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1.
Med. clín. soc ; 8(1)abr. 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550533

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las barreras de acceso a los servicios de salud primario conforman estructuras sociales que agravan la situación de salud de los adolescentes, impactando negativamente en el ejercicio pleno de la salud sexual reproductiva, situando a los adolescentes en una población de riesgo social. Objetivo: Determinar las barreras en el acceso a los servicios primarios de Salud Sexual y Reproductiva de atención diferenciada a los adolescentes del Centro de Salud I - 4 Pampa Grande Tumbes 2018. Metodología: Estudio analítico de caso control, se entrevistaron a 288 adolescentes del tercero, cuarto y quinto de secundaria de la institución educativa pública Túpac Amaru del centro poblado Pampa Grande de Tumbes en el año 2019, entre experimento y control con una razón de 1 a 1. Se aplicaron cuestionarios anónimos para evaluar las barreras de accesibilidad a los servicios primarios de salud. Se recogieron variables: características sociodemográficas y culturales que son consideradas, como barreras de acceso a los servicios de salud. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo e inferencial con el programa SPSS® v.23. Resultados: La edad, sexo e ingreso económico están directa y significativamente relacionadas con la accesibilidad a los servicios de salud sexual y reproductiva (p<0.01 IC 95 %); La disposición de recursos económicos para asumir los costos de traslado al centro de salud (OR = 4,23); la utilización del transporte público (OR = 1,58), el conocimiento de los servicios de salud sexual y reproductiva (OR = 1,15) incrementan la probabilidad de acceder a los servicios de salud sexual y reproductiva de los adolescentes. Discusión: Las barreras socioeconómicas a los servicios de salud sexual y reproductiva de los adolescentes son modificables y dependen de la gestión en salud pública.


Introduction: The barriers to access to primary health services make up social structures that aggravate the health situation of adolescents, negatively impacting the full exercise of reproductive sexual health, placing adolescents in a population at social risk. Objective: To determine the barriers in the access to the primary services of Sexual and Reproductive Health of differentiated attention to the adolescents of the Health Center I - 4 Pampa Grande Tumbes 2018. Methods: Analytical case control study, 288 adolescents from the third, fourth and fifth grade of secondary school of the public educational institution Túpac Amaru in the Pampa Grande de Tumbes town center were interviewed in 2019, between experiment and control with a ratio of 1 to 1. Anonymous questionnaires were applied to assess accessibility barriers to primary health services. Variables were collected: sociodemographic and cultural characteristics that are considered as barriers to access to health services. A descriptive and inferential analysis was carried out with the SPSS® v.23 program. Results: Age, sex and economic income are directly and significantly related to accessibility to sexual and reproductive health services (p<0.01 95% CI); The availability of economic resources to assume the costs of transportation to the health center (OR = 4.23); the use of public transport (OR = 1.58), knowledge of sexual and reproductive health services (OR = 1.15) increase the probability of accessing sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents. Discussion: Socioeconomic barriers to sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents are modifiable and depend on public health management.

2.
Rev. Baiana Saúde Pública ; 48(1): 155-168, 20240426.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1555816

ABSTRACT

Em 11 de março de 2020, a Organização Mundial de Saúde declarou que a epidemia da covid-19 evoluiu para uma pandemia. As medidas de isolamento tomadas diante do cenário pandêmico provocaram impactos diretos na vida e na saúde física e mental da população. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a perspectiva do adolescente em relação à prática de atividade física e à saúde mental durante a pandemia da covid-19. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo de abordagem qualitativa, seguindo um roteiro semiestruturado, com 11 adolescentes de 11 a 19 anos de idade em acompanhamento com a equipe Residência Multiprofissional em Saúde do Adolescente. Para a análise dos dados, foi utilizada a análise de conteúdo de Bardin. A partir da análise das falas dos participantes, foram construídas três categorias analíticas. Os achados do estudo identificaram que os adolescentes que praticavam atividade física antes da pandemia pararam as práticas em algum momento após o início das medidas para contenção da disseminação do vírus. Em relação à saúde mental, foi possível identificar nos relatos os sentimentos de tristeza, medo e insegurança que a pandemia gerou nesses indivíduos. O impacto da pandemia na prática de atividade física e na saúde mental dos adolescentes, segundo a sua perspectiva e os resultados deste estudo, foi negativo.


On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization recognized that the COVID-19 outbreak had evolved into a pandemic. Isolation measures taken during the pandemic have directly impacted the lives and physical and mental health of both adolescents and the general population. Hence, this study investigates the adolescent perspective regarding physical activity and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. A descriptive qualitative study was conducted following a semi-structured interview guide with eleven adolescents aged 11 to 19 years attended by the REMSA team. Data underwent Bardin's content analysis, resulting in three analytical categories. Results showed that adolescents who exercised before the pandemic stopped the practice at some point after the measures to contain the virus spread were implemented. Regarding mental health, the participants mentioned feelings of sadness, fear and insecurity brought by the pandemic. In their perspective, the COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacted physical activity and mental health. These findings impact public health decision-making where strategies to overcome this negative impact on adolescent health must be created for a better quality of life among this population.


El 11 de marzo de 2020, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) declaró que el brote del covid-19 se ha convertido en una pandemia. Las medidas de aislamiento han tenido un impacto directo en la vida y la salud física y mental de la población en general. El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer la perspectiva del adolescente sobre la práctica de actividad física y salud mental durante la pandemia del covid-19. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, de enfoque cualitativo, que aplicó una guía semiestructurada a adolescentes de entre 11 y 19 años en seguimiento con el equipo Residencia Multiprofesional en Salud del Adolescente. Para el análisis de datos se utilizó el análisis de contenido de Bardin. A partir del análisis de contenido de los discursos de los participantes, se construyeron tres categorías analíticas. Los hallazgos de este estudio identificaron que los adolescentes que practicaban actividad física antes de la pandemia detuvieron las prácticas en algún momento posterior al inicio de las medidas de contención del virus. En cuanto a la salud mental, los participantes reportaron sentimientos de tristeza, miedo e inseguridad provocados por la pandemia. El impacto de la pandemia del covid-19 en la práctica de actividad física y la salud mental de los adolescentes según su perspectiva y los resultados de este estudio fue negativo.

3.
Med. infant ; 31(1): 44-50, Marzo 2024. Ilus, Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1553048

ABSTRACT

El uso de antirretrovirales (ARV) en el embarazo, el parto y el recién nacido y la aplicación de tratamientos combinados en los niños se han asociado con una disminución del sida en pediatría y el aumento de la sobrevida. La introducción de los inhibidores de integrasa en una dosis diaria ha eliminado barreras para la adherencia, pero los medicamentos orales diarios continúan planteando problemas de privacidad y estigma. Las nuevas tecnologías de administración de los medicamentos y las nuevas drogas junto con la combinación de ARV y los anticuerpos ampliamente neutralizantes (bNAb), ofrecen un potencial de opciones futuras para el tratamiento pediátrico del HIV. Los bNAb son anticuerpos que pueden reconocer diferentes tipos de HIV, bloquear su entrada en las células sanas y ayudar a destruir las células ya infectadas, pueden administrarse por vía parenteral y constituyen un enfoque novedoso y seguro con potencial para el tratamiento y la prevención del HIV, incluida la transmisión vertical. En los lactantes que contraen HIV, los bNAb podrían ofrecer ventajas terapéuticas al reducir el reservorio del virus, mejorar la inmunidad adquirida y, en el futuro, proporcionar un camino hacia la cura funcional. Dentro de los ARV inyectables de acción prolongada, cabotegravir/ rilpivirina se ha incorporado en las guías internacionales de adultos y adolescentes tanto para el tratamiento como para la prevención. A medida que el tratamiento del HIV en adultos va evolucionando, es fundamental asegurar que los neonatos, lactantes, niños y adolescentes tengan acceso a las mejores opciones de tratamiento y prevención a lo largo de su vida (AU)


The use of antiretrovirals (ARVs) during pregnancy, delivery, and in the newborn and the use of combination therapy in children have been associated with a decrease in pediatric AIDS and increased survival. The introduction of once-daily integrase inhibitors has removed barriers to adherence, but daily oral medications continue to pose privacy and stigma issues. New drug delivery technologies and new drugs along with the combination of ARVs and broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) offer potential future options for pediatric HIV treatment. bNAbs are antibodies that can recognize different types of HIV, block their entry into healthy cells and help destroy already infected cells, can be delivered parenterally, and represent a novel and safe approach with potential for the treatment and prevention of HIV, including mother-to-child transmission. In infants who contract HIV, bNBAs could offer therapeutic advantages by reducing the viral reservoir, enhancing acquired immunity and, in the future, providing a pathway to a functional cure. Within the long-acting injectable ARVs, cabotegravir/rilpivirine has been incorporated into international guidelines for adults and adolescents for both treatment and prevention. As adult HIV treatment evolves, it is critical to ensure that newborns, infants, children and adolescents have access to the best treatment and prevention options throughout their lives (AU)


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Drug Compounding
4.
Kinesiologia ; 43(1): 3-7, 20240315.
Article in Spanish, English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1552558

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El tabaquismo es responsable de una gran cantidad de muertes en el mundo, la gran prevalencia del tabaquismo entre adolescentes, así como la baja edad de inicio del consumo, genera preocupación y la necesidad de implementar intervenciones específicas a esta población. Objetivo. Evaluar los efectos de una charla antitabaco en adolescentes de colegios públicos y privados en la Región Metropolitana de Santiago. Métodos. Estudio cuantitativo cuasi-experimental, se realizó una charla antitabaco en dos colegios (público y privado), se evaluó la motivación para dejar de fumar con el Test de Richmond en una muestra de 13 estudiantes pre y post charla. Resultados. hubo una mejora en los puntajes de Richmond post charla en ambos colegios, siendo mayor en el colegio público, sin embargo, la diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa (p=0,09). Discusión. La evidencia respalda la efectividad de las charlas antitabaco. Existe una relación entre nivel socioeconómico y tabaquismo, sin embargo, no hay otros estudios que comparen la efectividad en los distintos estratos sociales. Se reconocen limitaciones del estudio como el tamaño de la muestra y el muestreo no aleatorio, se recomiendan nuevos estudios que incluyan otras variables. Conclusiones. A pesar de limitaciones del estudio, se respalda la implementación de charlas antitabaco en entornos educativos, enfatizando la necesidad de adaptar estrategias a contextos socioeconómicos específicos para mejorar la salud pública.


Background. Introduction: Smoking is responsible for a significant number of deaths worldwide, and the high prevalence of smoking among adolescents, as well as early age of onset, raises concerns, and the need of targeted interventions for this group. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of an anti-smoking talk on students from public and private schools in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago. Methods. A quasi-experimental quantitative study involving an anti-smoking talk in two schools (public and private) assessed the motivation to quit smoking using the Richmond Test in a sample of 13 students pre and post the talk. Results. There was an improvement in Richmond scores post-talk in both schools, with a greater increase observed in the public school. However, the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.09). Discussion. The evidence supports the effectiveness of anti-smoking talks. A relationship between socioeconomic status and smoking exists, yet there are no studies comparing effectiveness across different socioeconomic strata. Study limitations, such as sample size and non-random sampling, are acknowledged, and further research incorporating additional variables is recommended. Conclusions. Despite study limitations, advocating for the implementation of anti-smoking talks in educational settings is supported, emphasizing the need to adapt strategies to specific socioeconomic contexts to enhance public health.

5.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 147-153, feb. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528828

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The handgrip strength is used as a means of individual's health prediction during life. It is used as an indicator of the nutrition status, bone fragility, presence of sarcopenia and it correlates with certain diseases and clinical complications. The research goal was to analyze the results of the hand dynamometry test, based on the chronological and biological age, and to offer normative and referent standards about children and adolescents from the Republic of North Macedonia. The study was conducted on a sample of 4031 respondents of both sexes at the age 6-14 years. In order to achieve the research goals, the measured characteristics were of the weight, height, sitting height and handgrip strength. The body mass index and biological maturity values (APHV) were obtained by using formulas. On the basis of the obtained results, it can be concluded that statistically significant differences in handgrip strength are established between the boys and girls of all age categories. Also, statistically significant differences between boys and girls are established in the hand dynamometry test of all APHV levels. In general, the use of the APHV allows a better categorization of the performance of the studied children and adolescents. With boys, the correlation between the chronological age and test was 68 %, and with girls - 77 %. The normative referent standards of the hand dynamometry test are presented in percentiles for both sexes. Thye hand dynamometry test's results during childhood and adolescence should be analyzed and interpret on the basis of biological age, and not on the chronological age. These tools can help specialists who work with children and adolescents in ethnic and epidemiological context.


La fuerza de prensión se utiliza como medio para predecir la salud del individuo durante la vida. Se utiliza como indicador del estado nutricional, fragilidad ósea, presencia de sarcopenia y se correlaciona con determinadas enfermedades y complicaciones clínicas. El objetivo de la investigación fue analizar los resultados de la prueba de dinamometría manual, con base en la edad cronológica y biológica, y ofrecer estándares normativos y referentes sobre niños y adolescentes de la República de Macedonia del Norte. El estudio se realizó en una muestra de 4031 encuestados de ambos sexos con edades comprendidas entre 6 y 14 años. Para lograr los objetivos de la investigación, las características medidas fueron el peso, la altura, la altura al sentarse y la fuerza de prensión. El índice de masa corporal y los valores de madurez biológica (APHV) se obtuvieron mediante fórmulas. Sobre la base de los resultados obtenidos, se puede concluir que se establecen diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la fuerza de prensión manual entre niños y niñas de todas las categorías de edad. Asimismo, se establecen diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre niños y niñas en la prueba de dinamometría manual de todos los niveles APHV. En general, el uso del APHV permite una mejor categorización del desempeño de los niños y adolescentes estudiados. En los niños, la correlación entre la edad cronológica y la prueba fue del 68 %, y en las niñas, del 77 %. Los estándares normativos referentes de la prueba de dinamometría manual se presentan en percentiles para ambos sexos. Los resultados de la prueba de dinamometría manual durante la infancia y la adolescencia deben analizarse e interpretarse en función de la edad biológica y no de la edad cronológica. Estas herramientas pueden ayudar a los especialistas que trabajan con niños y adolescentes en un contexto étnico y epidemiológico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Hand Strength , Pressure , Reference Standards , Body Mass Index , Anthropometry , Regression Analysis , Age Factors , Republic of North Macedonia , Manual Dynamometry
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 93-97, feb. 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528840

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Height and body weight measurements are among the most important anthropometric variables when assessing a population's growth, development and body composition. This study aimed to evaluate the height and body weight variability of male entities aged 17-18 years within 35 years. This goal was realized by comparing the height and body weight of the population of the same gender and age in three different time studies. The descriptive statistical parameters and T-test for independent groups show systematic and significant differences in measured variables between three measurements in different timelines. Both in body height and body weight, from measurement to measurement, significant systematic and statistically significant differences (p<0.01) have been identified (1985: BH= 172.8cm, BW= 61.7kg; 2004: BH=176.8 cm, BW=66.9 kg; 2019: BH=178.5 cm, BW=72 kg). The results of this study prove that the change in the socio-economic status of a population over a period time of 35 years can significantly affect the growth and development of children/adolescents.


Las medidas de altura y peso corporal se encuentran entre las variables antropométricas más importantes a la hora de evaluar el crecimiento, el desarrollo y la composición corporal de una población. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar la variabilidad de la altura y el peso corporal de entidades masculinas de 17 a 18 años dentro de 35 años. Este objetivo se logró comparando la altura y el peso corporal de la población del mismo sexo y edad en tres estudios temporales diferentes. Los parámetros estadísticos descriptivos y la prueba T para grupos independientes muestran diferencias sistemáticas y significativas en las variables medidas entre tres mediciones en diferentes líneas de tiempo. Tanto en la altura como en el peso corporal, de medición en medición, se han identificado diferencias significativas sistemáticas y estadísticamente significativas (p<0,01) (1985: BH= 172,8 cm, BW= 61,7 kg; 2004: BH=176,8 cm, BW=66,9 kg; 2019: BH=178,5 cm, BW=72 kg). Los resultados de este estudio demuestran que el cambio en el estatus socioeconómico de una población durante un período de 35 años puede afectar significativamente el crecimiento y desarrollo de niños/ adolescentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Body Height , Body Weight , Anthropometry , Socioeconomic Factors , Time Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Kosovo , Social Status
7.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521606

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate autoinflammatory diseases (AID) according to age at diagnosis and sex, and response to therapy in a large population. Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational study of a Latin American registry using a designed web system for data storage, collected between 2015 and 2018. Any altered findings during follow-up were recorded. The forms were translated into Portuguese and Spanish, including demographic, clinical, laboratory, genetic and treatment characteristics. Results: We included 152 patients, 51.3% male and 75% Caucasian. The median age at disease onset was 2.1 years (0-15.6 years) and median age at diagnosis 6.9 years (0-21.9 years); 111 (73%) were children (0-9 years old), and 41 (27%) were adolescents and young adults (AYA) (10-21 years old). Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis syndrome (PFAPA) occurred in 46/152 (30%), chronic non-bacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) in 32/152 (21%), and familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) in 24/152 (15.7%). PFAPA was significantly higher in young children than in AYA (38.7% vs. 7.3%, p<0.001), while CNO were lower (13.5% vs. 41.5%, p<0.001). The frequency of females was significantly higher in CNO (28.4% vs. 14.1%, p=0.031) and lower in FMF (8.1% vs. 23.1%, p=0.011). The most used drugs were glucocorticoids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), and colchicine. Glucocorticoids and colchicine treatment were used in all AID with good to moderate response. However, cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS) seemed unresponsive to glucocorticoids. NSAIDs and methotrexate were the main medications used to treat CNO. Conclusions: Differences among AID patients were observed in the LA population regarding sex and age at disease diagnosis.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar as doenças autoinflamatórias (DAI) de acordo com sexo e idade no momento do diagnóstico e a resposta terapêutica em uma grande população. Métodos: Este é um estudo observacional transversal de um registro latino-americano que usou um sistema de dados coletados entre 2015 e 2018. Quaisquer achados alterados ao longo do acompanhamento foram registrados. Os formulários foram traduzidos para os idiomas português e espanhol, incluindo características demográficas, clínicas, laboratoriais, genéticas e de tratamento. Resultados: Incluímos 152 pacientes, sendo 51,3% do sexo masculino e 75% da raça branca. A média de idade de início da doença foi de 2,1 anos (0-15,6 anos) e a média de idade de diagnóstico 6,9 anos (0-21,9 anos); 111 (73%) eram crianças (0-9 anos) e 41 (27%) adolescentes/adultos jovens (10-21 anos). A síndrome de febre periódica, estomatite aftosa, faringite e adenite (PFAPA) ocorreu em 46/152 (30%), osteomielite não bacteriana crônica (CNO) em 32/152 (21%) e febre familiar do Mediterrâneo (FMF) em 24/152 (15,7%). A PFAPA foi significativamente maior em crianças pequenas (38,7 vs. 7,3%, p<0,001), e a CNO, em adolescentes/adultos jovens (13,5 vs. 41,5%, p<0,001). A frequência do sexo feminino foi significativamente maior na CNO (28,4 vs. 14,1%, p=0,031) e menor na FMF (8,1 vs. 23,1%, p=0,011). Os medicamentos mais utilizados foram glicocorticoides, anti-inflamatórios não esteroidais (AINE) e colchicina. O tratamento com glicocorticoides e colchicina foi usado em todas as DAI com resposta boa a moderada. No entanto, as síndromes periódicas associadas à criopirina (CAPS) pareciam não responder aos glicocorticoides. AINE e metotrexato foram os principais medicamentos utilizados no tratamento da CNO. Conclusões: Diferenças de pacientes com DAI foram observadas na população latino-americana em pacientes agrupados por sexo e idade ao diagnóstico da doença.

8.
Cogitare Enferm. (Online) ; 29: e92045, 2024. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1550219

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: analisar necessidades dos adolescentes vivenciando o cancro parental. Método: estudo qualitativo exploratório e descritivo. Coleta de dados foi realizada através de entrevistas semiestruturadas em 2021. Amostra de conveniência foi composta por adolescentes dos 14-19 anos, com pais com doença oncológica na fase de tratamento, acompanhados em um hospital oncológico português. Tratamento de dados foi realizado com recurso à análise de conteúdo. Resultados: da análise das 13 entrevistas, emergiram cinco domínios: Confronto com a doença; Conhecimento sobre a doença; Experiências anteriores com a doença oncológica; Vivência do cancro parental; e Alterações somáticas. Os resultados evidenciam que os adolescentes vivenciando cancro parental apresentam necessidades emocionais, educacionais e psicossociais. Conclusão: este estudo permitiu conhecer as necessidades dos adolescentes, compreendendo as dificuldades sentidas e os desafios que a experiência acarreta. Os resultados permitirão sustentar o desenho de um programa de intervenção de enfermagem para a díade que vivencia o cancro parental.


ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the needs of adolescents experiencing parental cancer. Method: an exploratory and descriptive qualitative study. Data collection was carried out through semi-structured interviews in 2021. The convenience sample was composed of adolescents aged 14-19, with parents with oncological disease in the treatment phase, followed in a Portuguese oncology hospital. Data processing was carried out using content analysis. Results: from the analysis of the 13 interviews, five domains emerged: Coping with the disease; Knowledge about the disease; Previous experiences with the oncological disease; Experiencing parental cancer; and Somatic changes. The results show that adolescents experiencing parental cancer have emotional, educational and psychosocial needs. Conclusion: this study allowed us to understand adolescents' needs, understanding the difficulties experienced and the challenges that the experience entails. The results will support the design of a nursing intervention program for the dyad experiencing parental cancer.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar las necesidades de los adolescentes que experimentan cáncer en sus padres. Método: estudio cualitativo exploratorio y descriptivo. La recolección de datos se realizó mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas en 2021. La muestra por conveniencia estuvo compuesta por adolescentes de 14 a 19 años, con padres con enfermedad oncológica en fase de tratamiento, seguidos en un hospital oncológico portugués. El procesamiento de los datos se realizó mediante análisis de contenido. Resultados: del análisis de las 13 entrevistas surgieron cinco dominios: Enfrentamiento a la enfermedad; Conocimiento sobre la enfermedad; Experiencias previas con la enfermedad oncológica; Experiencia del cáncer de los padres; y Cambios somáticos. Los resultados muestran que los adolescentes que padecen cáncer en sus padres tienen necesidades emocionales, educativas y psicosociales. Conclusión: este estudio permitió comprender las necesidades de los adolescentes, comprendiendo las dificultades vividas y los desafíos que conlleva la experiencia. Los resultados apoyarán el diseño de un programa de intervención de enfermería para la díada que sufre cáncer en sus padres.

9.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550577

ABSTRACT

El tema de la salud mental en niños y adolescentes requiere mayor atención. Por lo tanto, este estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar las características de los pacientes de consulta externa de un centro especializado de un hospital universitario paraguayo. Este estudio empleó una serie retrospectiva, no probabilística, de casos consecutivos. Se examinaron las historias clínicas de pacientes de ambos sexos, de entre 2 y 17 años de edad, que solicitaron consulta en el Departamento de Psiquiatría del Niño y del Adolescente del Hospital de Clínicas entre julio de 2021 y julio de 2023, y que fueron diagnosticados con un trastorno mental según la CIE-10. Se recogieron datos demográficos y clínicos de 447 pacientes, representando 1278 consultas. La mayoría de los pacientes eran mujeres (57,7%), con una edad media de 13 ± 3 años. La mayoría de los pacientes (57,3%) procedían del Departamento Central, el 61,5% eran de zonas rurales y el 72% no tenían seguro médico. Los diagnósticos más frecuentes fueron episodios depresivos (F32), otros trastornos de ansiedad (F41), trastornos de conducta (F91) y trastornos específicos de la personalidad (F60). Los resultados de este estudio proporcionan información crucial sobre la salud mental de niños y adolescentes, que es esencial para informar las políticas de salud mental, asignar recursos y formar a los profesionales sanitarios encargados de atender a este grupo de pacientes.


The topic of mental health in children and adolescents requires increased attention. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the characteristics of outpatient clinic patients at a specialized center within a Paraguayan University Hospital. This study employed a retrospective, non-probabilistic series of consecutive cases. The medical records of patients of both sexes, aged between 2 and 17 years, who sought consultation at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of the Hospital de Clínicas between July 2021 and July 2023, and were diagnosed with a mental disorder according to the ICD-10, were examined. Demographic and clinical data were collected from 447 patients, representing 1278 consultations. The majority of the patients were female (57.7%), with a mean age of 13 ± 3 years. Most patients (57.3%) were from the Central Department, 61.5% were from rural areas, and 72% did not have medical insurance. The most frequent diagnoses were depressive episodes (F32), other anxiety disorders (F41), conduct disorders (F91), and specific personality disorders (F60). The findings of this study provide crucial information on child and adolescent mental health, which is essential for informing mental health policies, allocating resources, and training healthcare professionals tasked with caring for this patient group.

10.
Saúde debate ; 48(140): e8516, 2024.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1551063

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Este artigo trata das adolescências, no plural, como construção histórico-social de um processo dinâmico, e do adolescente perante seus modos de vida e expressão em um contexto histórico-social e singular. Entende-se aqui que ações meramente prescritivas são insuficientes para responder às complexidades dos processos de adoecimento mental na sociedade contemporânea. Objetivou-se compreender o contexto das práticas de cuidado em saúde ao adolescente em vulnerabilidade, diante do uso de drogas, na dimensão das tensões dos campos de práticas do cuidado em saúde. Estudo descritivo exploratório de abordagem qualitativa, que realizou entrevistas com profissionais da área da saúde (Unidade Básica de Saúde e Centro de Atenção Psicossocial Infantojuvenil). Destacam-se as tensões no campo de práticas entre o modelo assistencial biomédico e de guerra às drogas versus o psicossocial/comunitário; redução de estigma; acesso; redução de danos e nos atendimentos individuais, bem como a importância de refletir e fomentar o processo de mudança da mentalidade diante do adoecimento mental, visando atualizar as formas de cuidar. Esse processo tem sido realizado conforme os princípios da Reforma Psiquiátrica Brasileira, com avanços e retrocessos que repercutem na atualização das práticas de cuidado em saúde mais alinhadas às propostas de ações psicossociais e redutoras de vulnerabilidade.


ABSTRACT This article deals with adolescences, in the plural, as a socio-historical construction of a dynamic process and with the experience of adolescents with their lifestyle and self-expression in a unique socio-historical context. It assumes that purely prescriptive measures are insufficient to address the complexity of mental illness processes in contemporary society. This study aims to understand the context of health care practices for vulnerable youth, particularly those involved in substance use, through the lens of tensions in health practice domains. This is an exploratory, descriptive study using a qualitative approach, with interviews conducted with health professionals (in Basic Health Unit and Psychosocial Care Center for Children and Adolescents). The study highlights the tensions within health practice between the biomedical model and the war on drugs and a community-based psychosocial approach; it underlines the need for reducing stigmatization, improving access, harm reduction, and individualized care. It also emphasizes the importance of considering and promoting a shift in mentality towards mental illness in order to develop care strategies. This process was carried out in line with the principles of the Brazilian Mental Health Reform, with advances and setbacks that affect the updating of health practices, which are more oriented towards proposals for psychosocial and vulnerability-reducing actions.

11.
REVISA (Online) ; 13(1): 207-217, 2024.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532076

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Identificar a associação entre a presença de discriminação racial e a situação de saúde bucal relacionada à cárie dentária. Método:Estudo transversal, com amostra de 209 adolescentes, avaliados em ambiente escolar através da aplicação de questionário e exame clínico bucal. As variáveis foram: discriminação racial percebida, sociodemográficas e cárie dentária (presença de pelo menos um dente cariado). Os dados foram analisados pelos testes de Qui-quadrado de Pearson ou exato de Fisher e pela Regressão Logística Múltipla. Resultados:A maioria dos adolescentes era negra (66%), do sexo feminino (56,2%), com idade entre 14 e 16 anos (56%), heterossexual (73,2%) e cristã (59,3%). Em relação à situação socioeconômica 41,1% recebiam bolsa família e 19,2% tinham renda familiar de até um salário mínimo. A maior parte dos respondentes apresentou cárie (97,5%) e cerca de um quarto perdeu algum dente permanente. O índice médio do CPO-D foi de 3,7. Houve associação entre a raça/cor conforme o IBGE (p=0,033) e pela escalade cores da pele (p=0,012) e a ocorrência de cárie dentária. Adolescentes negros apresentaram duas vezes mais chances de terem cárie dentária (OR=2,11;IC=1,08-4,15). Conclusão:Os achados deste estudo permitem concluir que observou-se associação entre discriminação racial e cárie dentária.


Objective: To identify the association between the presence of racial discrimination and the oral health situation related to tooth decay. Method:Cross-sectional study, with a sample of 209 adolescents, evaluated in a school environment through the application of a questionnaire and clinical oral examination. The variables were perceived racial discrimination, sociodemographics, tooth decay (presence of at least one decayed tooth). Data were analyzed using Pearson's Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests and Multiple Logistic Regression. Results:The majority of adolescents were black (66%), female (56.2%), aged between 14 and 16 years old (56%), heterosexual (73.2%) and Christian (59.3%) . Regarding socioeconomic situation, 41.1% received a family allowance and 19.2% had a family income of up to one minimum wage. Most respondents had cavities (97.5%) and around a quarter lost some permanent teeth. Therewas an association between race/color according to IBGE (p=0.033) and skin color scale (p=0.012) and the occurrence of tooth decay. Black adolescents were twice as likely to have tooth decay (OR=2.11; CI=1.08-4.15). Conclusion:The findings of this study allow us to conclude that an association was observed between racial discrimination and tooth decay.


Objetivo:Identificar a associação entre a presença de discriminação racial e a situação de saúde bucal relacionada à cárie dentária. Método:Estudio transversal, con una muestra de 209 adolescentes, evaluados en el ambiente escolar mediante la aplicación de un cuestionario y examen clínico oral. Las variables fueron discriminación racial percibida, sociodemográfica, caries (presencia de al menos un diente cariado). Los datos se analizaron mediante las pruebas de Chi-cuadrado de Pearson o exacta de Fisher y Regresión Logística Múltiple. Resultados:La mayoría de los adolescentes eran negros (66%), mujeres (56,2%), con edades entre 14 y 16 años (56%), heterosexuales (73,2%) y cristianos (59,3%). En cuanto a la situación socioeconómica, el 41,1% recibía una asignación familiar y el 19,2% tenía un ingreso familiar de hasta un salario mínimo. La mayoría de los encuestados tenía caries (97,5%) y alrededor de una cuarta parte perdió algunos dientes permanentes. El índice CPOD promedio fue de 3,7. Hubo asociación entre raza/color según IBGE (p=0,033) y escala de color de piel (p=0,012) y la aparición de caries. Los adolescentes negros tenían el doble de probabilidades de tener caries (OR=2,11; IC=1,08-4,15). Conclusión:Los hallazgos de este estudio nos permiten concluir que se observó una asociación entre la discriminación racial y la caries


Subject(s)
Health Inequities , Schools , Oral Health , Adolescent , Racism
12.
Psicol. esc. educ ; 28: e250049, 2024. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529265

ABSTRACT

As habilidades sociais têm importante papel na vida escolar e profissional. Este estudo, de natureza descritiva e correlacional, analisa os efeitos de um Curso de extensão intitulado "Imersão na Universidade: você protagonista do seu futuro", sobre as habilidades sociais de estudantes do Ensino Médio da rede pública. Para tanto, aplicou-se o Inventário de Habilidades Sociais em Adolescentes (IHSA-DelPrette) no momento inicial e três meses após o término do curso, considerando dois indicadores: (1) frequência e (2) dificuldade com que reagiam às diferentes demandas de interação social. Verificou-se diferença estatisticamente significante entre os escores pré e pós intervenção (p = 0,014), evidenciando aumento da frequência das habilidades. Para a dificuldade não foi observada diferença significante, embora tenha ocorrido uma diminuição de 13,45%. A universidade pode ser um espaço não apenas para capacitação analítica e instrumental, mas para o desenvolvimento interpessoal tanto da comunidade interna quanto externa.


Las habilidades sociales poseen importante papel en la vida escolar y profesional. En este estudio, de naturaleza descriptiva y correlacional, se analiza los efectos de un Curso de extensión intitulado "Inmersión en la Universidad: usted es protagonista de su futuro", sobre las habilidades sociales de estudiantes de la enseñanza secundaria de la red pública. Para tanto, se aplicó el Inventario de Habilidades Sociales en Adolescentes (IHSA-DelPrette) en el momento inicial y tres meses tras el término del curso, considerando dos indicadores: (1) frecuencia y (2) dificultad con que reaccionaran a las diferentes demandas de interacción social. Se verificó diferencia estadísticamente significante entre los escores pre y tras intervención (p = 0,014), evidenciando aumento de la frecuencia de las habilidades. Para la dificultad no se observó diferencia significante, aunque haya sucedido una disminución del 13,45%. La universidad puede ser un espacio no solo para capacitación analítica e instrumental, pero también para el desarrollo interpersonal de la comunidad interna y externa.


Social skills play an important role in school and professional life. This descriptive and correlational study analyzes the effects of an extension course entitled "Immersion in the University: you are the protagonist of your future", about the social skills of High School students in public schools. To this end, the Inventory of Social Skills in Adolescents (IHSA-DelPrette) was applied at the beginning and three months after the end of the course, considering two indicators: (1) assiduity and (2) difficulties they had when handling the different demands of social interaction. There was a statistically significant difference between the pre and post intervention scores (p = 0.014), showing an increase in the frequency of skills. For difficulty, no significant difference was observed, although there was a decrease of 13.45%. The university can be a space not only for analytical and instrumental training, but for the interpersonal development of both the internal and external community.


Subject(s)
Students , Adolescent , Social Skills , Self-Testing
13.
Mundo saúde (Impr.) ; 48: e15822024, 2024.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1555706

ABSTRACT

A síndrome metabólica é caracterizada pela presença concomitante de alteração na glicemia, dislipidemia, elevação da pressão arterial e adiposidade excessiva, os quais elevam o risco cardiovascular. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar os parâmetros da síndrome metabólica e a associação com o consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados e bebidas adoçadas em adolescentes com excesso de peso. Realizou-se um estudo transversal, conduzido com 67 adolescentes com excesso de peso, de um ambulatório pediátrico de um hospital público no município de São Paulo. A avaliação antropométrica consistiu na aferição de peso, estatura e circunferência da cintura. Foram coletados dados de glicose, triglicérides, HDL-c, e pressão arterial, e a síndrome metabólica (SM) analisada de acordo com critérios da Associação Brasileira de Nutrologia. O consumo alimentar foi avaliado pelo questionário de frequência alimentar semiquantitativo. A prevalência de síndrome metabólica foi de 56,7%. Os parâmetros mais prevalentes foram redução de HDL-c (71,6%), elevação da pressão arterial sistólica (70,1%) e da glicemia de jejum (64,2%). Observou-se correlação positiva entre a glicemia de jejum e o consumo de alimentos ultra processados e bebidas adoçadas.


Metabolic syndrome is characterized by the concomitant presence of changes in blood glucose, dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure and excessive adiposity, which increase cardiovascular risk. The objective of this study was to analyze the parameters of metabolic syndrome and the association with the consumption of ultra-processed foods and sweetened beverages in overweight adolescents. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 67 overweight adolescents from a pediatric outpatient clinic of a public hospital in the city of São Paulo. The anthropometric assessment consisted of measuring weight, height and waist circumference. Data on glucose, triglycerides, HDL-c, and blood pressure were collected, and metabolic syndrome (MS) was analyzed according to criteria from the Brazilian Association of Nutrology. Food consumption was assessed using the semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 56.7%. The most prevalent parameters were a reduction in HDL-c (71.6%), and an increase in systolic blood pressure (70.1%) and fasting blood glucose (64.2%). Blood glucose was positively associated with the sweetened beverage consumption score and BMI. It is concluded that there is a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents, with glycemia being associated with the consumption of sweetened beverages.

14.
Rev. Fac. Odontol. (B.Aires) ; 39(91): 57-66, 2024. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1555022

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analizar el nivel de conocimiento del pro-fesional odontólogo sobre la violencia ejercida en niños, niñas y adolescentes, poniendo énfasis en la importancia de su actuación para la detección, aten-ción y derivación de potenciales casos que posibi-liten, dentro de un contexto multidisciplinario, una intervención oportuna y efectiva. Materiales y méto-dos: Se realizó una encuesta a 132 odontólogos, 123 mujeres y 9 hombres, con experiencia profesional de 2 a 43 años, profesores universitarios especialistas en odontopediatría, cursantes de carreras de espe-cialización y posgrados afines o aquellos que desa-rrollan sus actividades laborales en 2 hospitales pú-blicos de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires aten-diendo a menores de edad. La encuesta totalizó 15 preguntas distribuidas en 3 categorías cuyos ejes te-máticos ahondaron respecto al conocimiento sobre violencia ejercida contra menores (Categoría 1), sos-pecha de un presunto maltrato infantil en la consulta (Categoría 2) y factores que condicionan la eventual derivación del caso (Categoría 3). Cada pregunta in-cluida en las 3 categorías se direccionó conforme a si el ámbito profesional del sujeto encuestado era es-pecialista/cursante de posgrado (Grupo 1) u hospi-talario (Grupo 2). Resultados: En la primera categoría se observó una significativa carencia de formación específica en la etapa de grado con un 89% para el grupo 1 y 93,75% para el grupo 2, aunque éstos úl-timos han accedido a cursos de perfeccionamiento y actividades tendientes a incrementar destrezas y aptitudes en un 71,87%, contrastando con el 24% del otro grupo. Asimismo, el 29% del grupo 1 y un 50% del grupo 2 conocían los protocolos establecidos en sus entornos profesionales. Ambos consideraron que el odontólogo no está capacitado para detectar conductas orientativas hacia posibles casos (89%, grupo 1; 87,5%, grupo 2). Para la segunda categoría, el grupo 1 respondió positivamente en un 73%, en tanto que el grupo 2 lo hizo en un 84,38%. En la ter-cera categoría se destacó para el grupo 1 un elevado porcentaje en las preguntas relacionadas al temor por parte del odontólogo de agravar las acciones Objetivo: Analizar el nivel de conocimiento del pro-fesional odontólogo sobre la violencia ejercida en niños, niñas y adolescentes, poniendo énfasis en la importancia de su actuación para la detección, aten-ción y derivación de potenciales casos que posibi-liten, dentro de un contexto multidisciplinario, una intervención oportuna y efectiva. Materiales y méto-dos: Se realizó una encuesta a 132 odontólogos, 123 mujeres y 9 hombres, con experiencia profesional de 2 a 43 años, profesores universitarios especialistas en odontopediatría, cursantes de carreras de espe-cialización y posgrados afines o aquellos que desa-rrollan sus actividades laborales en 2 hospitales pú-blicos de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires aten-diendo a menores de edad. La encuesta totalizó 15 preguntas distribuidas en 3 categorías cuyos ejes te-máticos ahondaron respecto al conocimiento sobre violencia ejercida contra menores (Categoría 1), sos-pecha de un presunto maltrato infantil en la consulta (Categoría 2) y factores que condicionan la eventual derivación del caso (Categoría 3). Cada pregunta in-cluida en las 3 categorías se direccionó conforme a si el ámbito profesional del sujeto encuestado era es-pecialista/cursante de posgrado (Grupo 1) u hospi-talario (Grupo 2). Resultados: En la primera categoría se observó una significativa carencia de formación específica en la etapa de grado con un 89% para el grupo 1 y 93,75% para el grupo 2, aunque éstos úl-timos han accedido a cursos de perfeccionamiento y actividades tendientes a incrementar destrezas y aptitudes en un 71,87%, contrastando con el 24% del otro grupo. Asimismo, el 29% del grupo 1 y un 50% del grupo 2 conocían los protocolos establecidos en sus entornos profesionales. Ambos consideraron que el odontólogo no está capacitado para detectar conductas orientativas hacia posibles casos (89%, grupo 1; 87,5%, grupo 2). Para la segunda categoría, el grupo 1 respondió positivamente en un 73%, en tanto que el grupo 2 lo hizo en un 84,38%. En la ter-cera categoría se destacó para el grupo 1 un elevado porcentaje en las preguntas relacionadas al temor por parte del odontólogo de agravar las acciones de violencia familiar (64%) o represalias (55%) contra el niño si efectuaran la derivación. En los mismos ítems, el grupo 2 respondió con porcentajes disímiles (28,13% y 31,25%, respectivamente). Finalmente, se diferenciaron claramente los resultados en cuanto al desconocimiento de los procedimientos a seguir si amerita derivar un caso, con un 71% para el grupo 1 y un 34,38% para el grupo 2. Conclusión: Se hace imperioso instruir y capacitar al profesional odontólogo, concientizándolo sobre la necesidad de conocer la legislación vigente y los mecanismos de detección y ulterior derivación. Si bien aquellos que desempeñan su labor a nivel hospitalario aparecen como mejor preparados para actuar, existe un evidente desconocimiento general que conlleva el riesgo de no advertir o proceder inadecuadamente en casos de violencia que atenta contra la seguridad de niños, niñas y adolescentes (AU)


Objective: To analyze the level of knowledge of the dental professional about violence committed in children and adolescents, emphasizing the importance of their actions for the detection, care and referral of potential cases that allow, within a multidisciplinary context, an intervention timely and effective. Materials and methods: A survey was carried out with 132 dentists, 123 women and 9 men, with professional experience of 2 to 43 years, university professors in the specialty of pediatric dentistry, students of specialization course and related postgraduate courses or those who carry out their work activities in 2 public hospitals in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires that care for minors. The survey included 15 questions distributed in 3 categories whose thematic axes delved into knowledge about violence committed against minors (Category 1), suspicion of alleged child abuses in the consultation (Category 2) and factors that condition the eventual referral of the case (Category 3). Each question included in the 3 categories is addressed according to whether the professional field of the surveyed subject was a specialist/graduate student (Group 1) or a hospitalist (Group 2). Results: In the first category, a significant lack of specific training is observed in the undergraduate stage with 89% for group 1 and 93.75% for group 2, although the latter have accessed courses and improvement activities aimed at to increase skills and abilities by 71.87%, in contrast to 24% in the other group. Likewise, 29% of group 1 and 50% of group 2 knew the protocols established in their professional environments. Both considered that the dentist is not trained to detect guiding behaviors towards possible cases (89%, group 1; 87.5%, group 2). For the second category, group 1 responded positively by 73%, while group 2 did so by 84.38%. In the third category, a high percentage stood out for group 1 in the questions related to the dentist's fear of aggravating the actions of family violence (64%) or retaliation (55%) against the child if he made the referral. In the same items, group 2 responded with dissimilar percentages (28.13% and 31.25%, respectively). Finally, the results were clearly differentiated in terms of lack of knowledge of the procedures to follow if a case warrants referral, with 71% for group 1 and 34.38% for group 2. Conclusion: It is imperative to instruct and train the professional dentist, raising awareness about the need to know current legislation and the detection and subsequent referral mechanisms. Although those who carry out their work at the hospital level seem to be better prepared to act, there is an evident widespread lack of knowledge that entails the risk of not announcing or acting inappropriately in cases of violence that threaten the safety of children and adolescents (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child Abuse/diagnosis , Child Abuse/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Domestic Violence/prevention & control , Dental Care for Children/methods , Argentina/epidemiology , United Nations/standards , Child Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Dental Service, Hospital/methods , Dentists/education , Forensic Dentistry/methods
15.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 29(2): e16092022, 2024. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528368

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo foi avaliar a prevalência de vitimização por bullying e seus fatores associados entre adolescentes da cidade de Pelotas, RS. Estudo transversal de base escolar realizado com 795 alunos do 9o ano do ensino fundamental de 25 escolas municipais urbanas vinculadas ao PSE. O bullying foi avaliado por meio de perguntas que abordaram a ocorrência, a frequência, o local, o tipo de violência sofrida e o quanto isso incomoda as vítimas. Análises bruta e ajustada foram feitas por regressão de Poisson. Aproximadamente 71% dos estudantes relataram ter sofrido bullying, a escola foi o local de maior ocorrência (86,7%). Entre os tipos de agressões sofridas, "apelidos" foi a queixa mais recorrente (88,4%), seguida por exclusão ou isolamento (26,6%). A vitimização foi mais frequente entre as meninas (RP 1,13; IC95% 1,02-1,27), estudantes com cor da pele/raça não branca (RP 1,16; IC95% 1,05-1,29), que já experimentaram tabaco (RP 1,14; IC95% 1,03-1,27), insatisfeitos (RP 1,42; IC95% 1,27-1,58) ou indiferentes (RP 1,21; IC95% 1,02-1,43) em relação ao corpo e que apresentavam excesso de peso (RP 1,15; IC95% 1,04-1,27). Os resultados mostram que o bullying é uma prática frequente no ambiente escolar, apontando para a necessidade de práticas educativas voltadas para a redução e prevenção desse tipo de violência.


Abstract The objective was to assess the prevalence of bullying victimization and associated factors among adolescents in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul. A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted with 795 ninth grade students from 25 urban municipal schools linked to the School Health Program. Bullying was assessed using questions that addressed the occurrence, frequency, location, type of violence suffered and how much it bothers the victims. Gross and adjusted analyses were performed by Poisson regression. Approximately 71% of the students reported having suffered bullying, and school was the location of greatest occurrence (86.7%). Among the types of aggression suffered, "nicknames" was the most recurrent complaint (88.4%), followed by exclusion or isolation (26.6%). Victimization was more frequent among girls (PR 1.13; 95%CI 1.02-1.27), students with non-white skin color/race (PR 1.16; 95%CI 1.05-1.29), who have already tried tobacco (PR 1.14; 95%CI 1.03-1.27), dissatisfied (PR 1.42; 95%CI 1.27-1.58) or indifferent (PR 1.21; 95%CI 1.02-1.43) about their bodies, and who were overweight (PR 1.15; 95%CI 1.04-1.27). The results show that bullying is a frequent practice in the school environment, pointing to the need for educational practices aimed at reducing and preventing this type of violence.

16.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 100(1): 53-59, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528963

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the lifestyle and quality of life in Brazilian children and adolescents during the COVID-19 social distancing period in 2020. Methods This cross-sectional study evaluated children and adolescents (2-18 years of age) and their parents, who voluntarily participated in an online survey. Snowball sampling was used to recruit participants during the first 6 months of the pandemic. A questionnaire was used to characterize the study population. The PedsQL 4.0 and the EUROHIS-QOL 8-item index were used to assess the quality of life (QoL) in children/adolescents and parents, respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 statistical program through the ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni analysis, student's t test, and the generalized estimating equation. Results Mean screen time increased from 2h pre-pandemic to 5h during the pandemic (p <0.001), which was associated with a decline in PedSQL4.0 scores (from 75.7 ± 2.6 to 71.3 ± 13.7, p <0.001). Unhealthy eating habits increased from 11% to 34% and were associated with worse QoL scores compared with improved or unchanged eating habits during the pandemic (69.7 ± 13.3 vs 72.80 ± 13.4 vs 76.4 ± 12.6; p <0.001). Poor sleep quality increased from 9% to 31.7% and was associated with worse QoL scores compared to improved or unchanged sleep quality during the pandemic (67.3 ± 13.1 vs 74.5 ± 13.1 vs 76.8 ± 12.2; p <0.05). Physical exercise was associated with better PedSQL4.0 scores (77.5 ± 12.3 vs 72.5 ± 14.4; p <0.001). Children aged 2-4y old had the best QoLscores. Conclusions Pandemic-related social distancing promoted significant lifestyle changes in children and adolescents, increasing screen time, reducing physical activity, and worsening food and sleep quality, which resulted in worse QoL scores.

17.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 100(1): 46-52, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528964

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Children with spina bifida (SB) are at risk for stunting and overweight. However, height and Body Mass Index (BMI) z-score distribution in children and adolescents with SB are unclear. The aim of this study was to examine height and BMI z-score distribution in Brazilian children and adolescents with and without SB. This study further aimed to examine whether height and BMI z-scores differ between individuals with and without SB. Method This study included 101 participants (SB: n= 18; non-SB: n= 83, aged 7-16 years). The World Health Organization (WHO) AnthroPlus software was used to calculate height and BMI z-scores. AnthroPlus z-score distribution graphs were used to examine individual z-scores based on the 2007 WHO normal distribution curve. Effects of the group (SB vs non-SB) on height and BMI z-scores were examined with sequential regression. Results In the WHO distribution graph analysis, height z-scores of participants with SB were slightly left-shifted compared to the WHO normal distribution curve. In the regression analysis, group (SB vs non-SB) was a significant predictor of height z-scores after controlling for sex and age (ΔR2= 0.064, p= 0.010). BMI z-scores of participants with SB were right-shifted compared to the WHO normal curve. However, there was no contribution of the group to BMI z-scores (ΔR2= 0.011, p= 0.301). Conclusions These findings suggest that Brazilian children and adolescents with SB may be at risk for reduced height and increased BMI.

18.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529487

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: This study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of the pediatric population with COVID-19 in an Emergency Department (ED) of a Brazilian general hospital. Methods: Epidemiological and clinical data of patients younger than 20 years old were collected from patients' medical records from February 2020 to July 2021. Most of the epidemiological data described pertains to hospitalized patients. We also reviewed coinfections, treatment, and outcomes and compared the first and second waves of COVID-19. Results: We identified a total of 1303 episodes of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The median time from symptom onset to diagnosis was three days. Symptoms were present in 92.3% of the patients. The most common symptoms were fever (45.2%), nasal congestion/discharge (44.2%), and cough (39.4%). Chest radiography and tomography were performed in 7.7 and 3.3% of cases, with abnormal findings in 29.7 and 53.4%, respectively. Hospital admissions occurred in 3.5% of patients, mainly in the presence of comorbidities, in children under five years old and in those who presented to the ED during the first wave of COVID-19. Coinfection with a viral agent was identified in 20% of the 71 cases tested in this study, and a positive rapid test for Streptococcus pyogenes was found in 8% of the 174 cases tested, with no impact of these coinfections on hospitalization. Conclusions: We found that COVID-19 was a mild disease in most children in our study population, with most hospitalizations and readmissions occurring during the first wave of COVID-19.


RESUMO Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo descrever as características clínicas da população pediátrica com COVID-19 no setor de emergência de um hospital geral brasileiro. Métodos: Os dados epidemiológicos e clínicos de pacientes idade inferior a 20 anos foram coletados dos prontuários dos pacientes de fevereiro de 2020 a julho de 2021. A maior parte dos dados epidemiológicos descritos refere-se a pacientes hospitalizados. Também foram revisados as coinfecções, o tratamento e os desfechos de internação e comparadas a primeira e a segunda ondas de COVID-19. Resultados: Foi identificado o total de 1.303 episódios de infecção por SARS-CoV-2. A mediana de tempo desde o início dos sintomas até o diagnóstico foi de três dias. Os sintomas estiveram presentes em 92,3% dos pacientes. Os sintomas mais comuns foram febre (45,2%), congestão/secreção nasal (44,2%) e tosse (39,4%). Radiografia e tomografia de tórax foram realizadas em 7,7 e 3,3% dos casos, com achados anormais em 29,7 e 53,4%, respectivamente. As internações hospitalares ocorreram em 3,5% dos pacientes, principalmente na presença de comorbidades, em crianças menores de cinco anos e naqueles que se apresentaram no pronto-socorro durante a primeira onda de COVID-19. Foi identificada coinfecção viral em 20% dos 71 casos testados e teste rápido positivo para Streptococcus pyogenes em 8% dos 174 casos testados, não havendo impacto dessas coinfecções quanto à internação hospitalar. Conclusões: Observamos que a COVID-19 foi uma doença leve na maioria das crianças de nossa população, com a maior parte das hospitalizações e readmissões ocorrendo durante a primeira onda de COVID-19.

19.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529497

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate smartphone addiction and postural alterations in the cervical region in adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study with 281 adolescents (15 to 19 years old), attending the 1st to the 3rd grades of High School, carried out between September and October 2019 in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Data collection took place in two stages. In the first, they answered four self-administered questionnaires: sociodemographic questionnaire, health conditions and smartphone use, Nordic Musculoskeletal Symptom Questionnaire (NMQ), Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20) and the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI-BR). In the second stage, they were submitted to photogrammetry using the Postural Assessment Software (SAPO) and anthropometric assessment (weight and height). The software SPSS Statistics version 23.0 was used for data analysis. Results: Of the total number of adolescents, 63.3% (n=178) showed smartphone addiction, using it for 5.8 hours (±3.5) during the week and 8.7 (±4.0) hours on the weekend. When analyzing postural alignment in the anterior view, a significant reduction in the lateral head tilt was observed when typing on the smartphone (p=0.002) compared to the anatomical position (baseline). In the lateral view, an increase in head anteriorization was observed during smartphone use (p<0.05). There was an association between smartphone addiction and head anteriorization (p<0.05). Conclusions: The use of the smartphone in the typing position causes postural alterations in the cervical region, especially in adolescents with smartphone addiction. Therefore, health promotion measures that alert adolescents to the adverse effects caused by prolonged smartphone use are necessary.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a dependência do smartphone e a alteração postural da região cervical em adolescentes. Métodos: Estudo transversal, com 281 adolescentes (15 a 19 anos), que frequentavam da 1ᵃ à 3ᵃ série do ensino médio, realizado entre setembro e outubro de 2019 na cidade de Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil. A coleta dos dados ocorreu em duas etapas. Na primeira, eles responderam a quatro questionários autoaplicáveis: questionário sociodemográfico, condições de saúde e uso do smartphon e, Questionário Nórdico de Sintomas Musculoesqueléticos (NMQ), Self-Report Questi onnaire (SRQ-20) e o Smartphone A ddiction Inventory (SPAI-BR). Na segunda etapa, foram submetidos a fotogrametria pelo Software de Avaliação Postural (SAPO) e avaliação antropométrica (peso e altura). Para a análise dos dados, foi utilizado o SPSS Statistics versão 23.0. Resultados: Do total, 63,3% (n=178) dos adolescentes apresentaram dependência do smartphone, com o uso de 5,8 horas (±3,5) durante a semana e 8,7 (±4,0) no fim de semana. Ao analisar o alinhamento postural na visão anterior, observou-se redução significativa da inclinação lateral de cabeça ao digitar no smartphon e (p=0,002) comparado à posição anatômica (baseline). Na visão lateral foi constatado aumento da anteriorização de cabeça durante o uso do smartphon e (p<0,05). Houve associação da dependência do smartphone com a anteriorização de cabeça (p<0,05). Conclusões: O uso do smartphone na posição de digitação causa alteração postural na região cervical, destacadamente naqueles que apresentam dependência do dispositivo. Dessa forma, são necessárias medidas de promoção de saúde que alertem os adolescentes sobre os efeitos adversos causados pelo uso prolongado do smartphone.

20.
International Eye Science ; (12): 727-730, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016585

ABSTRACT

In medical research,predictive models have been widely used to predict disease progression and identify high-risk populations in advance, especially in the prevention and diagnosis of chronic diseases. In ophthalmology, the predictive and diagnostic models for fundus diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy have demonstrated expert-level accuracy. However, the application of predictive models is still in the exploratory stage as for myopia prevention and control. The establishment of a predictive model is helpful to identify the high-risk myopic children in advance, so that preventive measures such as adequate outdoor activities and reducing near work can be taken in time, which is of great significance to prevent or slow down the occurrence and development of myopia. Because the mechanism of myopia has not been fully elucidated, there are still challenges and limitations in the selection of application objects, predictors and predictive outcomes. This paper reviews the research progress of different types of myopia predictive models in order to provide reference for further development and improvement.

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