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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873741

ABSTRACT

Since 2015 when the transmission of schistosomiasis was controlled in China, the country has been moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis, with the surveillance-response as the main interventions for schistosomiasis control. During the period of the 13th Five-Year Plan, the transmission of schistosomiasis had been interrupted in four provinces of Sichuan, Jiangsu, Yunnan and Hubei and the prevalence of schistosomiasis has been at the historically lowest level in China. As a consequence, the goal set in The 13th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China is almost achieved. However, there are multiple challenges during the stage moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis in China, including the widespread distribution of intermediate host snails and complicated snail habitats, many types of sources of Schistosoma japonicum infections and difficulty in management of bovines and sheep, unmet requirements for the current schistosomiasis control program with the currently available tools, and vulnerable control achievements. During the 14th Five-Year period, it is crucial to consolidate the schistosomiasis control achievements and gradually solve the above difficulties, and critical to provide the basis for achieving the ultimate goal of elimination of schistosomiasis in China. Based on the past experiences from the national schistosomiasis control program and the challenges for schistosomiasis elimination in China, an expert consensus has been reached pertaining to the objectives, control strategy and measures for The 14th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China, so as to provide insights in to the development of The 14th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882025

ABSTRACT

This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2020, and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, Shanghai Municipality, Zhejiang Province, Fujian Province, Guangdong Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, and Sichuan and Jiangsu provinces maintained the criteria of transmission interruption, while Yunnan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan provinces maintained the criteria of transmission control by the end of 2020. A total of 450 counties (cites, districts) were found to be endemic for schistosomiasis in China, with 28 376 endemic villages covering 71 370 400 people at risk of infections. Among the 450 endemic counties (cities, districts), 74.89% (337/450), 21.87% (98/450) and 3.33% (15/450) achieved the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control of schistosomiasis, respectively. By the end of 2020, 29 517 cases with advanced schistosomiasis were documented in China. In 2020, 11 117 655 individuals received inquiry examinations and 1 798 580 were positive; 5 263 082 individuals received serological tests and 83 179 were sero-positive. A total of 273 712 individuals received stool examinations and 3 were positive, including one case of acute schistosomiasis. In 2020, snail survey was performed in 19 733 endemic villages in China and Oncomelania snails were found in 7 309 villages, accounting for 37.04% of all surveyed villages, with 15 villages identified with emerging snail habitats. Snail survey covered an area of 736 984.13 hm2 and 206 125.22 hm2 snail habitats were found, including 1 174.67 hm2 emerging snail habitats and 1.96 hm2 habitats with infected snails. In 2020, 544 424 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis-endemic areas of China, and 147 887 received serological examinations, with 326 positives detected, while 130 673 bovines received stool examinations, with no positives identified. In 2020, there were 19 214 patients with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and 964 103 person-time individuals and 266 280 herd-time bovines were given expanded chemotherapy. In 2020, molluscicide treatment was performed in 136 141.92 hm2 snail habitats, and the actual area of chemical treatment was 71 980.22 hm2, while environmental improvements were performed in snail habitats covering an area of 1 464.03 hm2. Data from the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections were both zero in humans and bovines in 2020, and no S. japonicum infection was detected in snails. The results demonstrate that the overall endemic status of schistosomiasis remains at a low level in China and the goal of the National Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for Schistosomiasis Control was achieved as scheduled; however, the endemic situation of schistosomiasis rebounded in local areas. Precision schistosomiasis control and intensified monitoring of the endemic situation and transmission risk of schistosomiasis are required to be performed to facilitate the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis steadily.

3.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 185-190, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881006

ABSTRACT

After one-month of oral treatment with traditional Chinese medicine decoction, without using other drugs, the lung inflammatory exudate, pulmonary fibrosis and quality of life of a 61-year-old female patient with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were significantly improved. No recurrence or deterioration of the patient's condition was found within seven weeks of treatment and follow-up, and no adverse events occurred, indicating that oral Chinese medicine decoction was able to improve the pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in a patient recovering from COVID-19, but further research is still needed.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , COVID-19/virology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Exudates and Transudates , Female , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Lung/pathology , Magnoliopsida , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged , Phytotherapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876703

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the monitoring data of Oncomelania hupensis in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2015 to 2019, so as to understand the changes of Oncomelania snail status in the schistosomiasis-endemic areas of China and to provide the scientific evidence for Oncomelania snail control. Methods According to the requirements of National Scheme for Schistosomiasis Surveillance in China (2014 Edition), national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were assigned in all schistosomiasis-endemic counties (cities, districts) and the potential endemic counties (cities, districts) in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas, and Oncomelania snail status was monitored according to different epidemic types. In endemic areas, Oncomelania snail survey was performed by means of systematic sampling and environmental sampling, and the occurrence of frames with Oncomelania snails and the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections in Oncomelania snails were calculated, while in potential endemic areas, the risk of imported Oncomelania snails and Oncomelania snails in floating debris were monitored. Results Oncomelania snail survey was performed covering an area of 116 834.16 hm2 in the national schistosomiasis surveillance of China from 2015 to 2019, with 35 007.62 hm2 Oncomelania snail habitats identified. A total of 6 908 292 frames were surveyed during the 5-year period, and there were 364 555 frames detected with Oncomelania snails, with a 5.28% mean occurrence of frames with Oncomelania snails. Among 997 508 living Oncomelania snails captured, no S. japonicum infections were detected, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay detected 18 positive mixed Oncomelania snail samples. During the period from 2015 to 2019, 147.20 hm2 emerging Oncomelania snail habitats were identified, with an overall tendency towards a rise seen in the proportion of emerging Oncomelania snail habitats in plain regions with waterway networks (0.12% to 92.00%), a tendency towards a rise followed by decline seen in marshland and lake regions (0 to 96.72%), and a large fluctuation in hilly regions (0 to 88.49%). A total of 831.10 hm2 re-emerging Oncomelania snail habitats were found in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2015 to 2019, with an overall tendency towards a rise seen in the proportion of re-emerging Oncomelania snail habitats in marshland and lake regions (16.05% to 79.66%), an overall tendency towards a decline seen in hilly regions (19.25% to 81.00%), and a minor fluctuation in plain regions with waterway networks (1.10% to 10.14%). During the 5-year period from 2015 to 2019, a total of 48 656 kg floating debris were captured in 4 surveillance sites in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas, and 2 204 snails were found, with no Oncomelania snails identified. Conclusions The areas of Oncomelania snail habitats tended to be stable in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China during the period from 2015 to 2019, however, there was a gradual rise in the area of Oncomelania snail habitats year by year, and LAMP assay identified positive Oncomelania snail samples, suggesting Oncomelania snail control is far from optimistic in China.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876702

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the morbidity due to Schistosoma japonicum in national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2015 to 2019, so as to provide insights into schistosomiasis control and elimination and provide the scientific evidence for formulating the new scheme for schistosomiasis surveillance in China. Methods According to the requirements of National Scheme for Schistosomiasis Surveillance in China (2014 Edition), national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were assigned in all schistosomiasis-endemic counties (cities, districts) and the potential endemic counties (cities, districts) in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas, and S. japonicum infections were monitored in local residents, mobile populations and livestock according to different epidemic types. The sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections, adjusted prevalence of human S. japonicum infections, characteristics of egg-positive individuals and prevalence of S. japonicum infections livestock were analyzed. Results S. japonicum infections were monitored in 453 schistosomiasis-endemic counties (cities, districts) from 13 provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) and 4 potential endemic counties (cities, districts) from the Three Gorges Reservoir areas in China from 2015 to 2019. During the 5-year period from 2015 to 2019, the sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections reduced from 3.35% to 1.63% among local residents and from 1.15% to 0.75% among mobile populations, while the adjusted prevalence of infections reduced from 0.05% to 0 among local residents and from 0.20% to 0.001 03% among mobile populations. There were significant differences in the sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections among local residents and mobile populations in terms of province, occupation and age (all P values < 0.05). A total of 132 egg-positives were identified during the 5-year period, including 97 local residents (inter-quartile range for ages, 47 to 61 years), and 35 mobile populations (inter-quartile range for ages, 26 to 48 years), and there was a significant difference in the age distribution between local residents and mobile populations (P < 0.05). There were totally 6 bovines (5 in 2015 and 1 in 2016) identified with S. japonicum infections in national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China, with no S. japonicum infections detected in bovines from 2017 to 2019. Conclusions The prevalence of schistosomiasis is very low in China. Further surveillance including more mobile surveillance sites seems justified to identify the risk of schistosomiasis as soon as possible and interrupt the transmission route, so as to facilitate the elimination of schistosomiasis in China.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812930

ABSTRACT

Objective To quantitatively evaluate the diagnostic value of variable-temperature and isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques in the detection of schistosomiasis japonica using a meta-analysis. Methods The publications pertaining to the nucleic acid detection of schistosomiasis japonica were searched in electronic databases, including Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Data, PubMed and ScienceDirect, and the compilations and proceedings of schistosomiasis were manually searched. In addition, the citations of publications associated with the nucleic acid detection of schistosomiasis japonica were traced using a document tracing method. The retrieved literatures were screened according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and data were extracted from the included literatures. The quality of the included literatures was assessed using the software RevMan version 5.3, and a meta-analysis was performed using the software MetaDiSc version 1.4. Results A total of 19 publications covering 24 groups of studies were enrolled, including 5 Chinese publications and 14 English publications. There were 17 groups of studies reporting the comparison between the variable-temperature nucleic acid amplification technique and the golden standard, and 7 groups of studies showing the comparison between the isothermal nucleic acid amplification technique and the golden standard. Assessment of the literature quality indicated a minor overall bias of the included literatures, and the Deek funnel plot showed a possible publication bias in the documents reports variable-temperature nucleic acid amplification techniques. There was a heterogeneity caused by non-threshold effect among the studies associated with the variable-temperature amplification technique, and the random effects model was therefore used to combine the effects. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of the variable-temperature amplification technique were 0.81 (0.79 to 0.83) and 0.73 (0.71 to 0.74) for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica, and area under the SROC curve was 0.944 3. There was no heterogeneity among the studies associated with the isothermal amplification technique, and the fixed effects model was therefore used to combine the effects. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of the isothermal amplification technique were 0.96 (0.94 to 0.98) and 0.95 (0.94 to 0.97) for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica, and area under the SROC curve was 0.989 9. Conclusions Both variable-temperature and isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques have a high efficiency for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica, and the isothermal amplification technique shows a relatively higher accuracy than the variable-temperature amplification technique.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837609

ABSTRACT

This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2019, and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 455 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, Sichuan Province achieved transmission interruption, Jiangsu newly achieved the standard of transmission interruption and 5 provinces of Yunnan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan maintained transmission control by the end of 2019. There were 450 endemic counties (cities, districts) endemic for schistosomiasis, including 28 500 endemic villages covering 70 667 800 people at risk of infections. Among the 450 endemic counties (citis, districts), 66.89% (301/450), 28.44% (128/450) and 4.67% (21/450) kept the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control of schistosomiasis, respectively. By the end of 2019, a total of 30 170 advanced schistosomiasis cases were documented in China. In 2019, a total of 12 090 712 individuals received inquiry examinations and 1 740 764 were positive; 5 158 369 individuals received serological tests and 89 753 were seropositive. A total of 327 475 individuals received stool examinations and 5 were positive, including one case of acute schistosomiasis. In 2019, snail survey was performed in 19 726 endemic villages in China and Oncomelania snails were found in 7 322 villages, accounting for 37.12% of all surveyed villages, with 6 villages with emerging snail habitats. Snail survey covered an area of 585 286.24 hm2 and 174 270.42 hm2 snail habitats were found, including emerging snail habitats of 64.20 hm2; however, no infected snails were identified. In 2019, a total of 605 965 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas of China, and 183 313 received serological examinations, with 1 176 positives detected, while 134 978 bovines received stool examinations, with 7 positives identified. In 2019, there were 28 557 patients with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and expanded chemotherapy was given to 1 008 083 person-times; there were 7 bovines with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and 296 053 herd-times expanded chemotherapy was given to bovines. In 2019, snail habitats at an area of 128 754.26 hm2 were given chemical treatment, and the actual area of chemical treatment was 69 605.55 hm2, while environmental improvements were performed in snail habitats covering an area of 2 847.00 hm2. Data from the 455 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean Schistosoma japonicum infection rates were both zero in humans and bovines in 2019, and no infected snails were found. The results demonstrate that the overall endemic situation of schistosomiasis remains at a lower infection level in China; however, there is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission. To achieve the target set in the National Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for Schistosomiasis Control and consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis control, precision control on schistosomiasis still needs to be reinforced in China.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818971

ABSTRACT

The construction of Yangtze River Economic Belt has been included in the national strategy of China, aiming to improve the economic level of the whole population, and to build a green ecological corridor with the joint development of economy, balance, ecology and equity. Yangtze River Economic Belt is the main area where schistosomiasis is endemic. During the economic construction, the prevention and control of schistosomiasis should be strictly carried out to facilitate the progress towards schistosomiasis elimination in China. In this paper, the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in Yangtze River Economic Belt areas and the possible impact on the schistosomiasis control were analyzed. In addition, a few suggestions were proposed for schistosomiasis control in Yangtze River Economic Belt areas.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818519

ABSTRACT

The construction of Yangtze River Economic Belt has been included in the national strategy of China, aiming to improve the economic level of the whole population, and to build a green ecological corridor with the joint development of economy, balance, ecology and equity. Yangtze River Economic Belt is the main area where schistosomiasis is endemic. During the economic construction, the prevention and control of schistosomiasis should be strictly carried out to facilitate the progress towards schistosomiasis elimination in China. In this paper, the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in Yangtze River Economic Belt areas and the possible impact on the schistosomiasis control were analyzed. In addition, a few suggestions were proposed for schistosomiasis control in Yangtze River Economic Belt areas.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-704272

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the endemic situation and distribution features of schistosomiasis in Xinjian District,Nanchang City,Jiangxi Province from 2009 to 2014,so as to provide a reference for the prevention and control of schistosomia-sis in the future.Methods The endemic data of schistosomiasis in Xinjian District were collected by taking the village as a unit from 2009 to 2014.An endemic database was established,and the SaTScan software was applied to analyze the spatiotemporal aggregation areas of Schistosoma japonicum infection in crowd,Oncomelania hupensis snails and cattle.Results The S.japoni-cum infection rate of crowd was decreased from 0.10%in 2009 to 0.000 68%in 2014.The infection rate of O.hupensis snails was greatly fluctuated from 2009 to 2014,the highest was 1.04%in 2012,but it fell to 0 in 2014.The highest infection rate of cattle was 1.98%in 2012,and it fell to 0 in 2014.The spatial temporal clustering detection showed that three areas of crowd infection were mainly concentrated in 20 villages of Changyi Township,Lianyu Township and Songhu Town;two areas of snail infection were mainly concentrated in five villages of Changyi Township and Nanji Township;one area of cattle infection was mainly con-centrated in three villages of Changyi Township.Conclusions The endemic situation of schistosomiasis presents a declining trend in Xinjian District from 2009 to 2014 as a whole.However,the potential risks of the rebound of the disease still exist,and the six clustering areas of infection are still the key areas for the prevention and control of schistosomiasis in the future.

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