palsy, ear pain, and vesicles in the auditory canal and auricle. We report on a first case of Ramsay Hunt syndrome in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus in Korea. The patient, a 40-year-old male, first presented with otalgia and ear fullness. On admission, he had right facial palsy of the peripheral type, otorrhea, headache, limited tongue movement, and right auricle vesicular eruptions. He had positive human immunodeficiency virus antibody and Western blot tests. His CD4 T cell count was 281/microL. The patient was treated with valacyclovir and steroid with highly active antiretroviral therapy. His symptoms and facial palsy improved with treatment.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Humans , Male , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Blotting, Western , Cell Count , Ear , Earache , Facial Paralysis , Geniculate Ganglion , Headache , Herpes Zoster Oticus , Herpesvirus 3, Human , HIV , Korea , Tongue
13.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 60-63, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-173767

ABSTRACT

The number of massive transfusions for pediatric patients has risen owing to the increasing number of complex surgeries and trauma centers. However, as there are only a few studies on pediatric massive transfusion, adult massive transfusion protocols are used for pediatric patients in many hospitals and institutions. Although massive transfusion protocols would improve the outcomes and reduce the received blood products during transfusion, pediatric patients differ from adults in the tolerability to transfusion, incidence of coagulopathy, and mechanisms of injuries. Therefore clinical physicians have requested for a pediatric massive transfusion protocol. Herein, we reviewed pediatric massive transfusion protocols that have been used in various clinical settings. To date, only a few single-center studies with a small number of pediatric patients have been performed. Even though these studies did not show improvement in outcomes such as mortality and side effects, they reported a short preparation time for fresh frozen plasma products and a low coagulopathy rate in pediatric massive transfusion groups. Therefore, large, prospective, multicenter studies are needed to identify the empiric ratio of blood products for improving outcomes of pediatric patients who need massive transfusion.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Incidence , Mortality , Plasma , Prospective Studies , Trauma Centers
14.
Blood Research ; : 133-137, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-203293

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute
15.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 420-426, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-59854

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Amino-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a well-established prognostic factor in heart failure (HF). However, numerous causes may lead to elevations in NT-proBNP, and thus, an increased NT-proBNP level alone is not sufficient to predict outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of two acute response markers, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP), in patients with an increased NT-proBNP level. METHODS: The 278 patients were classified into three groups by etiology: 1) acute coronary syndrome (ACS) (n=62), 2) non-ACS cardiac disease (n=156), and 3) infectious disease (n=60). Survival was determined on day 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 60, 90, 120, and 150 after enrollment. RESULTS: H-FABP (P<0.001), NT-proBNP (P=0.006), hsCRP (P<0.001) levels, and survival (P<0.001) were significantly different in the three disease groups. Patients were divided into three classes by using receiver operating characteristic curves for NT-proBNP, H-FABP, and hsCRP. Patients with elevated NT-proBNP (≥3,856 pg/mL) and H-FABP (≥8.8 ng/mL) levels were associated with higher hazard ratio for mortality (5.15 in NT-proBNP and 3.25 in H-FABP). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed H-FABP was a better predictor of 60-day mortality than NT-proBNP. CONCLUSIONS: The combined measurement of H-FABP with NT-proBNP provides a highly reliable means of short-term mortality prediction for patients hospitalized for ACS, non-ACS cardiac disease, or infectious disease.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Acute Coronary Syndrome/blood , Area Under Curve , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins/blood , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , ROC Curve
16.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 149-156, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-20544

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hepcidin, a key regulator of iron homeostasis, is associated with iron metabolism imbalance in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, serum hepcidin level in anemic patients with CKD presents a contradictory picture. We investigated the relationship between serum hepcidin-25 level and iron parameters in patients with CKD. METHODS: We defined and categorized patients with CKD according to the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) guidelines. We analyzed the relationship between serum hepcidin-25 level and iron parameters [serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), unbound iron-binding capacity (UIBC), transferrin saturation, and ferritin levels] according to the CKD stage and clinical and laboratory characteristics. RESULTS: Hb level, TIBC, and UIBC decreased and ferritin level increased (Ptrend0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Serum hepcidin-25 level was not found to be associated with iron parameters or clinical status of CKD patients in our study. Determination of hepcidin-25 levels may not provide more information than conventional iron parameters in monitoring iron metabolism in CKD patients. However, further studies are needed to establish the clinical utility of hepcidin measurement in CKD patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anemia , Ferritins , Hepcidins , Homeostasis , Iron , Kidney , Kidney Diseases , Metabolism , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Transferrin
17.
Korean Journal of Blood Transfusion ; : 54-59, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114282

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Di(a) antigen has been detected with a relatively higher incidence among Koreans with a frequency of 6.4 to 14.5%. In South Korea, commonly used unexpected antibody screening panels do not include Di(a) antigen positive cells. We screened patients who previously received multiple packed red cell transfusion using two cells without Di(a) antigen and three cells including Di(a) antigen to evaluate the effectiveness of three screening cells. METHODS: A total of 307 patients who had received packed red cell transfusion more than three times during the last 6 months in our hospital were enrolled. They were employed for unexpected antibody screening test using two sets of screening cells not including Di(a) antigen and three sets including Di(a) antigen by LISS/Coombs gel card. RESULTS: Among 307 patients, 12 were positive using two cells and 15 were positive using three cells. Three patients showed discordant result and one of them was positive for the cell including Di(a) antigen (0.33%). Antibody identification was performed using the panel which does not include Di(a) antigen and it was negative for all of the antigens listed on the panel so that the presence of anti-Di(a) was suspected. CONCLUSION: It can be difficult to use three cells including Di(a) antigen for all patients due to cost, however, use of three cells is recommended in patients with multiple transfusion history.


Subject(s)
Humans , Incidence , Korea , Mass Screening
18.
Journal of Laboratory Medicine and Quality Assurance ; : 29-36, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-61453

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Automated assays have recently been developed for efficient serological testing of syphilis infection. Here, we evaluate the performance of new automated serological assays for syphilis infection. METHODS: The precision, linearity, and detection limit of the automated kits AutoLab rapid plasma reagin (RPR) (IVD-RPR) and AutoLab (Treponema pallidum Latex Agglutination) TPLA (IVD-TPLA) (IVDLab Co., Korea) were evaluated using an immunoturbidimetric method. In addition, the results of these tests were compared with those obtained using the HiSens Auto RPR LTIA (HBi-RPR) and HiSens Auto TP LTIA (HBi-TPLA) tests (HBi Co., Korea) with 122 serum samples. RESULTS: Both the IVD-RPR and IVD-TPLA kits showed acceptable precision for the positive controls (IVDLab Co., Korea). The within-run and total precision of IVD-RPR were better than those of HBi-RPR at cut-off levels (CV, 7.0% to 7.4% for IVD-RPR; CV, 33.3% to 40.0% for HBi-RPR). The IVD-RPR and IVD-TPLA kits demonstrated acceptable linearity and limits of detection. The agreement rate between IVD-RPR and HBi-RPR was 83.60% (102/122). Nineteen samples were IVD-RPR negative but HBi-RPR positive; 12 of these were from patients with a history of syphilis. The agreement rate between IVD-TPLA and HBi-TPLA was 96.72% (118/122). All discrepant results were IVD-TPLA positive and HBi-TPLA negative. CONCLUSIONS: IVD-RPR and IVD-TPLA exhibited acceptable precision, linearity, and limits of detection for the diagnosis of syphilis infection. IVD-RPR was suitable for monitoring syphilis infections with good precision that was near cut-off levels. IVD-TPLA was useful for detecting primary syphilis infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Agglutination , Diagnosis , Latex , Limit of Detection , Plasma , Serologic Tests , Syphilis , Treponema pallidum
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 467-475, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-19539

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Inadequate empirical therapy for severe infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBLEC) is associated with poor outcomes. This study was designed to investigate risk factors for community-onset ESBLEC bacteremia at admission to a tertiary care hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case-control study was performed that included all episodes of ESBLEC bacteremia in the outpatient department or within 48 hours of admission from January 2005 to March 2009. Data on predisposing factors were collected. The molecular epidemiology of ESBLEC clinical isolates was also determined. RESULTS: Among 25281 blood cultures, 60 episodes of ESBLEC bacteremia were studied, which accounted for 7% of all E. coli bacteremia at admission. Healthcare-associated infection [odds ratio (OR), 8.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.4-28.7; p=0.001], malignancy (OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.3-16.3; p=0.018), urinary tract infection (OR, 139.1; 95% CI, 24.6-788.2; p<0.001), hepatobiliary infection (OR, 79.1; 95% CI, 13.5-463.8; p<0.001), third generation cephalosporin usage during preceding 3 months (OR, 16.4; 95% CI, 2.0-131.8; p=0.008), and severe sepsis/septic shock (OR, 73.7; 95% CI, 12.4-438.5; p<0.001) were determined as independent risk factors for community-onset ESBLEC bacteremia. The most common extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) gene identified was bla(CTX-M-15) (n=31) followed by bla(CTX-M-14) (n=23). CONCLUSION: The most common types of ESBLs in E. coli causing community-onset bacteremia were CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-14 in Korea. By result of decision tree analysis, the empirical use of carbapenems is suggested only for patients with severe sepsis/septic shock, hepatobiliary infection, or healthcare-associated urinary tract infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacteremia , beta-Lactamases , Carbapenems , Case-Control Studies , Causality , Confidence Intervals , Decision Trees , Escherichia coli , Escherichia , Korea , Methods , Molecular Epidemiology , Outpatients , Risk Factors , Shock , Tertiary Healthcare , Urinary Tract Infections
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