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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928633

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To develop the birth weight curve of singleton neonates with a gestational age of 24-42 weeks, and to investigate the regional differences of the birth weight curve.@*METHODS@#A total of 11 maternal and child health hospitals with more than 7 000 neonates delivered annually were selected in 11 cities of China (Haikou, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Liuzhou, Guilin, Quanzhou, Chongqing, Chengdu, Changsha, Ningbo, and Lianyungang), and all live singleton neonates delivered in the 11 hospitals from January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2020 were enrolled for the development of birth weight curves.@*RESULTS@#A total of 93 720 singleton neonates with a gestational age of 24-42 weeks from the 11 cities were included in the study. The reference values of the 3rd-97th percentiles of birth weight of singleton neonates for the total of the 11 cities and for each of the 11 cities were established, and the birth weight percentile curves were drawn. The birth weight curve level of singleton neonates in Shenzhen and Quanzhou was almost the same as the average level of the 11 cities; the birth weight curve level of singleton neonates in Haikou, Guangzhou, Guilin, and Liuzhou was slightly lower than the average level of the 11 cities; the birth weight curve level of singleton neonates in Chongqing, Chengdu, and Changsha was slightly higher than the average level of the 11 cities; the birth weight curve level of singleton neonates in Ningbo and Lianyungang was higher than the average level of the 11 cities. The average birth weight curve level of singleton neonates in the 11 cities were very close to that of China Neonatal Cooperation Network in 2011-2014.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The reference values of the 3rd-97th percentiles of birth weight of singleton neonates for the total of the 11 cities and for each of the 11 cities are developed, which can be used as a reference for evaluating the intrauterine growth of singleton neonates in the region. The level of intrauterine growth of neonates in some cities is different from the national level.


Subject(s)
Birth Weight , Child , China , Cities , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Reference Values
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928578

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the incidence of extrauterine growth retardation (EUGR) and its risk factors in very preterm infants (VPIs) during hospitalization in China.@*METHODS@#A prospective multicenter study was performed on the medical data of 2 514 VPIs who were hospitalized in the department of neonatology in 28 hospitals from 7 areas of China between September 2019 and December 2020. According to the presence or absence of EUGR based on the evaluation of body weight at the corrected gestational age of 36 weeks or at discharge, the VPIs were classified to two groups: EUGR group (n=1 189) and non-EUGR (n=1 325). The clinical features were compared between the two groups, and the incidence of EUGR and risk factors for EUGR were examined.@*RESULTS@#The incidence of EUGR was 47.30% (1 189/2 514) evaluated by weight. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that higher weight growth velocity after regaining birth weight and higher cumulative calorie intake during the first week of hospitalization were protective factors against EUGR (P<0.05), while small-for-gestational-age birth, prolonged time to the initiation of total enteral feeding, prolonged cumulative fasting time, lower breast milk intake before starting human milk fortifiers, prolonged time to the initiation of full fortified feeding, and moderate-to-severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia were risk factors for EUGR (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#It is crucial to reduce the incidence of EUGR by achieving total enteral feeding as early as possible, strengthening breastfeeding, increasing calorie intake in the first week after birth, improving the velocity of weight gain, and preventing moderate-severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia in VPIs.


Subject(s)
Female , Fetal Growth Retardation , Gestational Age , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928207

ABSTRACT

Cell migration is defined as the directional movement of cells toward a specific chemical concentration gradient, which plays a crucial role in embryo development, wound healing and tumor metastasis. However, current research methods showed low flux and are only suitable for single-factor assessment, and it was difficult to comprehensively consider the effects of other parameters such as different concentration gradients on cell migration behavior. In this paper, a four-channel microfluidic chip was designed. Its characteristics were as follows: it relied on laminar flow and diffusion mechanisms to establish and maintain a concentration gradient; it was suitable for observation of cell migration in different concentration gradient environment under a single microscope field; four cell isolation zones (20 μm width) were integrated into the microfluidic device to calibrate the initial cell position, which ensured the accuracy of the experimental results. In particular, we used COMSOL Multiphysics software to simulate the structure of the chip, which demonstrated the necessity of designing S-shaped microchannel and horizontal pressure balance channel to maintain concentration gradient. Finally, neutrophils were incubated with advanced glycation end products (AGEs, 0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 μmol·L -1), which were closely related to diabetes mellitus and its complications. The migration behavior of incubated neutrophils was studied in the 100 nmol·L -1 of chemokine (N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenyl-alanine) concentration gradient. The results prove the reliability and practicability of the microfluidic chip.


Subject(s)
Cell Movement , Chemotaxis , Equipment Design , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Microfluidic Analytical Techniques , Microfluidics , Neutrophils , Reproducibility of Results
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928056

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the regulatory effect of Sishen Pills(SSP) and its split prescriptions Ershen Pills(EP) and Wuweizi Powder(WP) on T follicular helper(Tfh) cell subset in the dextran sodium sulfate(DSS)-induced colitis mice and the mechanism. A total of 60 male SPF BALB/c mice were used, 10 of which were randomly selected as the normal group. The rest 50 were induced with 3% DSS solution for colitis modeling. After modeling, they were randomized into 5 groups: model group, SSP group, EP group, WP group, and mesalazine group. Body mass, colon mass, colon mass index, colon length, and unit colon mass index in each group were observed. After hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining, the pathological injury of colon tissue was scored. The expression levels of molecules related to the STAT/SOCS signaling pathway in colon tissues were analyzed by Western blot. Differentiation levels of Tfh cells such as CD4~+CXCR5~+IL-9~+(Tfh9), CD4~+CXCR5~+IL-17~+(Tfh17), and CD4~+CXCR5~+Foxp3~+(Tfr) in peripheral blood of mice were detected by flow cytometry. The results showed each treatment group demonstrated significant increase in body mass and colon length, decrease in colon mass, colon mass index, unit colon mass index, and histopathological score(P<0.05, P<0.01), reduction of the expression of p-STAT3, STAT3, p-STAT6, and STAT6(P<0.05, P<0.01), rise of the expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3(P<0.05, P<0.01), decrease of Tfh9 and Tfh17 cells, and increase of Tfr cells(P<0.05, P<0.01) compared with the model group. These results indicated that SSP and the split EP and WP may alleviate ulcerative colitis by inhibiting the activation of STAT/SOCS signaling pathway and regulating the balance of Tfr/Tfh9/Tfh17 cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Colitis/genetics , Colitis, Ulcerative/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Prescriptions , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927887

ABSTRACT

Candida vertebral osteomyelitis,a rare but challenging clinical disease without specific clinical manifestations,is prone to delay in diagnosis,with potential risks of serious complications.Therefore,early diagnosis is the key to improving the cure rate of this disease.A case of invasive candida lumbar osteomyelitis after gastrointestinal surgery is reported in this paper.We analyzed the clinical characteristics of the patient and reviewed the relevant literature,aiming to improve the early diagnosis and treatment of this disease.


Subject(s)
Candida , Candidiasis/drug therapy , Humans , Lumbar Vertebrae , Osteomyelitis/drug therapy
6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1289-1300, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924759

ABSTRACT

Virus infection is a serious threat to human health and social development. The increase in pandemics caused by emerging and re-emerging viruses highlights the urgent need for broad-spectrum antivirals. In this perspective, we highlight recent case studies and summarize the universal strategies and methodologies in broad-spectrum antiviral drug discovery from common targets, common steps in viral life cycle, universal strategies, and broad-spectrum molecules, hoping to provide valuable guidance for the current and future development of antiviral drugs.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923771

ABSTRACT

Malaria caused a heavy disease, economic and social burdens in China. Following 70-year concerted efforts, China has been awarded a malaria-free certification by the WHO on June 2021. This paper summarizes the control strategies of Anopheles vectors from malaria control to post-elimination stages in China, emphasizes the risk of imported malaria cases caused re-transmission and the challenges of Anopheles control after malaria elimination in China. Sustainable and precise vector control is still required in China during the post-elimination stage to consolidate malaria elimination achievements in the country. In addition, China’s innovative vector control strategies, technologies and experiences will contribute to global malaria control and elimination programs.

8.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 842-847, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923191

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To study the quality grade stand ard of the premature Forsythia suspensa . METHODS A total of 138 batches of premature F. suspensa were collected from the main producing areas of F. suspensa in China. According to 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia ,the contents of impurities ,moisture,ethanol-soluble extract ,volatile oil ,forsythin and forsythoside A in the premature F. suspense were determined ,and the qualified samples were screened. AHP-PCA mixed weighting method was used to give comprehensive weight to the indicators (except for the limit of impurity ). The comprehensive score of the samples was calculated. The suggestions on the quality grade division of premature F. suspensa were put forward according to cluster analysis of K-mean value. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS The contents of impurities ,moisture,ethanol-soluble extract ,volatile oil ,forsythin and forsythoside A in the premature F. suspense were 0-7.80%,1.60%-8.18%,13.13%-61.60%,0.21%-3.47%,0.02%-2.15% and 0.79%-14.04%,respectively;average contents of them were 1.24%,4.97%,34.88%,2.01%,0.42%,6.86%,respectively. Totally 47 batches of 138 batches were qualified in all indexes. It is suggested that the quality grade of the premature F. suspense can be divided into three grades :in first grade of F. suspense ,the contents of volatile oil ,forsythin,forsythoside A , ethanol-soluble extract and moisture were ≥2.40%,≥0.59%,≥8.34%,≥38.66% and ≤4.99%,respectively;in second grade of F. suspense ,the contents of above indicators were ≥2.26%,≥0.41%,≥7.47%,≥32.58% and ≤5.33%,respectively;in third grade of F. suspense ,the contents of above indicators were ≥2.15%,≥0.32%,≥4.60%,≥31.52% and≤7.23%,respectively.

9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 576-592, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922887

ABSTRACT

Over the course of human civilization, viral infections have been a part of human life and still represent one of the heaviest burdens for human and society, with a huge devastating socioeconomic impact. Inorganic and bioinorganic chemistry have made important contributions to medical science and human health in the past half century. In this paper, we selected the representative cases in recent years, and reviewed the research progress of antiviral drug discovery from the perspective of bioinorganic chemistry.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-862750

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effects of NovoRapid and biosynthetic human insulin (Novolin-R) on serum cystatin C (Cys C) and homocysteine ​​(HCY) and pregnancy outcome in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods A total of 216 cases of GDM pregnant women admitted to our hospital from February 2017 to December 2018 were selected. The patients were divided into observation group (n=112) and control group (n=104) according to the random number table method. Patients in the observation group received NovoRapid treatment, and patients in the control group received Novolin-R treatment. Results The blood glucose compliance time of observation group was significantly shorter than that of control group (P0.05). Conclusion The efficacy of NovoRapid in the treatment of GDM is better than Novolin-R, which could better control blood glucose levels, reduce serum Cys C and HCY levels, and improve pregnancy outcomes. The NovoRapid treatment is worthy of clinical promotion and application.

11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 3224-3232, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906849

ABSTRACT

In this study, exosomes were extracted from human malignant melanoma cell A375. Folic acid (FA) receptor was used as target and triptolide (TPL) was used as model drug to prepare exosome targeted drug delivery system, FA-Exo/TPL. The physicochemical properties and antitumor effect were evaluated in vivo and in vitro. Gradient centrifugation method was applied to collect exosomes. Then, exosome was modified with FA for loading TPL. The particle sizes of the FA-Exo/TPL were about 100 nm with a double-layer membrane structure like a tray. It is characteristic of high encapsulation efficiency and drug loading. In vitro experiments showed that FA-Exo/TPL could be effectively uptaken by A375 cells, thus significantly inhibiting proliferation and promoting apoptosis the cells. In vivo experiment results showed that FA-Exo/TPL could effectively inhibit the growth of tumor tissue, prolong the model mice life cycle, and significantly reduce the systemic toxicity of the free drug, playing a synergistic and toxic role. Animal welfare and experimental procedures follow the regulations of the Animal Ethics Committee of Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center. This study provides a new strategies and methods for the preparation of TPL against malignant melanoma.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906109

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the possible mechanism of Yanghe Huayantang in reversing the drug resistance of breast cancer by observing the effect of Yanghe Huayantang on the transplant tumor of tamoxifen (TAM)-resistant breast cancer and its influences on the interaction pathway of estrogen receptor (ER)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian rapamycin target protein (mTOR). Method:Fifty mice were randomly divided into 5 groups: blank group, model group, Yanghe Huayantang group, everolimus group, and Yanghe Huayantang+everolimus group. The model of kidney deficiency was established by bilateral ovariectomy, and the blank group was treated with sham operation. Three days after the establishment of the model, all the five groups of mice were inoculated with breast cancer TAM drug-resistant cells (MCF-7/TAM<sup>-</sup>) to establish breast cancer TAM -resistant transplanted tumor model. After successful modeling, Yanghe Huayantang group received intragastric administration of Yanghe Huayantang (traditional Chinese medicine preparation 20 mL·kg<sup>-1</sup>), everolimus group received intraperitoneal injection of everolimus (10 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>). Yanghe Huayantang + everolimus group received Yanghe Huayantang by intragastric administration and everolimus by intraperitoneal injection. The blank group and model group received intragastric administration and intraperitoneal injection of phosphate buffer (PBS). Drug administration was lasted for 28 days in all groups, once a day. After administration, the tumor tissue was separated and weighed, and the tumor inhibition rate was calculated. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to observe the pathological changes of tumor tissue. Immunofluorescence and Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) were used to detect the expression of PI3K, Akt, mTOR, ER protein and mRNA in tumor tissue. Result:Compared with the model group, the tumor volume and tumor weight of Yanghe Huayantang group decreased significantly on the 12th, 20th and 28th days (<italic>P</italic><0.01), and the tumor inhibition rate increased significantly (<italic>P</italic><0.01).Yanghe Huayantang group significantly reduced the density of tumor cells and caused tumor cell necrosis. Compared with the model group, Yanghe Huayantang group, everolimus group and Yanghe Huayantang+everolimus group inhibited the expression of PI3K, Akt, mTOR protein and mRNA (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the blank group, Yanghe Huayantang group, everolimus group and Yanghe Huayantang+everolimus group all inhibited the protein and mRNA expression of ER, and mRNA expression of ER in Yanghe Huayantang+everolimus group was significantly lower than that in the model group (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Conclusion:Yanghe Huayantang can inhibit the growth of TAM-resistant breast cancer. The mechanism may be that Yanghe Huayantang can reverse the TAM resistance of breast cancer by down-regulating the expression of key molecules of ER/PI3K/Akt/mTOR cross-signal pathway.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906074

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the effect and mechanism of Xiangshenwan on ulcerative colitis (UC) induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in mice based on the classic Toll-like receptor (TLR)/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-<italic>κ</italic>B) signaling pathway. Method:The experimental mice were divided into a normal group, a model group, a Xiangshenwan group, and a mesalazine group. The mice, except for those in the normal group, received 3% DSS solution for 7 days to establish the acute UC model and were treated with Xiangshenwan (5 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) and mesalazine (300 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>) continuously from the 1st day to the 10th day of modeling. The body weight, disease activity index (DAI), colon weight, intestinal weight index, colon length, colon weight per unit length, and pathological changes of mice were evaluated respectively. The protein expression of TLR5, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4), tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), transforming growth factor <italic>β</italic>-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), NF-<italic>κ</italic>B, IRAK1, TAK1-binding protein 1 (TAB1), TAB2, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 (MKK3), MKK6 and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB) in colon tissues of mice was detected by Western blot. Result:Compared with the normal group, the model group showed decreased body weight of mice, increased DAI scores, elevated colon weight, intestinal weight index, and colon weight per unit length, shortened colon length, severe colonic mucosal injury, and up-regulated protein expression of TLR5, MyD88, IRAK4, TRAF6, TAK1, p38 MAPK, NF-<italic>κ</italic>B, IRAK1, TAB1, TAB2, MKK3, MKK6, and CREB in colon tissues (<italic>P</italic><0.05,<italic> P</italic><0.01<bold>).</bold> Compared with the model group, the Xiangshenwan group and the mesalazine group displayed increased body weight of mice, decreased DAI scores, declining colon weight, intestinal weight index, and colon weight per unit length, increased colon length, improved colonic mucosal injury, and down-regulated protein expression of TLR5, MyD88, IRAK4, TRAF6, TAK1, p38 MAPK, NF-<italic>κ</italic>B, IRAK1, TAB1, TAB2, MKK3, MKK6, and CREB in colon tissues (<italic>P</italic><0.05,<italic> P</italic><0.01). Conclusion:Xiangshenwan can effectively treat DSS-induced UC presumedly by the inhibition of TLR/NF-<italic>κ</italic>B signaling pathway.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905974

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the mechanism of Xiaojinwan in treating breast cancer bone metastases through cell experiments and bioinformatic analysis. Method:The inhibitory effect of Xiaojinwan on MCF-7 cell viability was detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The key components and targets responsible for Xiaojinwan in inhibiting breast cancer bone metastases were predicted by network pharmacology and molecular docking. The active components and targets of Xiaojinwan were retrieved from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCSMP) and SwissTarget Prediction, and the breast cancer bone metastases-related targets from GeneCards and DisGeNET. The results were imported into STRING for constructing a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, followed by Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis using DAVID. A network of the active components of Xiaojinwan-breast cancer bone metastases-related targets-pathways was constructed using Cytoscape 3.7.2. AutoDock 4 was employed for molecular docking. The protein expression levels of matrix metallopmteinase-9 (MMP-9), hypoxia-inducible factor 1<italic>α </italic>(HIF1A), and androgen receptor (AR) were assayed by Western blot. Result:Xiaojinwan inhibited the viability of MCF-7 cells and acted on breast cancer bone metastases through such processes as redox and protein autophosphorylation. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that HIF-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathways were involved. As verified by molecular docking, the active components such as eucalyptin stably bound to AR and MMP-9. Western blot indicated that Xiaojinwan dose-dependently inhibited the expression of MMP-9 and HIF1A proteins in MCF-7 cells. Conclusion:Xiaojinwan acts on AR and MMP-9 through HIF, VEGF and other related signaling pathways, thereby improving hypoxia in tumor microenvironment, inhibiting angiogenesis, and reducing cell invasion and viability.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905858

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the underlying mechanism of volatile oil from Sishenwan in treating chronic ulcerative colitis through the Toll-like receptor (TLR)/myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) signaling pathway. Method:The BALB/c mice were randomly divided into a normal group (normal), a model group [dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)], a Sishenwan volatile oil group, an Ershen pill volatile oil group, a Wuweizi powder volatile oil group, and a mesalazine control group. The chronic ulcerative colitis model was induced by DSS in mice. Seven days after intragastric administration, the efficacy was evaluated based on the body weight, colon weight, colon weight index, colon length, and pathological damage score under colonoscopy. The levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-21, and interferon-<italic>γ </italic>(IFN-<italic>γ</italic>) in the supernatant of colon tissues were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of proteins related to the TLR/MyD88 signaling pathway in the colon mucosa of mice, including TLR2, MyD88, Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1), IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4), IRAK1, tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), transforming growth factor-<italic>β</italic>-activated kinase 1 binding protein 1 (TAB1), TAB2, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 6 (MKK6), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB). Result:Compared with the normal group, the model group showed decreased colon length, increased colon weight, colon weight index, and pathological damage score under colonoscopy, decreased IL-10 level in the colon tissues, increased IL-4, IL-17A, IL-21, and IFN-<italic>γ</italic> levels (<italic>P<</italic>0.05, <italic>P<</italic>0.01), and up-regulated protein expression of TLR2, MyD88, Rac1, IRAK4, IRAK1, TRAF6, TAB1, TAB2, MKK6, p38MAPK, and CREB (<italic>P<</italic>0.01). Compared with the model group, the Sishenwan volatile oil group showed increased colon length, reduced colon weight, colon weight index, and pathological damage score under colonoscopy, elevated IL-10 level in the colon tissues, decreased IL-4, IL-17A, IL-21, and IFN-<italic>γ</italic> levels (<italic>P<</italic>0.05, <italic>P<</italic>0.01),and down-regulated protein expression of TLR2, MyD88, Rac1, IRAK4, IRAK1, TRAF6, TAB1, TAB2, MKK6, p38MAPK, and CREB (<italic>P<</italic>0.05, <italic>P<</italic>0.01). Conclusion:The volatile oil from Sishenwan can effectively improve the inflammatory response of chronic ulcerative colitis, which may be achieved by regulating the TLR/MyD88 signaling pathway.

16.
Mycobiology ; : 142-150, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902732

ABSTRACT

The species within the family Cunninghamellaceae are widely distributed and produce important metabolites. Morphological studies along with a molecular phylogeny based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) of ribosomal DNA revealed two new species in this family from soils in China, that is, Absidia ovalispora sp. nov. andCunninghamella globospora sp. nov. The former is phylogenetically closely related to Absidia koreana, but morphologically differs in sporangiospores, sporangia, sporangiophores, columellae, collars, and rhizoids. The latter is phylogenetically closely related to Cunninghamella intermedia, but morphologically differs in sporangiola and colonies. They were described and illustrated.

17.
Mycobiology ; : 142-150, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895028

ABSTRACT

The species within the family Cunninghamellaceae are widely distributed and produce important metabolites. Morphological studies along with a molecular phylogeny based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) of ribosomal DNA revealed two new species in this family from soils in China, that is, Absidia ovalispora sp. nov. andCunninghamella globospora sp. nov. The former is phylogenetically closely related to Absidia koreana, but morphologically differs in sporangiospores, sporangia, sporangiophores, columellae, collars, and rhizoids. The latter is phylogenetically closely related to Cunninghamella intermedia, but morphologically differs in sporangiola and colonies. They were described and illustrated.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921772

ABSTRACT

When ischemia or hemorrhagic stroke occurs, astrocytes are activated by a variety of endogenous regulatory factors to become reactive astrocytes. Subsequently, reactive astrocytes proliferate, differentiate, and migrate around the lesion to form glial scar with the participation of microglia, neuron-glial antigen 2(NG2) glial cells, and extracellular matrix. The role of glial scars at different stages of stroke injury is different. At the middle and late stages of the injury, the secreted chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan and chondroitin sulfate are the main blockers of axon regeneration and nerve function recovery. Targeted regulation of glial scars is an important pathway for neurological rehabilitation after stroke. Chinese medicine has been verified to be effective in stroke rehabilitation in clinical practice, possibly because it has the functions of promoting blood resupply, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidative stress, inhibiting cell proliferation and differentiation, and benign intervention in glial scars. This study reviewed the pathological process and signaling mechanisms of glial scarring after stroke, as well as the intervention of traditional Chinese medicine upon glial scar, aiming to provide theoretical reference and research evidence for developing Chinese medicine against stroke in view of targeting glial scarring.


Subject(s)
Astrocytes , Axons/pathology , Cicatrix/pathology , Gliosis/pathology , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Nerve Regeneration , Stroke/drug therapy
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921706

ABSTRACT

This study adopted headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(HS-GC-MS) and electronic nose to detect volatile components from Myristicae Semen samples with varying degrees of mildew, aiming at rapidly identifying odor changes and substance basis of Myristicae Semen mildew. The experimental data were analyzed by electronic nose and principal component analysis(PCA). The results showed that Myristicae Semen samples were divided into the following three categories by electronic nose and PCA: mildew-free samples, slightly mildewy samples, and mildewy samples. Myristicae Semen samples with different degrees of mildew greatly varied in volatile components. The volatile components in the samples were qualitatively and quantitatively detected by HS-GC-MS, and 59 compounds were obtained. There were significant differences in the composition and content in Myristicae Semen samples with different degrees of mildew. The PCA results were the same as those by electronic nose. Among them, 3-crene, D-limonene, and other terpenes were important indicators for the identification of mildew. Bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane, 4-methylene-1-(1-methylethyl)-, terpinen-4-ol, and other alcohols were key substances to distinguish the degree of mildew. In the later stage of mildew, Myristicae Semen produced a small amount of hydroxyl and aldehyde compounds such as acetaldehyde, 2-methyl-propionaldehyde, 2-methyl-butyraldehyde, and formic acid, which were deduced as the material basis of the mildew. The results are expected to provide a basis for the rapid identification of Myristicae Semen with different degrees of mildew, odor changes, and the substance basis of mildew.


Subject(s)
Electronic Nose , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Odorants/analysis , Semen/chemistry , Solid Phase Microextraction , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921684

ABSTRACT

Due to the limited resource of bear bile powder, the major raw material of Tanreqing Capsules(TRQ), cultured bear bile powder is used as a replacement to develop the Tanreqing Capsules Substitute(TRQS). An LC-MS/MS method was established in this study for simultaneous quantitation of 8 compounds from TRQS in rat plasma: tauroursodeoxycholic acid(TUDCA), taurocheno-deoxycholic acid(TCDCA), ursodeoxycholic acid(UDCA), chenodeoxycholic acid(CDCA), ferulic acid, wogonoside, baicalin, and forsythoside A. Thereby, the pharmacokinetic behaviors of TRQ and TRQS were evaluated. Concentration of endogenous compounds TUDCA, TCDCA, UDCA, and CDCA was determined with the stable isotope surrogate analytes: D4-TUDCA, D4-TCDCA, D4-UDCA, and D4-CDCA. Plasma samples were extracted by acetonitrile-induced protein precipitation. The LC conditions are as follows: Waters BEH C_(18) column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm), mobile phase of 10 mmol·L~(-1) ammonium formate aqueous solution(containing 0.01% formic acid) and acetonitrile-methanol mixture(1∶5). MS conditions are as below: multiple reaction monitoring(MRM), ESI~(+/-). Concentration of UDCA, CDCA, TUDCA, and TCDCA was corrected with a response factor, which is the ratio between the responses recorded for the surrogate and the authentic analyte at the equal concentration. Each of the plasma components showed good linearity(r > 0.995 1). Accuracy and precision met the criteria(inter-day RSD<7.0%, RE 89.98%-112.0%; intra-day RSD<12%, RE 90.41%-111.2%). The recovery was 64.83%-119.9% and matrix effect was 87.15%-113.8%. The validated method was applied for pharmacokinetic study of TRQS and TRQ(po, 0.94 g·kg~(-1)). There was no significant difference in C_(max) and AUC_(0-24 h) of baicalin, UDCA, TUDCA, and TCDCA between the two groups, indicating similar pharmacokinetic behaviors between TRQS and TRQ in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Capsules , Chromatography, Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacokinetics , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reproducibility of Results , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
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