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1.
Journal of Modern Urology ; (12): 227-231, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006120

ABSTRACT

【Objective】 To analyze the clinical characteristics and prognostic differences between type Ⅰ and type Ⅱ papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC), and identify the prognosis-related independent predictors. 【Methods】 A total of 143 PRCC patients treated during Jan.2012 and Dec.2019 were involved, including 91 type Ⅰ patients and 52 type Ⅱ patients. The prognostic factors were analyzed with univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis. The differences in cancer-specific survival (CSS) between the two groups were analyzed with Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. 【Results】 The patients’ age was 53.41±13.50 years. After a mean follow-up of 63.27±26.20 months, 14 patients died, and the overall CSS was 90.2%. The prognosis of type Ⅰ patients was better than type Ⅱ patients (94.5% vs. 82.7%, P=0.020). Cox regression suggested that PRCC subtype and stage were significantly associated with prognosis. There was no difference in prognosis between type Ⅰ and type Ⅱ patients in T1/T2 subgroup (P>0.05). However, in T3/T4 subgroup, type Ⅰ patients had a significant better prognosis than type Ⅱ patients (P=0.023), while the above trends were not observed in G1/G2 and G3/G4 subgroups (P>0.05). 【Conclusion】 PRCC subtype and stage are independent prognostic predictors. The impact of PRCC subtype on prognosis is mainly manifested in the subgroup of patients with T3 or higher stage.

2.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 818-824, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993927

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the etiological spectrum, clinical features, and surgical treatment of patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) who underwent adrenal surgery.Methods:From August 2002 to August 2022, the clinical data of 985 patients with Cushing's syndrome who underwent surgical treatment in the department of urology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. There were 210 males and 775 females. The average age was 43.33±13.49 years old. The age of males was older than that of females (45.53±14.39 vs. 42.68±13.16 years, P=0.016). The principle of preoperative surgical method selection for patients in this group was described as follow. For adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) independent CS, adrenal tumor resection was considered for unilateral solitary lesions and unilateral adrenalectomy was considered for unilateral multiple lesions. For bilateral lesions, the larger tumor was removed first, and the contralateral operation was decided according to the follow-up results. Patients with suspicion of cortical cancer are subjected to R0 resection, and open surgery was performed if the tumor diameter is≥6 cm. The clinical characteristics of CS patients were summarized. The clinical symptom characters, etiology spectrum and the corresponding selection principles of surgical methods were analyzed. Results:Among the 985 cases, ACTH-independent CS accounted for 92.8% (914/985), and ACTH-dependent CS accounted for 7.2% (71/985). According to the postoperative pathological results, ACTH-independent CS was the most common, among which adrenal adenoma was the most common 75.94% (748/985), PBMAH 11.37% (112/985), Cushing's disease 4.26% (42/985), PPNAD 3.25% (32/985), EAS 2.94 (29/985), cortical carcinoma 2.23% (22/985). In terms of clinical manifestations, full moon face, bloody face, buffalo back, central obesity and weight gain were more common. The incidence of the above single symptoms was >30%. In terms of hormone secretion, the cortisol level of ACTH-dependent CS patients was significantly higher than that of ACTH-independent CS ( P<0.001). Cortisol [(16.61±6.78) μg/dl] and 24h-UFC [103.65 (59.83, 175.70) μg/24h] in patients with subclinical cortical adenoma were lower than those in other types of patients ( P<0.001). Among the patients with bilateral adenomas, 4 patients underwent simultaneous resection of bilateral adrenal tumors due to severe CS symptoms, and the remaining 74 patients underwent two-stage simple tumor resection, total adrenalectomy or subtotal adrenalectomy according to the size and number of tumors. Of the 22 patients with cortical carcinoma, 2 patients underwent R0 resection after neoadjuvant therapy with mitotane after being diagnosed by needle biopsy due to local infiltration of the tumor. In patients with EAS and Cushing's disease, 62.07% (18/29) and 23.81% (10/42) were treated with simultaneous bilateral target gland resection due to severe CS symptoms, respectively. In 112 cases of PBMAH and 32 cases of PPNAD, the initial treatment was unilateral adrenalectomy or subtotal adrenalectomy, and the follow-up was continued to decide whether to perform contralateral adrenalectomy or subtotal adrenalectomy. Conclusions:The etiological spectrum of CS patients admitted to the urology department is different from that of the overall CS, and is dominated by adrenal disease, and Cushing's disease is rare. Due to the different etiological spectrum, the patient's symptom spectrum is different, and difficulty in squatting and fracture are rare. The main treatment for unilateral adrenal disease is tumor resection or unilateral adrenalectomy. For ACTH-dependent CS in bilateral lesions, bilateral adrenalectomy is recommended, and hormone supplementation is recommended after surgery. For ACTH-independent CS, unilateral adrenalectomy is recommended first, and individualized treatment plans are formulated based on the results of follow-up.

3.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 812-817, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993926

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the clinical value of 68Ga-pentixafor PET/CT targeting for CXCR4 in the diagnosis and prognosis evaluation of primary aldosteronism (PA). Methods:Retrospective analysis was performed on information of 72 patients diagnosed with PA who received operations according to the results of 68Ga-pentixafor PET/CT in our hospital. There were 37 males and 35 females, with the average age of (48.3±9.5) years old. The average lesion diameter was (1.60 ± 0.54)cm. The preoperative systolic and diastolic blood pressure were (177.3 ± 23.9)mmHg and (107.6 ± 13.2)mmHg, respectively. The average preoperative potassium level was (2.62 ± 0.56)mmol/L. The average aldosterone concentration was (17.98 ± 4.66)ng/dl, and the median plasma renin activity was 0.01 (0.01, 0.09) ng/(ml·h). All patients underwent 68Ga-pentixafor PET/CT examination, which lead to the decision of surgical strategies. For those patients with single lesion, multiple lesions in one side or positive lesion in one side but negative in the opposite side, surgical resection of the positive side lesion or total adrenalectomy was considered. For those patients with bilateral positive lesions, surgical resection of the side with more significant positive lesions or total adrenalectomy was considered. For those with negative multiple lesions, the surgical strategy was designed according to the results of CT examination or AVS. The positive rate of 68Ga-pentixafor PET/CT and its relationship with the clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients were analyzed. Results:The results of 68Ga-pentixafor PET/CT were positive in 62 of 72 patients diagnosed with PA (86.1%), and the median SUVmax value was 11.1 (7.1, 16.2). The SUVmax value was positively correlated with the maximum diameter of adrenal lesion ( r=0.468) and negatively correlated with blood potassium levels ( r=-0.437), while not significantly correlated with other clinical characteristics. The positive rate of adenoma by 68Ga-pentixafor PET/CT was higher than that of nodular hyperplasia [90.5%(57/63) vs. 55.6%(5/9), P=0.018], and the SUVmax value in adenoma was also higher than that in nodular hyperplasia [11.9(7.8, 16.2) vs. 4.3(3.4, 11.3), P=0.022]. 32 cases were cured after operations, and 37 cases were improved. And 3 cases were not cured. The SUVmax value of lesions in the cured patients was higher than that in the improved patients [15.4(8.1, 22.7) vs. 10.1(6.8, 13.3), P=0.013]. Among 59 cases of PA patients with single adrenal lesions, 50 cases represented positive results of 68Ga-pentixafor PET/CT. 23 cases in 50 positive cases were cured and 27 cases were improved after resection of positive lesions. In the 13 PA patients with multiple adrenal lesions who underwent surgery according to the results of 68Ga-pentixafor PET/CT, 12 patients (92.3%) showed postoperative prognosis in line with preoperative expectations. Conclusions:68Ga-pentixafor PET/CT showed high positive rate in the diagnosis of PA, especially for adenoma.The SUVmax value of the adrenal lesion was correlated with the blood potassium level, the size of the lesion and the postoperative prognosis. In addition, 68Ga-pentixafor PET/CT could effectively guide the surgical decision of PA.

4.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 751-757, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993915

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the feasibility of deep learning technology for renal artery recognition in retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal surgery videos.Methods:From January 2020 to July 2021, the video data of 87 cases of laparoscopic retroperitoneal nephrectomy, including radical nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy, and hemiurorectomy, were retrospectively analyzed. Two urological surgeons screened video clips containing renal arteries. After frame extraction, annotation, review, and proofreading, the labeled targets were divided into training set and test set by the random number table in a ratio of 4∶1. The training set was used to train the neural network model. The test set was used to test the ability of the neural network to identify the renal artery in scenes with different difficulties, which was uniformly transmitted to the YOLOv3 convolutional neural network model for training. According to the opinion of two senior doctors, the test set was divided into high, medium, and low discrimination of renal artery and surrounding tissue. High identification means a clean renal artery and a large exposed area. For middle recognition degree, the renal artery had a certain degree of blood immersion, and the exposed area was medium. Low identification means that the exposed area of the renal artery was small, often located at the edge of the lens, and the blood immersion was severe, which may lead to lens blurring. In the surgical video, the annotator annotated the renal artery truth box frame by frame. After normalization and preprocessing, all images were input into the neural network model for training. The neural network output the renal artery prediction box, and if the overlap ratio (IOU) with the true value box was higher than the set threshold, it was judged that the prediction was correct. The neural network test results of the test set were recorded, and the sensitivity and accuracy were calculated according to IOU.Results:In the training set, 1 149 targets of 13 videos had high recognition degree, 1 891 targets of 17 videos had medium recognition degree, and 349 targets of 18 videos had low recognition degree. In the test set, 267 targets in 9 videos had high recognition degree, 519 targets in 11 videos had medium recognition degree, and 349 targets in 18 videos had low recognition degree. When the IOU threshold was 0.1, the sensitivity and accuracy were 52.78% and 82.50%, respectively. When the IOU threshold was 0.5, the sensitivity and accuracy were 37.80% and 59.10%, respectively. When the IOU threshold was 0.1, the sensitivity and accuracy of high, medium and low recognition groups were 89.14% and 87.82%, 45.86% and 78.03%, 32.95%, and 76.67%, respectively. The frame rate of the YOLOv3 algorithm in real-time surgery video was ≥15 frames/second. The false detection rate and missed detection rate of neural network for renal artery identification in laparoscopic renal surgery video were 47.22% and 17.49%, respectively (IOU=0.1). The leading causes of false detection were similar tissue and reflective light. The main reasons for missed detection were image blurring, blood dipping, dark light, fascia interference, or instrument occlusion, etc.Conclusions:Deep learning-based renal artery recognition technology is feasible. It may assist the surgeon in quickly identifying and protecting the renal artery during the operation and improving the safety of surgery.

5.
International Journal of Surgery ; (12): 649-653, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-954269

ABSTRACT

Bladder cancer is one of the most common tumors of the urinary system. More than a quarter of the new bladder cancer cases in China are muscle invasive bladder cancer. The standard treatment of muscle invasive bladder cancer is radical cystectomy plus pelvic lymph node dissection. This operation has limitations such as large trauma, high postoperative complication rate and serious impact on the quality of life of patients. To control the condition of bladder cancer and improve the quality of life of patients, a comprehensive treatment and follow-up system after bladder sparing are being explored. In addition to the classic trimodal treatment which is consisted of "maximum transurethral resection of the tumor, chemotherapy and external radiotherapy" , the treating modes of single drug, multi-drug or combined chemotherapy/radiotherapy based on immune checkpoint inhibitors are in their heyday. Meanwhile, antibody-drug conjugates have been in the ascendant. The purpose of this article is to review the current situation of bladder sparing therapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer and look forward to the development direction of bladder sparing therapy in the current era of oncoimmunology.

6.
Chinese Journal of Radiological Medicine and Protection ; (12): 55-60, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932563

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze and learn about the dose to the lens of the eye of interventional radiology workers in some hospitals in shaanxi province from 2018 to 2020.Methods:From 2018 to 2020, three tertiary hospitals in shaanxi province were selected to monitor the dose to the lens of the eye of interventional radiology workers for three consecutive years. Monitoring was made for 152 person times, lasting for a monitoring period of 3 months. Analysis and comparison were carried out of dose equivalents to the interventional radiology workers in terms of different sexes, positions and departments, together with associated influencing factors during the three years.Results:The difference in equivalent dose between the three years is statistically significant ( χ2=29.15, P<0.05), and a downward trend in the average annual equivalent dose was found from 2018 to 2020. The number of interventional radiology workers who received doses to the lens of the eye mainly between MDL and 5.0 mSv accounted for 69.08%. The difference in the average annual equivalent dose in different positions and departments was statistically significant ( H=18.44, 22.55, P<0.05). The average annual equivalent dose to doctor was higher than for nurses and technicians ( Z=-3.36, -3.02, P<0.05). The average annual equivalent dose in cardiovascular medicine department was higher than in other departments, with statistically significant difference ( Z=-2.58, -3.76, -3.40, P<0.05). Logistics regression analysis showed that radiation working hours, positions, routine personal doses, workload and exposure time are the factors that affect the average annual equivalent dose. Conclusions:The annual equivalent dose to the lens of the eye of interventional radiology workers in shaanxi province meets the relevant national standards. However, the annual dose to some radiological workers has a normal high value. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the continued monitoring of the dose to the lens of the eye of the interventional radiology workers, and adjust the types of work for the workers based on radiation work hours, position, routine personal dose, workload and exposure time, so as to effectively reduce the dose level of the eye lens.

7.
Chinese Journal of Radiological Health ; (6): 558-563, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-965678

ABSTRACT

@#<b>Objective</b> To understand the basic information on radiological health technical service institutions in Shaanxi Province, China and analyze the main problems, and to strengthen the capacity building of radiological health technical service institutions in Shaanxi Province. <b>Methods</b> The radiological health technical service institutions registered in Shaanxi Province were investigated and analyzed by means of a questionnaire and literature review. <b>Results</b> There were 20 radiological health technical service institutions in Shaanxi Province, including 7 state-owned ones and 13 privately owned ones; of all the institutions, there were 3 disease control institutions, and 15 institutions obtaining the qualification of radiation protection evaluation, radiation health protection testing, and individual dose monitoring at the same time. The total number of radiation workers in the institution was 237, including 48.5% aged less than 35, 68.8% with bachelor degree or above, 54.4% with intermediate professional title or above, 26.5% with a major related to radiation protection, and 79.3% with national and provincial training. The institutions were equipped with 309 testing instruments, of which the radiation diagnostic performance testing equipment accounted for the largest proportion (52.4%). <b>Conclusion</b> The service scope and capacity of radiological health technical service institutions in Shaanxi Province can meet the current needs of the province, but the institutions need to be improved in terms of personnel, equipment, and service quality. The quality control of institutions needs to be strengthened to standardize the service behavior in the whole province.

8.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 583-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941478

ABSTRACT

IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is one of the common primary glomerulonephritis, which is also an important risk factor for end-stage renal disease. Kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment for end-stage renal disease induced by IgAN, whereas there is still a risk of recurrence of IgAN after kidney transplantation. At present, research progress upon IgAN recurrence after kidney transplantation is relatively lacking. The pathogenesis of IgAN recurrence remains elusive, and its pathological manifestations are not specific. The diagnosis of IgAN recurrence still depends on renal biopsy. Besides, no effective prevention and treatment are available for recurrent IgAN. In this article, research progress on IgAN recurrence after kidney transplantation was illustrated from the perspectives of pathogenesis, diagnosis, risk factors and treatment, aiming to provide reference for clinical prevention and treatment of IgAN recurrence after kidney transplantation and improve clinical prognosis of kidney transplant recipients.

9.
International Journal of Surgery ; (12): 583-586, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907485

ABSTRACT

Urological surgical skill teaching is an important part of urology resident training. As urological surgery has entered the age of minimally invasive surgery, the training model of surgical skills needs to be optimized and improved. Based on the current clinical features of urological surgical procedures, a three-stage training system has been established for urological surgical skills by Department of Urology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital. This training system provides more feasible and effective surgical skills training for urology residents by using multimedia, simulation training and other training methods. The system can be applied to the standardized training of urology residents and helps them grow up to be urological specialists with the ability to complete specialized surgery and deal with clinical problems independently.

10.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 381-384, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-885026

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the safety and efficacy of domestic Kangduo robotic surgery system in adrenalectomy.Methods:This study summarized the clinical data of patients with adrenal adenoma who were operated by domestic kangduo robot from November 2020 to April 2021. This study was approved by the hospital ethics committee, and the clinical trials of medical devices were filed. Inclusion criteria: age 18-75 years old; all of them in accordance with the indication of adrenalectomy; tumor volume≤6 cm; agree to sign the informed consent, follow the doctor's advice and follow up regularly. Exclusion criteria: patients with ipsilateral upper abdominal surgery history; patients with severe uncontrolled disease or acute infection; patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, blood system diseases and immune system diseases that are not controlled and can not reach the operation standard; pregnant or lactating women. All patients underwent robot assisted adrenalectomy. The general information and perioperative data of the patients were summarized.Results:Five patients were included in this study, including 1 male and 4 female. The average age was 49 (34-61)years old. There were 2 cases on the left and 3 cases on the right. The average diameter of tumor was 2.2 (1.1-3.7) cm. All patients showed adenoma by CT examination. Two cases were diagnosed as primary aldosteronism, one as Cushing's syndrome, and two as nonfunctional adenoma. All the operations were successfully completed in 5 cases, including 4 cases via retroperitoneal approach and 1 case via peritoneal approach. The average docking time was 3.8 (3-6) min, the average operation time was 56.2 (21-92) min, and the average blood loss was 34 (20-50) ml. The postoperative pathology was adrenal cortical adenoma. The average postoperative hospital stay was 3.6 (3-5) days. No postoperative complications occurred in 5 cases. Two patients with primary aldosteronism had hypertension and hypokalemia before operation, and they needed oral antihypertensive drugs to control them. They did not need medication after operation, and their blood pressure and potassium were maintained at normal levels. All patients were followed up for average 1.5(0.5-5.0)months.Conclusions:Domestic robot assisted laparoscopic adrenalectomy has the advantages of few blood loss, short operation time, few complications. It’s a safe and effective operation, but the conclusion needs to be further verified by large sample and multi-center study.

11.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 246-251, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-884998

ABSTRACT

Objective:To present the learning curve of robotic assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy by a single surgeon.Methods:The clinical data of 100 patients with renal tumor who underwent robot assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from February 2016 to April 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 64 males and 36 females. The average age was 51.5(18-79) years. The average body mass index (BMI) was 24.9(19-31)kg/m 2. TNM stage was T 1N 0M 0, which indicated partial nephrectomy. The tumors were located on the left in 38 cases and on the right in 62 cases. The average maximum diameter of tumor was 3.9(1.0-6.7) cm, and the average R. E.N.A.L. score was 6.7(4-11). All operations were performed by a single surgeon. This group of operations were the first 100 robot cases for this surgeon. The mean machines docking time was 14(10-30) min, the mean operation time was 119.2(60-240) min, the mean warm ischemia time was 16.7(0-45) min, and the estimated mean blood loss was 105.2(30-500) ml. There was no conversion to open surgery or laparoscopic radical nephrectomy. No serious complications occurred (Dindo calvein grade ≥ grade Ⅲ). There were 1 case of lower extremity intramuscular venous thrombosis, 1 case of urinary fistula, 1 case of pulmonary infection and 1 case of peri-kidney hematoma after operation. All patients were cured after conservative treatment without further operation or intervention. Cumulative Sum (CUSUM) test was used to fit the learning curve of docking time and operation time, and to judge the three different learning stages of robot surgery according to the inflection of the curve (CUSUM stop rising, and CUSUM begin to decline). The characteristics of patients and perioperative data of different learning stages were compared. Result:According to the CUSUM, the learning curve of robot assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy was 19 cases. According to the inflection point of operation time learning curve, 100 cases could be divided into three stages, 1st-19th cases were learning stage, 20th-43rd cases were mastering stage and 44th-100th cases are proficient stage. There were no significant differences in age, gender, tumor side, intraoperative bleeding volume, postoperative pathological type, total cost of hospitalization and incidence of complications among the three stages ( P>0.05). The median BMI in the learning stage was significantly lower than that in the mastery stage and the proficiency stage (23 kg/m 2, 26 kg/m 2, 25 kg/m 2, P=0.02). The median docking time(20 min, 12 min, 12 min), median operation time (150 min, 120 min, 100 min) and median warm ischemia time (21 min, 18 min, 15 min)were gradually shortened in the learning stage, mastering stage and proficient stage ( P<0.001). The median length of postoperative hospital stay in mastering stage and proficient stage was shorter than that in learning stage (7 d, 6 d, 6 d, P=0.011). The median maximum diameter of tumor (3.7 cm, 3.9 cm, 4.0 cm)and median R. E.N.A.L. score (6, 7, 7)increased gradually in learning stage, mastering stage and proficient stage, but the difference was not statistically significant( P=0.75, P=0.16). Conclusions:The learning curve of robotic assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for an experienced surgeon is about 19 cases. After the completion of the learning curve, the docking time, operation time, warm ischemia time and postoperative hospital stay of patients can be significantly shortened than the initial period, and more difficult renal tumor operations can be accomplished.

12.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 362-367, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-869670

ABSTRACT

Objective:To compare the outcomes of low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy (BT) and radical prostatectomy (RP) in patients with T 1c-T 3a prostate cancer. Methods:A group of 745 patients with T 1c-T 3a prostate cancer between January 2010 and August 2017 at Peking Union Medical College Hospital were identified. The records of these patients, who were followed up for a minimum of 2 years, were reviewed. 384 cases received BT. Their characters included age(72.1±6.6), tPSA (12.4±6.1) ng/ml, prostate volume (33.6±13.8) ml, Gleason grade group (2.0±1.2). In this group, T 1c-T 2a stage was diagnosed in 189 cases, T 2b-T 2c stage in 182 cases and T 3a stage in 13 cases.361 cases received RP. Their characters included age(65.7±6.2), tPSA(12.6±6.4) ng/ml, prostate volume (37.2±17.8) ml, Gleason grade group (1.9±1.2). In this group, T 1c-T 2a stage was diagnosed in 177 cases, T 2b-T 2c stage in 170 cases and T 3a stage in 14 cases.The log-rank test compared survival rates between the two modalities, and Cox regression identified factors associated with bRFS. Results:Median follow-up was 60 months. Kaplan-Meier analysis did not show any statistically significant differences in terms of cRFS( P=0.321), cancer specific survival (CSS, P=0.643) and overall survival (OS, P=0.565) rate between the two groups. BT was associated with improved bRFS compared to RP( P=0.018). Risk of biochemical recurrence was significantly lower with BT compared with RP in the patients with a biopsy Gleason grade group 2 and 3 ( P=0.008), or prostate volume ≤35 ml ( P=0.027), or tPSA ≤10 ng/ml ( P=0.013), or the clinical T stages of T 2b and T 2C( P=0.031), or in the intermediate-risk group according to NCCN risk classification ( P=0.003). On multivariate analysis of all 745 patients, age≤ 70 and T stage≥T 2b was associated with significantly shorter bRFS. Conclusions:BT produced equivalent cRFS, CSS and OS compared to RP, while it was associated with improved bRFS. BT On multivariate analysis of all 745 patients, age≤ 70 and T stage≥T 2b was associated with significantly lower bRFS.

13.
International Journal of Surgery ; (12): 577-581, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-863391

ABSTRACT

Prostate cancer is one of the most common and fatal cancers worldwide. Although the incidence of prostate cancer in China is lower than that of European and American countries, it shows a trend of significant increase year by year. At the same time, the high proportion of advanced prostate cancer patients in China at the time of diagnosis has seriously affected the treatment effect. In recent years, with the joint efforts of the majority of Chinese medical staff, there has made great progress in the early screening, early diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. This article reviews and summarizes the progress in health screening and early treatment of prostate cancer in China in recent years to provide a basis for early clinical diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer.

14.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 1376-1379, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-817563

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the epidemiology and associated factors of deciduous dental caries in 3-5 years old children in Henan Province, and to provide a epidemiological reference for prevention work of deciduous dental caries among children.@*Methods@#According to the basic methods of the Fourth National Oral Health Survey, 12 kindergartens were randomly selected from 2 counties and 2 districts in Henan Province and a total of 1 296 children aged 3-5 years old were randomly selected with stratified multi-stage random sampling method. The deciduous teeth of these children were examined for caries and their guardians were surveyed with questionnaires regarding oral health behavior, knowledge and attitude.@*Results@#Deciduous dental caries occurred in 755 children, accounting for 58.3% and the average decay-missing-filled teeth (dmft) was 2.83. The differences of prevalence of dental caries of boys and girls (60.5%, 56.0%) and mean dmft index (2.88, 2.78) were of no statistical significance(χ2/F=2.64, 0.22, P>0.05). The prevalence of dental caries and mean dmft index for 3, 4 and 5-year-old group was 46.7%, 2.02 and 60.9%, 2.85 and 67.5%, 3.64, respectively. There was statistical significance among three age groups(χ2/F=40.00, 21.68, P<0.01). No significant difference was found in the dental caries prevalence and mean dmft index between urban (58.9%, 2.87) and rural area (57.7%, 2.79)(χ2/F=0.20, 0.16, P>0.05). Multivariate logistic regression showed that age, feeding pattern within the first six months after birth, dental care experience and self-perceived oral health status associated with deciduous caries in 3-5 year-old children in Henan Province(P<0.05).@*Conclusion@#Dental caries prevalence is highly prevalent among preschool children in Henan Province. Effective caries precaution measures should be taken to improve oral health level of these children.

15.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 267-271, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-745582

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics for hypertensive attack during operation and clinical experience of preoperative evaluation and preparation in patients with pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma(PHEO/PGL).Methods A total 219 PHEO/PGL cases from September 2016 to September 2018 were retrospectively reviewed.It included 99 males and 120 females,aged 13 to 76 (average 47) years old.The mean diameter of tumor was 5.3 cm (1.5-18.0 cm).140 cases were unilateral PHEO,6 cases were bilateral PHEO,68 cases were PGL(jugular,mediaphragm,heart,retroperitoneum,pelvic and bladder) and 5 cases were PHEO combined with PGL.Preoperative highest systolic blood pressure (SBP)was 240 mmHg(1 mmHg-0.133 kPa) and highest diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was 160 mmHg.20 cases were occult PHEO without hypertension.217 cases accepted preoperative preparation of alpha-blocker [phenoxy-benzamine,dosage ranging from 5 mg Q12h to 40 mg Q8h,maximum dosage not exceeding 1 mg/(kg· 24 h)].2 cases did not accept preoperative preparation.All cases accepted open or endoscope surgery.The patients were divided into 2 groups depending on the presence or absence of hypertensive attack at the time of surgery.Patient demographic characteristics and preoperative evaluations were assessed for their prognostic relevance with respect to hypertensive attack.Results Histopathological results showed that all cases were PHEO or PGL,while 205 cases were benign,14 cases were malignant.Hypertensive attack were recorded in 112 cases(51%).The diameter of tumors in the hypertensive attack group were larger than that in the non-hypertensive attack group[(6.70 ± 2.95)cm vs.(3.95 ± 1.70) cm,P =0.005].There was no significant difference between the two groups among age [(51.0 ± 10.8) years vs.(38.5 ± 17.6) years,P =0.105],preoperative catecholamine level [norepinephrine (111.20 ± 41.49) μg/24 h vs.(419.15 ± 154.81) μg/24 h,P =0.075],time of use of alpha blockers [(53.0 ± 7.5) d vs.(38.0 ± 6.4) d,P =0.139],daily dosage of alpha blocker [(40.0 ±7.2)mg vs.(27.1 ± 1.8) mg,P =0.111] and blood pressure at diagnosis[(173.75 ± 26.69) mmHg vs.(155.0 ± 20.75) mmHg,P =0.139].Among 219 cases,2 case had emergency hemostasis after operation,1 case had catecholamine cardiomyopathy after operation for occult pheochromocytoma,and no perioperative death occurred.Conclusions Patients with large tumor tend to have hypertensive attack during operation so that should be better prepared.

16.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 832-834, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-709606

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the incidence rate of prostate cancer detected in the specimen of radial cystoprostatectomy for bladder cancer and to evaluate its effect on the prognosis.Methods From June 2012 to June 2017,the clinical data of 132 patients with bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy (RCP) were analyzed retrospectively.The average age of 132 patients with bladder cancer was 61.2 years (37-89 years old).The serum of PSA of 89 cases out of 132 patients was examined before operation,21 cases 4 ng/ml < tPSA < 10 ng/ml,1 case tPSA 17 ng/ml and 67 cases tPSA < 4 ng/ml.The pathology of bladder and prostate,the location and range of prostate cancer and Gleason score and the prognostic effect of prostate cancer was evaluated.Results The 132 patients with bladder cancer,116 cases (87.9%) were high grade urothelial carcinoma,8 cases (6.0%) were bladder carcinoma in situ,6 cases (4.5%) were low grade urothelial carcinoma,1 case was neuroendocrine bladder carcinoma and 1 case was signet ring cell carcinoma.The 21 cases of prostate cancer were combined with Gleason score,among which 3 + 2 score in 1 cases,3 +3 score in 17 cases,4 +3 and 3 +4 in 1 cases,and 4 +5 score in 1 cases.The lesions were unilateral in 14 cases and bilateral in 7 cases.The lesions were <0.5 ml in 3 cases,0.5-0.7 ml in 14 cases and 0.7-1.0 ml in 4 cases.The average age of 21 cases with prostate cancer was 67.5 years old (41-89 years).Of the 21 cases of prostate cancer,the serum tPSA was abnormal in 4 cases with an average of 8.8 ng/ml (4.2-17.0 ng/ml),the serum tPSA was normal in 12 cases with an average of 2.5 ng/ml (1.3-3.7 ng/ml),and the serum PSA in 5 cases was not detected before operation.Three cases of prostate cancer aged less than 60 years old with the detection rate of 9.6% (3/31);18 cases were equal or older than 60 years old with the detection rate of 17.8% (18/101).Multi parameter analysis showed that the incidence of prostate cancer increased with the age of the patients (OR =1.36,P =0.048).Followed up for 5 to 51 months,no PSA relapse was found and no patient receiving related treatment.Conclusions The detection rate of prostate cancer is very high in the specimen of radial cystoprostatectomy for bladder cancer.The clinical manifestation of the prostatic involvement is concealed.Radical resection of the prostate is necessary in radical resection of bladder cancer.

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Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 333-337, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-709526

ABSTRACT

Objective To discuss the diagnosis,perioperative treatment,cardiac function changing of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PHEO/PGL) patients with catecholamine cardiomyopathy.Methods Fifteen PHEO/PGL patients with catecholamine cardiomyopathy were included in our hospital from Jan 2008 to Mar 2018.There were 8 males and 7 females with an average age of 32.8 years,ranging 13-64 years old.4 cases were found left PHEO.4 cases were found right PHEO and 3 cases were bilateral PHEO,including 2 cases of VHL.One case was jugular PGL.2 cases were lift PGL and 1 case was right PGL.The tumors diameter ranged from 2.3 to 7.2 cm.14 patients were diagnosed as PHEO/PGL with catecholamine cardiomyopathy with typical clinical manifestations of PHEO/PGL,such as headache,palpitation and perspiration.Their 24 hours of urine catecholamines showed an average of 24.87 μg/24 h in epinephrine and 551.70 μg/24 h in norepinephrine.Their average value of dopamine was 395.41 μg/24 h.Among 7 cases,the octreotide scan and Iodine-131-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (131 I-MIBG) s scan were positive in 6 and 1 case,respectively.Enhanced CT showed significantly heterogeneous enhancement tumors in adrenal or retroperitoneal area.Ischemia and necrosis area were found inside tumors.The blood flow of some tumors were extremely rich and irregular vascular network with a racemose distribution around the tumors could be observed.Echocardiography showed that the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ranged from 32% to 54%,mean (42.0 ± 7.1) % during catecholamine cardiomyopathy.5 cases were mild abnormal,which the LVEF ranged from 45% to 54%.9 cases were moderate abnormal,which the LVEF ranged from 30% to 44%.Their catecholamine cardiomyopathy performance including left ventricular hypertrophy,myocardial echo enhancement and left ventricular enlargement.9 cases combined with acute left ventricular failure manifested as pulmonary edema and pink foamy phlegm.Sensitive antibiotics were given to suspected pulmonary infection patients.14 cases accepted regular alpha blockers,beta blockers and calcium antagonists treatment for 1 to 3 months and underwent surgery after a significant improvement in cardiac function.1 non-functional PHEO patient was lack of typical clinical and imaging changing.Both of her 24 hours of urine catecholamines and octreotide scan were negative.Echocardiography showed that LVEF was 73% before operation.She was misdiagnosed as an adrenal non-functional adenoma.All patients underwent surgical treatment,including 13 laparoscopic surgery.One case switched to open surgery.2 PGL patients all accepted open surgery.Rusults All cases accepted complete resection of the tumors.1 case of nonfunctional PHEO had severe fluctuations in blood pressure during operation.Her BP were 190/130 to 80/50 mmHg (1 mmHg =0.133 kPa) and heart rate raised to 150 bpm.Catecholamine cardiomyopathy appeared in ICU ward after operation.Echocardiography showed that LVEF was 37%.The left ventricular enlargement and myocardial systolic function decreased.Fibrous bronchoscopy showed pink foamy phlegm in both sides of lungs.Chest X ray showed bilateral pulmonary edema which predominant in left side.The diagnosis was catecholamine cardiomyopathy of this patient.The LVEF was (55.9 ± 7.6)% after treatment in 14 PHEO/ PGL patients with catecholamine cardiomyopathy,and there was statistically significant difference between before and after treatment (P =0.041).The LVEF was (66.1 ± 8.5) % postoperation,and there was statistically significant difference between postoperation and after treatment (P =0.013).The non-functional PHEO case occurred severe catecholamin cardiomyopathy after operation and cardiac function recovered after treatment.15 cases were followed up from 1 months to 10 years without recurrence.Conclusions PHEO/PGL patients with catecholamine cardiomyopathy should have adequate medication.The abnormal cardiac function of patients would be reversed after surgical treatment.Cardiac function failure would be recovered after active treatment.Non-functional pheochromocytoma patients were extremely dangerous.Adequate medication should be given to any suspected non-functional pheochromocytoma patients.

18.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 329-332, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-709525

ABSTRACT

Objective We aimed to investigate the overexpression of succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) B and MIB-1 in patients with pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma(PHEO/PGLs) and its significance for predicting the clinical malignant behavior.Methods From August 2008 to April 2016,the clinical characteristics of 93 patients with PHEO/PGLs were analyzed retrospectively.There were 57 males and 36 females,with an average of 34 years,ranging 8-73 years old.There were 68 cases of adrenal pheochromocytoma and 25 cases of paraganglioma.There were 79 cases with hypertension and 14 cases of adrenal accidental tumors.Sixty-six cases with typical hyper-catecholamine secretion symptoms and 27 cases with non-functional PHEO/PGL.Benign PHEO/PGLs were 77 cases and malignant 16 cases.The tumor was located on the left side in 39 cases,on the right side in 32 cases and multiple lesions in 22 cases.The diameter of the PHEO/PGL tumor was (6.8 ± 2.7) cm.The 24 h urine catecholamine was measured before operation,which showed epinephrine was (42.6 ± 5.1) μg/24 h,norepinephrine was (167.5 ± 13.5) μg/24h and dopamine was (246.4 ± 71.2)μg/24h.Six cases wihtout hereditary diseases of urinary system were selected as normal control group.SDHB,SDHAF2,SDHC,SDHD,VHL and RET gene mutations were detected in all patients.Immunohistochemical panel has been performed to detect the expression of SDHB,MIB-1,EPAS1,VEGF-1 receptor (VEGF-1 R),and chromain A (CgA) in 93 specimens of PHEO/PGL tissue.The positive granular cytoplasm staining > 50% was strongly positive (+ + +),11% to 50% was moderately positive (+ +),1% to 10% was weak positive (+) and the negative was compared with the known positive internal reference,that is,there was less than 1% or no stain completely.Results SDHB,SDHAF2,SDHC,SDHD,VHL and RET gene mutations in 27 cases (29.5%).Nine patients with SDHB gene mutation (9.7%).RET proto-oncogene mutations in 8 cases (8.6%).3 cases had VHL mutation (3.2%).Immunohistochemical staining showed that MIB-1 positive expression was found in 7 of 9 patients with SDHB gene mutation.Six cases in the control group were negative for gene detection and MIB-1,EPAS1,CgA and VEGF-1R immunohistochemical results.EPAS1 showed moderately positive in patients with PHEO/PGL and strong positive in patients with malignant PHEO/PGL.In 9 cases with SDHM mutation,EPAS1 was noticed positive in seven cases,which showed the relationship with CgA,MIB-1 and VEGF-1R.Conclusions The SDHB gene mutation is usually shown as a paraganglioma focus outside the adrenal gland.And 9.8% of the paragangliomas were associated with a mutation of the SDHB gene with an increase in malignant risk.The SDHB mutation caused over-expression of MIB-1 and the positive expression of EPAS1 and VEGF-1R in PHEO/PGL tissues,which was associated with invasion and metastasis of malignant PHEO/PGL.

19.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 14-18, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-709473

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the diagnostic value of template-guided transperineal prostate biopsy (TTPB) by comparing biopsy-derived pathological results with findings from radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens.Methods From April 2013 to December 2015,patients who were diagnosed prostate cancer by transperineal template-guided 11-region prostate biopsy were enrolled in our study,and underwent laparoscopic RP.All whole-mount slices were reconstructed via a three-dimensional prostate model.Pathological features of the biopsy and RP specimens were compared.Detection rate of index lesions,overall sensitivity and specificity of TTPB,Gleason scores (GSs) in comparisons of biopsy and RP specimens were analyzed.Results One hundred and three patients were enrolled in our study,and the mean age was (65 ± 6)years.The median serum PSA was 11.7 ng/ml(IQR 7.2-19.1 ng/ml).The Gleason score ranged from 6 to 9.The clinical stage was T1c-T3a and the median prostate volume was 33.0 ml(IQR 26.0-43.0 ml).Eighty-nine of the 103 index lesions (86.4%) were detected by biopsy.The median volume was 1.2 ml (IQR 0.5-3.3 ml) and the mean maximum tumor length was (0.6 ± 0.4)cm.The overall sensitivity and specificity of the transperineal prostate biopsies were 53.3% and 94.2%,respectively.RP-derived GSs were unchanged,upgraded and downgraded relative to the corresponding biopsy-derived GSs in 75 (72.8%),24 (23.3%) and 4 (3.9%) patients,respectively.Conclusions Stematic transperineal template-guided prostate biopsy could detect most of the index lesions.This biopsy approach was less able to determine tumour focal positioning and could only serve as a reference for guiding focal therapy.

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Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 938-941, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-809646

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To review and discuss the experience of diagnosis and treatment of adrenal ganglioneuroma.@*Methods@#Clinical data of 80 cases of adrenal ganglioneuroma undergoing surgery during January 1982 to May 2017 at Peking Union Medical College Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. There were 36 male and 44 female patients. Age ranged from 8 to 69 years old (mean 37.7 years old). The tumor diameter were 1.5 to 18.0 cm (mean 4.3 cm). There were 61 cases of adrenal ganglioneuroma diagnosed by imaging examination. All patients underwent adrenalectomy.@*Results@#All procedures were performed successfully without serious complication. Including 15 open surgery and 64 retroperitoneal laparoscopic surgery. One laparoscopic case conversion to open surgery. The pathological diagnosis was adrenal ganglioneuroma. Fifteen cases were mixed with other tumor components. No recurrence or metastasis was observed during the follow-up of 2 months to 35 years.@*Conclusions@#The diagnostic techniques for adrenal ganglioneuroma are helpful to judge the tumor property before operation. The laparoscopic surgery has become the current method for resecting tumors. It shows advantages of small trauma and speedy recovery. The relationship between tumor and surrounding tissues should be understand clearly before operation. Full preparation must be made before operation if adrenal ganglioneuroma mixed with other tumor components.

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