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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-953836

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the prevalence and influencing factors of Blastocystis hominis infection among children with diarrhea under five years of age in Guangzhou City. Methods Children with diarrhea under 5 years of age admitted to Guangzhou Children’s hospital, Guangzhou Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital and Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Center during the period between January 1 and December 31, 2020, were enrolled. Participants’ demographics, living environments and health status were collected using questionnaire surveys. Stool samples were collected from participants and nucleic acid was extracted. B. hominis infection was identified using PCR assay and sequence alignment, and the factors affecting B. hominis infection among children with diarrhea under 5 years of age were identified using univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 684 children with diarrhea under 5 years of age were enrolled, including 468 male children and 216 female children, with a mean age of (1.79 ± 1.12) years. The overall prevalence of B. hominis infection was 4.97% [34/684, 95% confidential interval (CI): (3.59%, 6.86%)] among participants, and there was no significant difference in the prevalence of B. hominis infection between children with chronic [7.52% (20/266), 95% CI: (4.92%, 11.33%)] and acute diarrhea [3.35% (14/418), 95% CI: (2.01%, 5.54%)] (χ2 = 5.983, P = 0.014). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified keeping pet [odds ratio (OR) = 6.298, 95% CI: (2.711, 14.633)], drinking non-tap water [OR = 4.522, 95% CI: (1.769, 11.561)], lactose intolerance [OR = 4.221, 95% CI: (1.043, 17.087)], antibiotic use [OR = 0.125, 95% CI: (0.017, 0.944)] and chronic diarrhea [OR = 2.172, 95% CI: (1.018, 4.637)] as factors affecting B. hominis infection among children with diarrhea under 5 years of age in Guangzhou City. Conclusions B. hominis infections is detected in children with diarrhea under five years of age in Guangzhou City. Improving home environments and pet-keeping hygiene is recommended to reduce the likelihood of B. hominis infection among children.

2.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 386-392, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969918

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the distribution of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in participants from the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) study and evaluate the association between lifestyle risk factors and CKD. Methods: Based on the baseline survey data and follow-up data (as of December 31, 2018) of the CKB study, the differences in CKD cases' area and population distributions were described. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the association between lifestyle risk factors and the risk of CKD. Results: A total of 505 147 participants, 4 920 cases of CKD were recorded in 11.26 year follow up with a incidence rate of 83.43/100 000 person-years. Glomerulonephropathy was the most common type. The incidence of CKD was higher in the urban area, men, and the elderly aged 60 years and above (87.83/100 000 person-years, 86.37/100 000 person-years, and 132.06/100 000 person-years). Current male smokers had an increased risk for CKD compared with non-smokers or occasional smokers (HR=1.18, 95%CI: 1.05-1.31). The non-obese population was used as a control group, both general obesity determined by BMI (HR=1.19, 95%CI: 1.10-1.29) and central obesity determined by waist circumference (HR=1.27, 95%CI: 1.19-1.35) were associated with higher risk for CKD. Conclusion: The risks for CKD varied with area and population in the CKB cohort study, and the risk was influenced by multiple lifestyle factors.


Subject(s)
Aged , Adult , Humans , Male , Cohort Studies , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Obesity/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Life Style , Body Mass Index
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969850

ABSTRACT

This article reviews the relevant studies on the efficacy and safety of influenza, pneumococcal and COVID-19 vaccination among tumor patients worldwide in recent years. By combing and analyzing the retrieved literature, the results show that influenza and pneumococcal vaccination can significantly reduce the morbidity and hospitalization rate of infectious diseases in tumor patients, reduce the risk of cardiovascular events and death, and significantly improve survival prognosis. COVID-19 vaccination can also protect tumor patients, especially those who have completed full dose vaccination. Authoritative guidelines and consensuses worldwide all recommend that tumor patients receive influenza, pneumococcal and COVID-19 vaccines. We should carry out relevant researches, as well as take effective measures to strengthen patient education, so that tumor patients can fully experience the health protection brought by the vaccine to this specific group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vaccination , Pneumococcal Vaccines/therapeutic use , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Neoplasms
4.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 397-406, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982688

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Abnormalities in the gut microbiota and intestinal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels are implicated in the pathogenesis of functional constipation (FC). Electro-acupuncture (EA) has been shown to improve constipation-related symptoms and rebalance the gut microbiota. However, it is currently unknown whether the gut microbiota is a key mechanistic target for EA or how EA promotes gut motility by regulating the gut microbiota and SCFAs. Therefore, we assessed the effects of EA in FC mice and pseudo-germfree (PGF) mice to address these questions.@*METHODS@#Forty female Kunming mice were randomly separated into a normal control group (n = 8), an FC group (n = 8), an FC + EA group (n = 8), a PGF group (n = 8) and a PGF + EA group (n = 8). The FC group and FC + EA group were treated with diphenoxylate to establish the FC model; the PGF group and PGF + EA group were given an antibiotic cocktail to initiate the PGF model. After maintaining the model for 14 d, mice in the FC + EA and PGF + EA groups received EA stimulation at the ST25 and ST37 acupoints, once a day, 5 times per week, for 2 weeks. Fecal parameters and intestinal transit rate were calculated to assess the efficacy of EA on constipation and gastrointestinal motility. Colonic contents were used to quantify gut microbial diversity using 16S rRNA sequencing, and measure SCFA concentrations using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.@*RESULTS@#EA significantly shortened the first black stool defecation time (P < 0.05) and increased the intestinal transit rate (P < 0.01), and fecal pellet number (P < 0.05), wet weight (P < 0.05) and water content (P < 0.01) over 8 h, compared with the FC group, showing that EA promoted gut motility and alleviated constipation. However, EA treatment did not reverse slow-transit colonic motility in PGF mice (P > 0.05), demonstrating that the gut microbiota may play a mechanistic role in the EA treatment of constipation. In addition, EA treatment restored the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio and significantly increased butyric acid generation in FC mice (P < 0.05), most likely due to the upregulation of Staphylococcaceae microorganisms (P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#EA-mediated resolution of constipation occurs through rebalancing the gut microbiota and promoting butyric acid generation. Please cite this article as: Xu MM, Guo Y, Chen Y, Zhang W, Wang L, Li Y. Electro-acupuncture promotes gut motility and alleviates functional constipation by regulating gut microbiota and increasing butyric acid generation in mice. J Integr Med. 2023; Epub ahead of print.


Subject(s)
Mice , Female , Animals , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Butyric Acid/pharmacology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Constipation/therapy , Acupuncture Therapy , Electroacupuncture/methods
5.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 97-103, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993415

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of 3D-printed customized flanged cup in hip revision with severe acetabular bone defects.Methods:Since February 2017, 10 cases of 3D-printed customized flanged cups were used in hip revision with severe acetabular bone defects, including 2 cases of Paprosky type IIIA and 8 cases of Paprosky type IIIB. There were 5 males and 5 females, mean age 73.6±8.1 yrs (range, 62-87 yrs), 5 left and 5 right cases. The preoperative thin-layer CT scan was preformed to reverse reconstruct digital pelvis. Five cases of one-piece flanged cups and 5 cases of decomposed flanged cups, including 3 cases of composite one-piece cups were designed by computer. The surgery was performed strictly according to the plan.Postoperative follow-up was performed to evaluate the Harris score. Operation time,intraoperative bleeding and other complications such as vascular and nerve injury, postoperative infection, and dislocation were counted. Pelvic X-ray was used to assess the height and horizontal position of the center of rotation and the stability of the prosthesis.Results:The surgical procedure was successful, with an average operative time of 147.9±48.3 min (range, 96-212 min) and an average intraoperative bleeding of 730.4±262.6 ml (range, 500-1 300 ml). The mean time of final follow-up was 40.8±18.7 months (range, 16-70 months) after surgery. At the last follow-up, the average Harris score was 83.80±6.73, with 4 cases excellent, 5 cases good, and 1 case fair. The excellent and good rate was 90%. The last Harris score was significantly higher than that before operation 28.60±8.40 ( t=16.84, P<0.001). The height of affected hip joint rotation center decreased from 46.24±7.74 mm before operation to 15.54±2.54 mm after operation with significant difference ( t=14.61, P<0.001). It was slightly higher than the opposite side (13.81±1.48 mm), which had no significant difference ( t=1.83, P=0.100). The horizontal distance of affected hip joint rotation center increased from 33.79±5.27 mm before operation to 40.53±4.50 mm after operation with significant difference ( t=3.62, P=0.006). It had no significant difference ( t=1.28, P=0.232) compared with the opposite side (38.54±3.46 mm). All incisions were healed in one stage without infection, vascular or nerve injury. During the following-up, all prostheses were in satisfied position without loosening, dislocation or screw breaks. Conclusion:Digitally assisted 3D-printed flanged cups can be used in hip revision with severe acetabular bone defect. It can not only improve hip joint function, but also restore the acetabular rotation center and the prosthesis stability, which can achieve good early and mid-term effect.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992687

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the treatment strategy for pediatric humeral supracondylar fractures with callus formation and displacement neglected for over 1 week.Methods:A retrospective analysis was made of the clinical data of 36 children who had been treated at Department of Pediatric Orthopaedics, Medical Center, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Inner Mongolia Medical University from January 2011 to January 2021 for humeral supracondylar fractures with callus formation and displacement neglected for over 1 week. There were 22 boys and 14 girls, with an age of (6.7±2.7) years (from 2.3 to 12.8 years). All fractures were Gartland type Ⅲ. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to their treatment methods: a closed reduction and percutaneous pinning (CRPP) group of 15 patients subjected to the CRPP treatment only, and a leverage group of 21 patients subjected to CRPP assisted by the "lever technique" with posterior elbow Kirschner wire prying and pulling. The 2 groups were compared in terms of operation time, fluoroscopy frequency, quality of reduction, and recovery time for elbow range of motion; the elbow range of motion, visual analogue scale (VAS), Mayo elbow performance score (MEPS) and complications were assessed at the last follow-up.Results:The 2 groups were comparable because there was no significant difference between them in the general information before operation ( P>0.05). All patients were followed up for (26.2±16.3) months (from 6 to 96 months). All the fractures obtained acceptable reduction and clinical union 4 to 6 weeks after operation. The operation time [(28.2±6.8) min] and fluoroscopy frequency [(27.0±6.0) times] in the leverage group were significantly less than those in the CRPP group [(40.8±10.8) min and (43.3±11.4) times] ( P<0.05). The CRPP group was significantly better than the leverage group in the intraoperative Baumann angle (78.1°±1.6° versus 73.7°±4.1°), lateral capitellohumeral angle (58.3°±2.6° versus 49.6°±5.2°) and horizontal rotation rate (109.5%±3.0% versus 103.2%±4.9%) ( P<0.05). The intraoperative reduction in the CRPP group was significantly closer to the normal mean value than that in the leverage group ( P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the recovery time for elbow range of motion between the CRPP and the leverage groups ( P>0.05). At the last follow-up, the Baumann angle (75.4°±2.8°) and the lateral capitellohumeral angle (53.2°±3.6°) in the leverage group were still significantly better than those in the CRPP group (78.3°±1.5° and 57.5°±2.3°) ( P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the elbow range of motion, VAS, MEPS or incidence of complications between the 2 groups ( P>0.05). Conclusion:To treat humeral supracondylar fractures with callus formation and displacement neglected for over 1 week in children, CRPP assisted by the "lever technique" with posterior elbow Kirschner wire prying and pulling is an efficient and accurate method, because it can lead to more satisfactory reduction than CRPP only.

7.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 559-566, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993476

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the efficacy of the reconstruction of the proximal humerus by reverse shoulder arthroplasty with three-dimensional (3D) printing technology after tumor rescetion.Methods:A retrospective analysis was conducted on the data of eight patients undergoing semi-constrained reverse shoulder arthroplasty with 3D printing technology after the resection of bone tumors in proximal humeri at the Affiliated Wuxi People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from December 2017 to January 2021. There were four males and four females with an average age of 55.1 (range, 31-73) years, all of whom had unilateral onset, 2 on the left and 6 on the right. There was one case of leiomyosarcoma (Enneking IIB), two cases of chondrosarcomas (one Enneking IA and one Enneking IB), four cases of Campanacci grade 3 giant cell tumor of bone, and one case of bone metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma. Individualized prosthesis and implantation protocol were completed preoperatively in all patients. The glenoid baseplate was manufactured using 3D printing technology. During the surgery, Malawer type I tumor resection and semi-constrained reverse shoulder arthroplasty were performed, with 6 cases simultaneously using allograft-prosthetic composite reconstruction. The follow-up was scheduled, and the patient received X-ray examination of the shoulder. The range of motion of the shoulder was measured, the Constant-Murley score and musculoskeletal tumor society (MSTS) score were recorded.Results:All 8 patients successfully completed the surgery, with a surgical time of 173.8±46.7 min (range, 130-260 min), intraoperative blood loss of 487.5±334.6 ml (range 200-1,200 ml), and proximal humeral resection of 9.9±4.6 cm (range, 4.5-19.0 cm). All patients were followed up for a period of 45.6±12.5 months (range, 24-60 months). At the last follow-up, the abduction ranges of motion of the affected shoulders increased from 27.5°±14.4° pre-operatively to 106.3°±21.8° post-operatively, with a statistically significant difference ( t=11.37, P<0.001). The forward flexion ranges increased from 28.1°±12.8° pre-operatively to 115.6°±24.0° post-operatively, with a statistically significant difference ( t=11.49, P<0.001). The Constant-Murley score was improved from 40.5±14.3 pre-operatively to 79.3±11.2 post-operatively, with a statistically significant difference ( t=9.58, P<0.001). The MSTS score was 25.6±2.2 (range, 23-28), including 6 excellent cases and 2 good cases. At 2 weeks after surgery, one patient experienced joint dislocation that was successfully reduced manually. Up to the final follow-up, all patients had survived without local tumor recurrence, metastasis, prosthesis infection and loosening. Conclusion:3D printing technology assisted shoulder arthroplasty is helpful for effective reconstruction and shoulder joint function recovery after resection of proximal humeral tumors, with satisfactory outcomes in the early and middle stages.

8.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 720-726, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985553

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the prospective association of physical activity with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and chronic kidney disease (CKD) mortality in CKD patients in China. Methods: Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the association of total, domain-specific, and intensity-specific physical activity with the risk of all-cause, CVD, and CKD mortality based on data from the baseline survey of China Kadoorie Biobank. Results: During a median follow-up of 11.99 (11.13, 13.03) years, there were 698 deaths in 6 676 CKD patients. Compared with the bottom tertile of total physical activity, participants in the top tertile had a lower risk of all-cause, CVD, and CKD mortality, with hazard ratios (HRs) (95%CIs) of 0.61 (0.47-0.80), 0.40 (0.25-0.65), and 0.25 (0.07-0.85), respectively. Occupational, commuting, and household physical activity were negatively associated with the risk of all-cause and CVD mortality to varying degrees. Participants in the top tertile of occupational physical activity had a lower risk of all-cause (HR=0.56, 95%CI: 0.38-0.82) and CVD (HR=0.39, 95%CI: 0.20-0.74) mortality, those in the top tertile of commuting physical activity had a lower risk of CVD mortality (HR=0.43, 95%CI: 0.22-0.84), and those in the top tertile of household physical activity had a lower risk of all-cause (HR=0.61, 95%CI: 0.45-0.82), CVD (HR=0.44, 95%CI: 0.26-0.76) and CKD (HR=0.03, 95%CI: 0.01-0.17) mortality, compared with the bottom tertile of corresponding physical activity. No association of leisure-time physical activity with mortality was observed. Both low and moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity were negatively associated with the risk of all-cause, CVD and CKD mortality. The corresponding HRs (95%CIs) were 0.64 (0.50-0.82), 0.42 (0.26-0.66) and 0.29 (0.10-0.83) in the top tertile of low intensity physical activity, and the corresponding HRs (95%CIs) were 0.63 (0.48-0.82), 0.39 (0.24-0.64) and 0.23 (0.07-0.73) in the top tertile of moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity. Conclusion: Physical activity can reduce the risk of all-cause, CVD, and CKD mortality in CKD patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Exercise , Motor Activity , Cardiovascular Diseases , China , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985498

ABSTRACT

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is an opportunistic pathogenic bacterium with complex pathogenesis and drug resistance mechanisms. It has high morbidity and mortality and can cause acute and chronic infections in immunocompromised individuals, with lung infections, wound infections, and bloodstream infections being the most common. The animal infection model of P. aeruginosa is of great value for in-depth research on the pathogenicity, drug resistance, and therapeutic measures of P. aeruginosa by simulating the pathways of human bacterial infections. This article firstly summarizes the selection, anesthesia, and disposal of experimental animals in the construction of animal models of P. aeruginosa infection, and then reviews the methods of construction, model evaluation, and applications of animal models of P. aeruginosa pulmonary infection, wound infection, and bloodstream infection, in order to provide a reference for scientific research related to P. aeruginosa infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Models, Animal , Virulence , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Disease Models, Animal
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2316-2323, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007636

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Existing evidence suggests that fruit consumption is a significant influencing factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but this is unclear in the Chinese population. We examined the association of fresh fruit consumption with the risk of COPD-related hospitalization and death in a nationwide, population-based prospective cohort from China.@*METHODS@#Between 2004 and 2008, the China Kadoorie Biobank recruited >0.5 million adults aged 30 to 79 years from ten diverse regions across China. After excluding individuals diagnosed with major chronic diseases and prevalent COPD, the prospective analysis included 421,428 participants. Cox regression was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) for the association between fresh fruit consumption and risk of COPD-related hospitalization and death, with adjustment for established and potential confounders.@*RESULTS@#During a mean follow-up of 10.9 years, 11,292 COPD hospitalization events and deaths were documented, with an overall incidence rate of 2.47/1000 person-years. Participants who consumed fresh fruit daily had a 22% lower risk of COPD-related hospitalization and death compared with non-consumers (HR = 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71-0.87). The inverse association between fresh fruit consumption and COPD-related hospitalization and death was stronger among non-current smokers and participants with normal body mass index (BMI) (18.5 kg/m 2 ≤ BMI < 24.0 kg/m 2 ); the corresponding HRs for daily fresh fruit consumption were 0.78 (95% CI: 0.68-0.89) and 0.69 (95% CI: 0.59-0.79) compared with their counterparts, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#High-frequency fruit consumption was associated with a lower risk of COPD in Chinese adults. Increasing fruit consumption, together with cigarette cessation and weight control, should be considered in the prevention and management of COPD.

11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2476-2483, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007571

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Several studies have reported that polygenic risk scores (PRSs) can enhance risk prediction of coronary artery disease (CAD) in European populations. However, research on this topic is far from sufficient in non-European countries, including China. We aimed to evaluate the potential of PRS for predicting CAD for primary prevention in the Chinese population.@*METHODS@#Participants with genome-wide genotypic data from the China Kadoorie Biobank were divided into training ( n = 28,490) and testing sets ( n = 72,150). Ten previously developed PRSs were evaluated, and new ones were developed using clumping and thresholding or LDpred method. The PRS showing the strongest association with CAD in the training set was selected to further evaluate its effects on improving the traditional CAD risk-prediction model in the testing set. Genetic risk was computed by summing the product of the weights and allele dosages across genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Prediction of the 10-year first CAD events was assessed using hazard ratios (HRs) and measures of model discrimination, calibration, and net reclassification improvement (NRI). Hard CAD (nonfatal I21-I23 and fatal I20-I25) and soft CAD (all fatal or nonfatal I20-I25) were analyzed separately.@*RESULTS@#In the testing set, 1214 hard and 7201 soft CAD cases were documented during a mean follow-up of 11.2 years. The HR per standard deviation of the optimal PRS was 1.26 (95% CI:1.19-1.33) for hard CAD. Based on a traditional CAD risk prediction model containing only non-laboratory-based information, the addition of PRS for hard CAD increased Harrell's C index by 0.001 (-0.001 to 0.003) in women and 0.003 (0.001 to 0.005) in men. Among the different high-risk thresholds ranging from 1% to 10%, the highest categorical NRI was 3.2% (95% CI: 0.4-6.0%) at a high-risk threshold of 10.0% in women. The association of the PRS with soft CAD was much weaker than with hard CAD, leading to minimal or no improvement in the soft CAD model.@*CONCLUSIONS@#In this Chinese population sample, the current PRSs minimally changed risk discrimination and offered little improvement in risk stratification for soft CAD. Therefore, this may not be suitable for promoting genetic screening in the general Chinese population to improve CAD risk prediction.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , Coronary Artery Disease/genetics , Biological Specimen Banks , East Asian People , Risk Assessment/methods , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Risk Factors , Genome-Wide Association Study
12.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2882-2889, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999041

ABSTRACT

To identify the bitter compounds of real-world Xiaoer Ganmao Oral Liquid sugar-free intermediates, an integrated strategy has been developed by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MSn) method and BitterX database prediction. The chromatographic operating conditions were as follows, chromatographic column: Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm), mobile phase: 0.1% formic acid-water solution (A)-acetonitrile (B) with gradient elution. The data were collected in positive and negative ion modes, respectively. The accurate molecular mass and structural information of the target compounds were obtained based on quasi-molecular ions and fragmentation ions provided by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The compounds were identified by combining retention time, reference substances, reports, and other relevant data, and a total of 57 constituents including flavonoids, alkaloids, and phenylpropanoids were finally identified. Further, the BitterX database was used to predict binding probability of compounds to bitter receptors and identify potential bitter critical quality attributes, finally 33 potential bitter compounds, including kukoamine A and linarin, were predicted. This study comprehensively characterized the material basis of Xiaoer Ganmao Oral Liquid sugar-free intermediates, it provides an effective method for bitter compound screening and a reference for further improving the undesirable taste of Xiaoer Ganmao Oral Liquid.

13.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2890-2899, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999036

ABSTRACT

Aiming at the hysteresis and destructiveness of off-line static detection of critical quality attribute of the moisture content of the raw material unit of the traditional Chinese medicine manufacturing process, honey-processed Tussilago farfara, honey-processed Astragalus and honey-processed Glycyrrhiza uralensis were used as the research carriers, and the drying method was used to measure the moisture content as a reference value. The moving stage was used to simulate the movement process of samples on the conveyor belt in the actual on-site production process, and near-infrared (NIR) spectra were collected, combined with machine learning, to establish NIR on-site dynamic detection model of moisture content in multi-variety honey-processed Chinese herbal slice. The results show that the second derivative method is used to preprocess the spectrum. The number of decision trees (ntree), the number of random features (max feature), and the minimum number of samples for generating leaf nodes (node size) are selected: 46, 76, and 8, respectively. The quantitative analysis model of moisture content has the best effect. The prediction coefficient of determination (the prediction coefficient of determination, R2pre) and the root mean square error of prediction (root mean square error of prediction, RMSEP) of the model were 0.903 2 and 0.330 2, respectively. The NIR quantitative model for the moisture content of multi-variety honey-processed Chinese herbal slice established in this study has good predictive performance, and can achieve rapid, accurate and non-destructive quantitative analysis of the moisture content of honey-processed Tussilago farfara, honey-processed Astragalus and honey-processed Glycyrrhiza uralensis at the same time, and provides a method for determining the moisture content of honey-processed Chinese herbal slice of the raw material unit of the traditional Chinese medicine manufacturing process.

14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2853-2861, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999035

ABSTRACT

There is still a serious challenge of the measurement of critical quality attributes (CQAs) related to clinical efficacy for Chinese materia medica manufacturing. To overcome this challenge, an integrated strategy of biosensor and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was proposed using Tongren niuhuang qingxin pills as a trial. Firstly, an original biosensor was created using a semiconductor chip material high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) as the transducer and the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) as the identification element. By this MIF-HEMT biosensor, the efficacy on stoke of different components from Tongren niuhuang qingxin pills was measured. It was clear that all three components of Tongren niuhuang qingxin pills had strong therapeutic effects on stroke, especially the section A, the KD of which reached to 8.722×10-10 g·mL-1. Furthermore, MIF-HEMT biosensor integrated UPLC-MS/MS was introduced to identify the efficacy CQAs of different components of Tongren niuhuang qingxin pills. As a result, 19 potential CQAs, such as albiforin, paeoniflorin, and prim-O-glucosylcimifugin, were measured as the efficacy CQAs of Tongren niuhuang qingxin pills on stroke treatment by MIF. These results provided vital measurement techniques and methodological guidance for the CQAs study of Tongren niuhuang qingxin pills intervention in MIF-induced stroke treatment. This also provided an essential guideline for the efficient utilization and quality control measurement of high-quality classical recipes.

15.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 702-708, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984707

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the relationship between low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio with the severity of coronary artery disease and 2-yeat outcome in patients with premature coronary heart disease. Methods: This prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study is originated from the PROMISE study. Eighteen thousand seven hundred and one patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) were screened from January 2015 to May 2019. Three thousand eight hundred and sixty-one patients with premature CHD were enrolled in the current study. According to the median LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (2.4), the patients were divided into two groups: low LDL-C/HDL-C group (LDL-C/HDL-C≤2.4, n=1 867) and high LDL-C/HDL-C group (LDL-C/HDL-C>2.4, n=1 994). Baseline data and 2-year major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) were collected and analyzed in order to find the differences between premature CHD patients at different LDL-C/HDL-C levels, and explore the correlation between LDL-C/HDL-C ratio with the severity of coronary artery disease and MACCE. Results: The average age of the low LDL-C/HDL-C ratio group was (48.5±6.5) years, 1 154 patients were males (61.8%); the average age of high LDL-C/HDL-C ratio group was (46.5±6.8) years, 1 523 were males (76.4%). The number of target lesions, the number of coronary artery lesions, the preoperative SNYTAX score and the proportion of three-vessel coronary artery disease in the high LDL-C/HDL-C group were significantly higher than those in the low LDL-C/HDL-C group (1.04±0.74 vs. 0.97±0.80, P=0.002; 2.04±0.84 vs. 1.85±0.84, P<0.001; 13.81±8.87 vs. 11.70±8.05, P<0.001; 36.2% vs. 27.4%, respectively, P<0.001). Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between LDL-C/HDL-C ratio and preoperative SYNTAX score, the number of coronary artery lesions, the number of target lesions and whether it was a three-vessel coronary artery disease (all P<0.05). The 2-year follow-up results showed that the incidence of MACCE was significantly higher in the high LDL-C/HDL-C group than that in the low LDL-C/HDL-C group (6.9% vs. 9.1%, P=0.011). There was no significant difference in the incidence of all-cause death, cardiac death, myocardial infarction, stroke, revascularization and bleeding between the two groups. Cox multivariate regression analysis showed that the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio has no correlation with 2-year MACCE, death, myocardial infarction, revascularization, stroke and bleeding events above BARC2 in patients with premature CHD. Conclusion: High LDL-C/HDL-C ratio is positively correlated with the severity of coronary artery disease in patients with premature CHD. The incidence of MACCE of patients with high LDL-C/HDL-C ratio is significantly higher during 2 years follow-up; LDL-C/HDL-C ratio may be an indicator for evaluating the severity of coronary artery disease and long-term prognosis in patients with premature CHD.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Female , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Cholesterol, HDL , Cholesterol, LDL , Prospective Studies , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Stroke , Risk Factors
16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 460-477, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971711

ABSTRACT

Medication during pregnancy is widespread, but there are few reports on its fetal safety. Recent studies suggest that medication during pregnancy can affect fetal morphological and functional development through multiple pathways, multiple organs, and multiple targets. Its mechanisms involve direct ways such as oxidative stress, epigenetic modification, and metabolic activation, and it may also be indirectly caused by placental dysfunction. Further studies have found that medication during pregnancy may also indirectly lead to multi-organ developmental programming, functional homeostasis changes, and susceptibility to related diseases in offspring by inducing fetal intrauterine exposure to too high or too low levels of maternal-derived glucocorticoids. The organ developmental toxicity and programming alterations caused by medication during pregnancy may also have gender differences and multi-generational genetic effects mediated by abnormal epigenetic modification. Combined with the latest research results of our laboratory, this paper reviews the latest research progress on the developmental toxicity and functional programming alterations of multiple organs in offspring induced by medication during pregnancy, which can provide a theoretical and experimental basis for rational medication during pregnancy and effective prevention and treatment of drug-related multiple fetal-originated diseases.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971512

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To establish an efficient protocol for directed differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into functional midbrain dopaminergic progenitor cells (DAPs) in vitro.@*METHODS@#hiPSCs were induced to differentiate into DAPs in two developmental stages. In the first stage (the first 13 days), hiPSCs were induced into intermediate cells morphologically similar to primitive neuroepithelial cells (NECs) in neural induction medium containing a combination of small molecule compounds. In the second stage, the intermediate cells were further induced in neural differentiation medium until day 28 to obtain DAPs. After CM-DiI staining, the induced DAPs were stereotactically transplanted into the right medial forebrain bundle (MFB) of rat models of Parkinson's disease (PD). Eight weeks after transplantation, the motor behaviors of PD rats was evaluated. Immunofluorescence assay of brain sections of the rats was performed at 2 weeks after transplantation to observe the survival, migration and differentiation of the transplanted cells in the host brain microenvironment.@*RESULTS@#hiPSCs passaged stably on Matrigel showed a normal diploid karyotype, expressed the pluripotency markers OCT4, SOX2, and Nanog, and were positive for alkaline phosphatase. The primitive neuroepithelial cells obtained on day 13 formed dense cell colonies in the form of neural rosettes and expressed the neuroepithelial markers (SOX2, Nestin, and PAX6, 91.3%-92.8%). The DAPs on day 28 highly expressed the specific markers (TH, FOXA2, LMX1A and NURR1, 93.3-96.7%). In rat models of PD, the hiPSCs-DAPs survived and differentiated into TH+, FOXA2+ and Tuj1+ neurons at 2 weeks after transplantation. Eight weeks after transplantation, the motor function of PD rats was significantly improved as shown by water maze test (P < 0.0001) and apomorphine-induced rotation test (P < 0.0001) compared with rats receiving vehicle injection.@*CONCLUSION@#HiPSCs can be effectively induced to differentiate into DAPs capable of differentiating into functional neurons both in vivo and in vitro. In rat models of PD, the transplanted hiPSCs-DAPs can survive for more than 8 weeks in the MFB and differentiate into multiple functional neurocytes to ameliorate neurological deficits of the rats, suggesting the potential value of hiPSCs-DAPs transplantation for treatment of neurological diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rats , Animals , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Neurons , Parkinson Disease , Mesencephalon , Cells, Cultured
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981458

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between coagulating cold and blood stasis syndrome and glycolysis, and observe the intervention effect of Liangfang Wenjing Decoction(LFWJD) on the expression of key glycolytic enzymes in the uterus and ovaries of rats with coagulating cold and blood stasis. The rat model of coagulating cold and blood stasis syndrome was established by ice-water bath. After modeling, the quantitative scoring of symptoms were performed, and according to the scoring results, the rats were randomly divided into a model group and LFWJD low-, medium-and high-dose groups(4.7, 9.4, 18.8 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), with 10 in each group. Another 10 rats were selected as the blank group. After 4 weeks of continuous administration by gavage, the quantitative scoring of symptoms was repeated. Laser speckle flowgraphy was used to detect the changes of microcirculation in the ears and uterus of rats in each group. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was used to observe the pathological morphology of uterus and ovaries of rats in each group. The mRNA and protein expressions of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1(PDK1), hexokinase 2(HK2) and lactate dehydrogenase A(LDHA) in the uterus and ovaries of rats were examined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(RT-qPCR) and Western blot, respectively. The rats in the model group showed signs of coagulating cold and blood stasis syndrome, such as curl-up, less movement, thickened veins under the tongue, and reduced blood perfusion in the microcirculation of the ears and uterus, and HE staining revealed a thinning of the endometrium with disorganized arrangement of epithelial cells and a decrease in the number of ovarian follicles. Compared with the model group, the treatment groups had alleviated coagulating cold and blood stasis, which was manifested as red tongue, reduced nail swelling, no blood stasis at the tail end as well as increased blood perfusion of the microcirculation in the ears and uterus(P<0.05 or P<0.01). Among the groups, the LFWJD medium-and high-dose groups had the most significant improvement in coagulating cold and blood stasis, with neatly arranged columnar epithelial cells in uterus, and the number of ovarian follicles was higher than that in the model group, especially mature follicles. The mRNA and protein expressions of PDK1, HK2, LDHA in uterus and ovaries were up-regulated in the model group(P<0.05 or P<0.01), while down-regulated in LFWJD medium-and high-dose groups(P<0.05 or P<0.01). The LFWJD low-dose group presented a decrease in the mRNA expressions of PDK1, HK2 and LDHA in uterus and ovaries as well as in the protein expressions of HK2 and LDHA in uterus and HK2 and PDK1 in ovaries(P<0.05 or P<0.01). The therapeutic mechanism of LFWJD against coagulating cold and blood stasis syndrome is related to the down-regulation of key glycolytic enzymes PDK1, HK2 and LDHA, and the inhibition of glycolytic activities in uterus and ovaries.


Subject(s)
Female , Animals , Rats , Ovary , Uterus , Ovarian Follicle , Lactate Dehydrogenase 5 , Glycolysis
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981384

ABSTRACT

Via network pharmacology, molecular docking, and cellular experiment, this study explored and validated the potential molecular mechanism of ginsenoside Rg_1(Rg_1) against radiation enteritis. Targets of Rg_1 and radiation enteritis were retrieved from BATMAN-TCM, SwissTargetPrediction, and GeneCards. Cytoscape 3.7.2 and STRING were employed for the construction of protein-protein interaction(PPI) network for the common targets, and screening of core targets. DAVID was used for Gene Ontology(GO) term and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment to predict the possible mechanism, followed by molecular docking of Rg_1 with core targets and cellular experiment. For the cellular experiment, ~(60)Co-γ irradiation was performed for mo-deling of IEC-6 cells, which were then treated with Rg_1, protein kinase B(AKT) inhibitor LY294002, and other drugs to verify the effect and mechanism of Rg_1. The results showed that 29 potential targets of Rg_1, 4 941 disease targets, and 25 common targets were screened out. According to the PPI network, the core targets were AKT1, vascular endothelial growth factor A(VEGFA), heat shock protein 90 alpha family class A member 1(HSP90AA1), Bcl-2-like protein 1(BCL2L1), estrogen receptor 1(ESR1), etc. The common targets were mainly involved in the GO terms such as positive regulation of RNA polymerase Ⅱ promoter transcription, signal transduction, positive regulation of cell proliferation, and other biological processes. The top 10 KEGG pathways included phosphoinositide 3-kinase(PI3K)/AKT pathway, RAS pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK) pathway, Ras-proximate-1(RAP1) pathway, and calcium pathway, etc. Molecular docking showed that Rg_1 had high binding affinity to AKT1, VEGFA, HSP90AA1, and other core targets. Cellular experiment indicated that Rg_1 can effectively improve cell viability and survival, decrease apoptosis after irradiation, promote the expression of AKT1 and B-cell lymphoma-extra large(BCL-XL), and inhibit the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bcl-2-associated X protein(BAX). In conclusion, through network pharmacology, molecular docking, and cellular experiment, this study verified the ability of Rg_1 to reduce radiation enteritis injury. The mechanism was that it regulated PI3K/AKT pathway, thereby suppressing apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/genetics , Network Pharmacology , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Molecular Docking Simulation , Radiation Injuries , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1773-1788, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981169

ABSTRACT

A triple-transgenic (tyrosine hydroxylase/dopamine decarboxylase/GTP cyclohydrolase 1, TH/DDC/GCH1) bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell line (BMSCs) capable of stably synthesizing dopamine (DA) transmitters were established to provide experimental evidence for the clinical treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) by using this cell line. The DA-BMSCs cell line that could stably synthesize and secrete DA transmitters was established by using the triple transgenic recombinant lentivirus. The triple transgenes (TH/DDC/GCH1) expression in DA-BMSCs was detected using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting, and immunofluorescence. Moreover, the secretion of DA was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Chromosome G-banding analysis was used to detect the genetic stability of DA-BMSCs. Subsequently, the DA-BMSCs were stereotactically transplanted into the right medial forebrain bundle (MFB) of Parkinson's rat models to detect their survival and differentiation in the intracerebral microenvironment of PD rats. Apomorphine (APO)-induced rotation test was used to detect the improvement of motor dysfunction in PD rat models with cell transplantation. The TH, DDC and GCH1 were expressed stably and efficiently in the DA-BMSCs cell line, but not expressed in the normal rat BMSCs. The concentration of DA in the cell culture supernatant of the triple transgenic group (DA-BMSCs) and the LV-TH group was extremely significantly higher than that of the standard BMSCs control group (P < 0.000 1). After passage, DA-BMSCs stably produced DA. Karyotype G-banding analysis showed that the vast majority of DA-BMSCs maintained normal diploid karyotypes (94.5%). Moreover, after 4 weeks of transplantation into the brain of PD rats, DA-BMSCs significantly improved the movement disorder of PD rat models, survived in a large amount in the brain microenvironment, differentiated into TH-positive and GFAP-positive cells, and upregulated the DA level in the injured area of the brain. The triple-transgenic DA-BMSCs cell line that stably produced DA, survived in large numbers, and differentiated in the rat brain was successfully established, laying a foundation for the treatment of PD using engineered culture and transplantation of DA-BMSCs.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Dopamine , Parkinson Disease/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Cell Line , Brain/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation
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