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Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(2): 222-226, Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365353


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the suboptimal health status or subhealth status and their relationship with mental health and smartphone addiction among Chinese medical students. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at Wannan Medical College of China in Wuhu. RESULTS: A total of 2,741 students were surveyed in October 2020. Of 2,741 Chinese medical students who completed the survey, 904 (33%) participants reported to have had subhealth status. Anxiety status (p<0.001), depression status (p<0.001), and smartphone addiction status (p<0.001) have strong association with subhealth status. CONCLUSION: This survey shows that the detection rate of subhealth status in Chinese medical students was 33%. Anxiety, depression, and smartphone addiction students had a higher detection rate of subhealth status. The anxiety, depression, and smartphone addiction of Chinese medical students are associated with subhealth status.

Students, Medical , China/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Internet Addiction Disorder
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906675


@#BACKGROUND: A national standardized emergency medicine (EM) curriculum for medical students, including specific competencies in procedural skills, are absent in many countries. The development of an intensive simulating training program in EM, based on a tight schedule, is anticipated to enhance the competency of medical students. METHODS: A 3-day intensive EM training program, consisting of four procedural skills and 8-hour case-based learning (CBL), was developed by experienced physicians from the EM department in Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH). Medical students from Peking Union Medical College (PUMC) and Tsinghua University (THU) participated in the training. Three written tests were cautiously designed to examine the short-term (immediately after the program) and long-term (6 months after the program) efficacy of the training. After completion of the training program, an online personal appraisal questionnaire was distributed to the students on WeChat (a mobile messaging App commonly used in China) to achieve anonymous self-evaluation. RESULTS: Ninety-seven out of 101 students completed the intensive training and took all required tests. There was a significant increase in the average score after the intensive simulating training program (pre-training 13.84 vs. 15.57 post-training, P<0.001). Compared with the pre-training test, 63 (64.9%) students made progress. There was no significant difference in scores between the tests taken immediately after the program and 6 months later (15.57±2.22 vs. 15.38±2.37, P=0.157). Students rated a higher score in all diseases and procedural skills, and felt that their learning was fruitful. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of a standardized intensive training program in EM focusing on key competencies can improve clinical confidence, knowledge, and skills of medical students toward the specialty. In addition, having such a program can also enhance student’s interest in EM as a career choice which may enhance recruitment into the specialty and workplace planning.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920547


Building a strong public health system has become an urgent task in the new era. Based on more than eight years of systematic research, we believe that five aspects need to be prioritized for a strong system. First, we should change the perspective on public health, using the word “gonggong jiankang” to replace “gonggong weisheng” and the word “gonggong jiankang tixi” to replace “gonggong weisheng tixi”, to lead the public health system development. Second, we should develop a suitable public health system and continuously improve the health capacity for governance. Third, we should make it clear that the goal of building a strong system is not far-fetched, and we need to consolidate the existing institutional advantages of China’s public health system: when encountering major problems, we can maintain a unified goal and mobilize the whole society to cooperate effectively to accomplish the goal. However, we need to make up for shortcomings one by one, especially to solve the key problem of lacking a strong coordination mechanism in daily work. Fourth, we should pursue excellence and consolidate the“suitable” mechanism proven in the process of coping with the COVID-19, so that efficient mechanisms to deal with major issues can be used in routine work, and efforts should be made to consolidate the advantages of prevention and control of infectious diseases and emergency response,so as to achieve the balanced development of regions categories and units.Finally, it is necessary to strengthen the coordination of government and research institutions, in the aspects of technological innovation, talent team building and accurate consulting services, and work together to pursue a suitable and strong system to realize the modernization of the health system and capacity for governance.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920532


ObjectiveTo determine the epidemiological characteristics of infectious disease related public health bud-events in Shanghai and assess the effects of bud-event surveillance, so as to provide scientific evidence for improving the surveillance system. MethodsSurveillance data of infectious disease related public health bud-events were collected from 16 districts of Shanghai from 2017 through 2020. Then the data were analyzed and compared with infectious disease related public health emergencies during the same period. ResultsA total of 6 376 infectious disease related public health bud-events were documented in Shanghai in 2017‒2020, which involved 29 792 cases. There were two seasonal peaks, April through June and November through December. Clustered events accounted for 38.85%, mainly caused by chickenpox (14.10%), hand,foot and mouth disease (11.17%) and norovirus-associated infectious diarrhea (6.54%). The 36.73% of the bud-events occurred in school settings, which involved 24 718 cases (accounting for 83.00% of all cases). Median time duration between onset date of the first cases and report date of the events was 4 days, and median duration of the events was 14 days, demonstrating positive correlation. In addition, all the infectious disease related public health emergencies(n=77) from 2017 through 2020 were classified as common events or unclassified. The proportion of infectious disease related public health emergencies in the bud-events during the same period was 1.21%, and that of infectious disease related public health emergencies in the bud-events in school settings was 2.48%. ConclusionTwo peaks of infectious disease related public health bud-events are observed in spring as well as autumn and winter in Shanghai from 2017 through 2020. Schools should be prioritized for control and prevention of infectious diseases. Bud-event surveillance system has been contributable to the prevention and control of public health emergencies, especially in the early detection, reporting and control of clustered events in schools. Bud-event surveillance system should be further improved and assessed comprehensively.

Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(3): 270-273, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288567


ABSTRACT Introduction Studies have shown that physical exercise is beneficial to people's overall physical and mental health, but few research reports on the effects of different physical exercises on people's human health. Object The paper explores the difference in human health function between people who adhere to traditional health sports and those who rarely exercise and provide a scientific basis for applying and promoting traditional health sports in TCM "prevention of disease". Methods The paper surveyed 526 people who regularly participate in physical exercises and rarely exercise. The exercise items are divided into Tai Chi/Tai Chi sword group, Health Qigong Baduanjin group, Health Qigong Wuqinxi group, and Health Qigong Yijin group. Warp group, walking/jogging group. Results There are differences in the mental indicators of the people in different exercise groups. The overall average percentage levels of and NK cells in each exercise group and the tiny exercise group are different, and the difference is statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusions Persisting in physical exercise is beneficial to the balance of health and function of the population. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.

RESUMO Introdução Estudos têm demonstrado que o exercício físico é benéfico para a saúde física e mental geral das pessoas, mas existem poucos relatos de pesquisas sobre os efeitos dos diferentes exercícios físicos na saúde humana. Objetivo o documento explora a diferença na função da saúde humana entre pessoas que aderem aos esportes tradicionais de saúde e aqueles que raramente se exercitam e fornece uma base científica para a aplicação e promoção dos esportes tradicionais de saúde na "prevenção de doenças" da medicina tradicional chinesa. Métodos O artigo pesquisou 526 pessoas que praticam exercícios físicos regularmente e raramente praticam exercícios. Os itens de exercícios são divididos em grupo de espada Tai Chi/Tai Chi, grupo de saúde Qigong Baduanjin, grupo de saúde Qigong Wuqinxi e grupo de saúde Qigong Yijin, Grupo Wrap e grupo de caminhada/corrida. Resultados Existem diferenças nos indicadores mentais de pessoas em diferentes grupos de exercícios. Os níveis percentuais médios gerais de células NK e em cada grupo de exercícios e no pequeno grupo de exercícios são diferentes, e a diferença é estatisticamente significativa (P <0,05). Conclusão A persistência na prática de exercícios físicos é benéfica para o equilíbrio da saúde e o funcionamento da população. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos: investigação dos resultados do tratamento.

RESUMEN Introducción Los estudios han demostrado que el ejercicio físico es beneficioso para la salud física y mental general de las personas, pero hay pocos informes de investigación sobre los efectos de diferentes ejercicios físicos en la salud humana de las personas. Objeto El documento explora la diferencia en la función de la salud humana entre las personas que se adhieren a los deportes de salud tradicionales y las que rara vez hacen ejercicio y proporciona una base científica para aplicar y promover los deportes de salud tradicionales en la "prevención de enfermedades" de la medicina tradicional china. Métodos El artículo encuestó a 526 personas que participan regularmente en ejercicios físicos y rara vez hacen ejercicio. Los elementos de ejercicio se dividen en grupo de espada de Tai Chi/Tai Chi, grupo de salud Qigong Baduanjin, grupo de salud Qigong Wuqinxi y grupo de salud Qigong Yijin. Grupo Wrap, grupo de caminar/trotar. Resultados Hay diferencias en los indicadores mentales de las personas en diferentes grupos de ejercicio. Los niveles de porcentaje promedio general de células NK y en cada grupo de ejercicio y el pequeño grupo de ejercicio son diferentes, y la diferencia es estadísticamente significativa (P <0.05). Conclusión La persistencia en el ejercicio físico es beneficiosa para el equilibrio de la salud y el funcionamiento de la población. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos: investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.

Humans , Sports/physiology , Exercise/physiology , Mental Health , Disease Prevention , Surveys and Questionnaires
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(spe2): 54-57, Apr.-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280093


ABSTRACT Soft tissue injury is the most common disease in orthopedics, and it is also the most easily neglected disease in sports. Without timely and effective treatment, it is easy to develop into malignant strain and seriously affect life and sports. In view of this, the aim of this study is to analyze the effect and mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine gel in treating such injuries in the light of the characteristics of sports-related soft tissue injury. The right gastrocnemius muscle injury was simulated in 36 adult male rats. Chinese medicine gel and tincture were used to treat it. The contents of interleukin, alanine aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen and prostaglandin E2 in the blood of rats under different courses of treatment were analyzed to explore recovery in four rats. The results showed that the levels of interleukin and prostaglandin E2 in the blood of rats treated with drugs were significantly lower than those in the control group (p<0.05), indicating that both drugs have obvious therapeutic effects on soft tissue injury. The content of interleukin in the blood of the Chinese medicine gel group was slightly lower than that of the tincture group, indicating that the Chinese medicine gel could affect the recovery of soft tissue injury by affecting leukocyte interleukin. This result is helpful in the treatment of soft tissue injury in sports and to further improve the therapeutic effect of traditional Chinese medicine gel.

RESUMO A lesão dos tecidos moles é a doença mais comum na ortopedia, e é também a doença mais facilmente negligenciada nos esportes. Sem tratamento ágil e eficaz, facilmente evolui para luxações malignas, afetando seriamente a vida e a prática de esportes. Em vista disso, o objetivo deste estudo é analisar o efeito e o mecanismo do gel da medicina tradicional chinesa no tratamento de tais lesões, com base nas características da lesão dos tecidos moles relacionada à prática esportiva. Estimulou-se lesão do músculo gastrocnêmio direito em 36 ratos adultos. O gel e a tintura chinesa foram usados para o tratamento. Foram analisados os conteúdos de interleucina, alanina aminotransferase, ureia sanguínea azoto e prostaglandina E2 no sangue dos ratos sob diferentes tratamentos, de modo a explorar a recuperação de quatro ratos. Os resultados mostraram que os níveis de interleucina e prostaglandina E2 no sangue dos ratos tratados com medicamentos eram significativamente inferiores aos do grupo controle (p<0.05), indicando que ambos os fármacos têm efeitos terapêuticos óbvios sobre lesões dos tecidos moles. O teor de interleucina no sangue do grupo gel chinês medicinal mostrou-se ligeiramente inferior ao do grupo tintura, indicando que o gel medicinal chinês pode afetar a recuperação da lesão nos tecidos moles, afetando o leucócito interleucina. Este resultado é útil para o tratamento de lesões dos tecidos moles relacionadas à prática esportiva e para melhorar ainda mais o efeito terapêutico do gel da medicina chinesa tradicional.

RESUMEN La lesión de los tejidos blandos es la enfermedad más común en la ortopedia, y es también la enfermedad más fácilmente descuidada en los deportes. Sin tratamiento ágil y eficaz, fácilmente evolucionan a luxaciones malignas, afectando seriamente la vida y la práctica de deportes. En vista de eso, el objetivo de este estudio es analizar el efecto y el mecanismo del gel de la medicina tradicional china en el tratamiento de tales lesiones, con base en las características de la lesión de los tejidos blandos relacionada a la práctica deportiva. Se estimuló lesión del músculo gastrocnemio derecho en 36 ratones adultos. El gel y la tintura china fueron usados para el tratamiento. Fueron analizados los contenidos de interleucina, alanina aminotransferasa, urea sanguínea, nitrógeno y prostaglandina E2 en la sangre de los ratones bajo diferentes tratamientos, de modo de explorar la recuperación de cuatro ratones. Los resultados mostraron que los niveles de interleucina y prostaglandina E2 en la sangre de los ratones tratados con medicamentos eran significativamente inferiores a los del grupo control (p<0.05), indicando que ambos fármacos tienen efectos terapéuticos obvios sobre lesiones de los tejidos blandos. El tenor de interleucina en la sangre del grupo gel chino medicinal se mostró ligeramente inferior al del grupo tintura, indicando que el gel medicinal chino puede afectar la recuperación de la lesión en los tejidos blandos, afectando el leucocito interleucina. Este resultado es útil para el tratamiento de lesiones de los tejidos blandos relacionadas a la práctica deportiva y para mejorar aún más el efecto terapéutico del gel de la medicina china tradicional.

Animals , Rats , Ointments/therapeutic use , Muscle, Skeletal/injuries , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Athletic Injuries/drug therapy , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Dinoprostone/blood , Interleukins/blood , Treatment Outcome , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Disease Models, Animal
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(spe2): 91-94, Apr.-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280083


ABSTRACT Racewalking fatigue is a kind of fatigue symptom after a period of racewalking, which may lead to limb weakness, mental fatigue, muscle fatigue and other phenomena. If we do not timely adjust the stretching and effective treatment after exercise, it is very easy to produce sports injury and seriously affect the athletes' physical function. In order to effectively alleviate the fatigue of racewalking, this study focused on the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compounded medication, analyzed the mechanism of action and medicinal effectiveness of the TCM compound, and carried out control experiment on 80 male ICR mice. The mice in the experimental group were given sedentary training and racewalking training in groups. The results showed that the two groups of ICR mice, after racewalking training, had exercise fatigue symptoms and a large amount of serum lactic acid and other substances, while mice in group D treated by gavage of traditional Chinese medicine compounded medication had the symptoms of exercise fatigue, but the contents of blood urea nitrogen and lactic acid were decreased, the gastrocnemius muscle fibers were evenly arranged, the transverse lines were neat, and a rebound of protein expression. This shows that Chinese medicine compound can play a significant role in relieving racewalking fatigue.

RESUMO A fadiga causada pela marcha atlética é um tipo de sintoma que acomete os atletas após um período de prática do exercício, que pode ocasionar fraqueza dos membros, fadiga mental, fadiga muscular e outros fenômenos. Na ausência de alongamento e tratamento eficaz após o exercício, as lesões causadas pelo esporte podem afetar seriamente a função física dos atletas. A fim de aliviar de maneira eficaz a fadiga causada pela marcha atlética, o presente estudo se concentrou nos medicamentos manipulados na medicina tradicional chinesa (MTC), analisou o mecanismo de ação e eficácia medicinal dos medicamentos da MTC, e realizou experimentos de controle em 80 camundongos do tipo ICR masculinos. Os camundongos do grupo experimental receberam treinamento sedentário e treinamento de corrida em grupo. Os resultados mostraram que os dois grupos de camundongos ICR, após treino de marcha atlética, apresentavam sintomas de fadiga, e grande quantidade de ácido láctico sérico, além de outras substâncias, enquanto os camundongos do grupo D tratados com gavagem do medicamento manipulado tiveram sintomas de fadiga, mas com redução do teor sanguíneo de ureia e ácido láctico, fibras musculares gastrocnêmias uniformemente arranjadas, linhas transversais regulares, e efeito rebote da expressão proteica. Isto mostra que os medicamentos manipulados da medicina chinesa podem desempenhar um papel significativo no alívio da fadiga causada pela marcha atlética.

RESUMEN La fatiga causada por la marcha atlética es un tipo de síntoma que afecta los atletas después de un período de práctica del ejercicio, que puede ocasionar debilidad de los miembros, fatiga mental, fatiga muscular y otros fenómenos. En ausencia de elongación y tratamiento eficaz después del ejercicio, las lesiones causadas por el deporte pueden afectar seriamente la función física de los atletas. A fin de aliviar de manera eficaz la fatiga causada por la marcha atlética, el presente estudio se concentró en los medicamentos manipulados en la medicina tradicional china (MTC), analizó el mecanismo de acción y eficacia medicinal de los medicamentos da MTC, y realizó experimentos de control en 80 ratones del tipo ICR masculinos. Los ratones del grupo experimental recibieron entrenamiento sedentario y entrenamiento de carrera en grupo. Los resultados mostraron que los dos grupos de ratones ICR, después de entrenamiento de marcha atlética, presentaban síntomas de fatiga, y gran cantidad de ácido láctico sérico, además de otras sustancias, mientras que los ratones del grupo D tratados con gavaje del medicamento manipulado tuvieron síntomas de fatiga, pero con reducción del tenor sanguíneo de urea y ácido láctico, fibras musculares del gastrocnemio uniformemente arregladas, líneas transversales regulares, y efecto rebote de la expresión proteica. Esto muestra que los medicamentos manipulados de la medicina china pueden desempeñar un papel significativo en el alivio de la fatiga causada por la marcha atlética.

Animals , Male , Mice , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Fatigue/prevention & control , Athletes , Gait/drug effects , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
Rev. adm. pública (Online) ; 55(1): 95-110, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155648


Abstract This paper investigates China's leadership over intergovernmental and private actions in tackling the COVID-19 pandemic and identifies sectors, levels, and roles played. The main argument is that successful control over the pandemic depends on effective and integrated leadership at different levels. The conceptual, theoretical, and analytical framework is given by the multi-level governance theory. Through a case study, the actions adopted in China (n = 374) were mapped from reports issued by the Chinese government, the World Health Organization, and media information. Content analysis was adopted to categorize data. Quantitative and qualitative findings show different roles of actors, as well as usefulness of the multi-level governance to provide fast and complex responses required during the pandemic. In the last section, the conclusion and recommendations for future research are addressed. The lack of studies on the application of multi-level governance in non-democratic regimes especially during a pandemic indicates the relevance and contribution of this study to the literature.

Resumo O artigo objetiva investigar a liderança pública das ações, relações privadas e intergovernamentais da China no enfrentamento da pandemia de COVID-19, identificando setores e níveis envolvidos, bem como os papéis desempenhados. O argumento central é o de que o controle bem sucedido da pandemia depende da liderança eficaz e integrada das relações intergovernamentais e privadas nos diversos níveis. O enquadramento conceitual, teórico e analítico é dado pela teoria da governança multinível. Através do método de estudo de caso, as ações de enfrentamento adotadas na China (n = 374) foram mapeadas a partir dos relatórios emitidos pelo governo chinês, pela Organização Mundial da Saúde e informações da mídia. As ações foram categorizadas através da técnica de análise de conteúdo. Resultados quantitativos e qualitativos são apresentados e mostram os papéis dos atores, bem como a relevância da governança multinível diante da rápida e complexa resposta exigida pela emergência da pandemia. Na última seção são apresentadas as conclusões e oportunidades para desenvolvimentos futuros. A relevância da pesquisa também reside na escassez de estudos sobre a aplicação da governança multinível em regimes não democráticos, especialmente durante pandemias.

Resumen El artículo investiga el liderazgo público de China en las acciones y relaciones intergubernamentales y privadas para enfrentar la pandemia de COVID-19, al identificar los sectores y niveles involucrados, así como los roles. El argumento central es que el control exitoso de la pandemia depende de un liderazgo efectivo e integrado a diferentes niveles. La teoría de gobernanza multinivel es el marco conceptual, teórico y analítico. Las acciones adoptadas en China (n = 374) se mapearon a través del método de estudio de caso, a partir de informes emitidos por el gobierno chino, la Organización Mundial de la Salud e información de los medios y, para categorizar esos datos, se adoptó la técnica de análisis de contenido. Se presentan hallazgos cuantitativos y cualitativos que muestran los roles de los actores, así como la relevancia de la gobernanza multinivel ante la respuesta rápida y compleja requerida por la emergencia pandémica. En la última sección se exponen las conclusiones y recomendaciones para futuras investigaciones. La falta de estudios sobre la aplicación de la gobernanza multinivel en regímenes no democráticos, especialmente durante una pandemia, demuestra la relevancia de este estudio y su contribución a la literatura.

Humans , Male , Female , National Health Strategies , Adaptation, Psychological , Governance , COVID-19
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(1): 90-93, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156119


ABSTRACT Introduction The Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS) is a multi-dimensional instrument for measuring athletic identity and has been validated in different cultural samples around the world, except in mainland China. Objective This study aimed to test the validity of the mainland Chinese version of AIMS. Methods The sample consisted of 205 athletes, including 150 student athletes and 55 retired athletes. Validation of the factor structure and internal consistency was tested by performing confirmatory factor analyses and calculating Cronbach's alpha on eight different models proposed in the literature. Results The results indicated that the 7-item 2-factor model fit best in retired athlete samples, while the 7-item 3-factor model fit best in student athlete samples, according to stringent fitting criteria. Conclusion Based on the data analysis, it is proven that the 7-item multidimensional structure of AIMS is valid for the mainland Chinese culture. Level of evidence II; Comparative study.

RESUMO Introdução A Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS) é um instrumento multidimensional para medir a identidade atlética, já validada em diferentes amostras culturais do mundo, exceto na China Continental. Objetivo O presente estudo tem como objetivo testar a validade da AIMS na versão da China Continental. Métodos A amostra foi composta por 205 atletas, incluindo 150 atletas estudantes e 55 atletas aposentados. A validação da estrutura fatorial e da coerência interna foi avaliada por análises fatoriais confirmatórias e cálculo do alfa de Cronbach em oito modelos distintos propostos na literatura.. Resultados Os resultados indicaram que o modelo de 7 itens e 2 fatores se ajusta melhor em amostras de atletas aposentados, enquanto o modelo de 7 itens e 3 fatores se ajusta melhor em amostras de atletas estudantes, de acordo com critérios de ajuste rigoroso. Conclusões Com base na análise dos dados, comprova-se que a estrutura multidimensional dos 7 itens da AIMS é válida para a cultura da China Continental. Nível de evidência II; Estudo comparativo.

RESUMEN Introducción La Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS) es un instrumento multidimensional para medir la identidad atlética, ya validada en diferentes muestras culturales del mundo, excepto en China continental. Objetivo El presente estudio tiene por objetivo testear la validez de la AIMS en la versión de China Continental. Métodos La muestra fue compuesta por 205 atletas, incluyendo a 150 atletas estudiantes y a 55 atletas jubilados. La validación de la estructura factorial y de la coherencia interna fue evaluada por análisis factoriales confirmatorios y cálculo del alfa de Cronbach en ocho modelos distintos propuestos en la literatura. Resultados Los resultados indicaron que el modelo de 7 ítems y 2 factores se ajusta mejor en muestras de atletas jubilados, mientras que el modelo de 7 ítems y 3 factores se ajusta mejor en muestras de atletas estudiantes, de acuerdo con criterios de ajuste riguroso. Conclusiones Con base en el análisis de los datos, se comprueba que la estructura multidimensional de los 7 ítems de la AIMS es válida para la cultura de China Continental. Nivel de Evidencia II; Estudio Comparativo.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Social Identification , Athletes , China , Reproducibility of Results , Cultural Characteristics
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 51(6): e20200688, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1180746


ABSTRACT: Based on the apple acreage and output data of 23 provinces in China, the LMDI decomposition method and the barycenter analysis model were used to systematically analyze the spatiotemporal characteristics of apple production in China from 1978 to 2016. The results showed that the apple acreage and output continued to increase, and the apple production layout has moved to south-westward; Shaanxi, Shandong, Henan, Shanxi, Gansu, Hebei, Liaoning, and Xinjiang were the main contributors to the apple output increase in China; yield contributed more to apple output increase, the increase of yield was a significant contributing factor to the apple output growth in 17 provinces, whereas the expansion of apple acreage was a significant contributing factor in the other 6 provinces; the barycenter of apple acreage and output respectively moved to the southwest by 506.63 kilometers and 574.12 kilometers, and the barycenter of apple production gradually shifted to the Loess Plateau. To stabilize the effective supply of apple and maintain industrial security, the policymakers should attach importance to the fundamental role of technological progress in the development of the apple industry, and bring into play the technological progress, economic, social, and environmental effects of apple industry agglomeration by optimizing the apple production layout and strengthening policy guidance and regulatory measures.

RESUMO: Com base nos dados de área cultivada e produção de maçã de 23 províncias na China, o método de decomposição do LMDI e o modelo de análise de barcenter foram utilizados para analisar sistematicamente as características espaço-temporais da produção de maçã na China entre 1978 e 2016. Os resultados mostraram que a área cultivada de maçã e a produção continuou a aumentar, e o layout da produção da maçã mudou para o Sudoeste; Shaanxi, Shandong, Henan, Shanxi, Gansu, Hebei, Liaoning e Xinjiang foram os principais contribuintes para o aumento da produção de maçãs na China; o rendimento contribuiu mais para o aumento da produção de maçã, o aumento do rendimento foi fator de contribuição significativo para o crescimento da produção de maçã em 17 províncias, enquanto a expansão da área cultivada de maçã foi fator de contribuição significativo nas outras 6 províncias; o baricentro da área cultivada e a produção de maçãs se deslocaram para o Sudoeste em 506,63 quilômetros e 574,12 quilômetros respectivamente. O baricentro da produção de maçãs mudou gradualmente para o platô de Loess. Para estabilizar o fornecimento efetivo de maçã e manter a segurança industrial, os formuladores de políticas devem atribuir importância ao papel fundamental do progresso tecnológico no desenvolvimento da indústria da maçã e colocar em jogo o progresso tecnológico, os efeitos econômicos, sociais e ambientais da indústria da maçã aglomeração, otimizando o layout da produção da maçã e fortalecendo a orientação política e as medidas regulatórias.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904631


As a successful example of global public health, Chinese schistosomiasis control technology and experiences have been included in global public health governance. Chinese schistosomiasis control program progresses with China’s international discourse power. During the period from the initial stage of the founding of the People’s Republic of China to China’s Reform and opening-up, the national schistosomiasis control program of China achieved great successes through mobilizing multi-sectorial resources under the policy of Independence and Self-reliance. Following China’s Reform and opening-up, all advantageous opportunities were captured to solve problems pertaining to schistosomiasis control in the context of complex international situations. As a consequence, transmission control of schistosomiasis was achieved across China in 2015. Since the Eighteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China, China has contributed the discourse system with distinct Chinese characteristics to the world, and has actively participated in health cooperation projects between China and other “Belt and Road” countries, which has contributed China’s wisdom to global schistosomiasis control program and conveyed China’s voice to the world.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904480


Objective:To determine the mortality and changing trend of primary liver cancer by using the death data of Chinese mainland from 2004 to 2018. Methods:The death certificate data was collected from China National Mortality Surveillance System from 2004 to 2018. The crude mortality rate(CMR)and age-standardized mortality rate(ASMR)of primary liver cancer in different ages, regions and living environments were calculated by Joinpoint regression model to analyze the basic situation and mortality trend. Results:From 2004 to 2018, there were 556 241 primary liver cancer deaths in China, with a CMR of 25.18/105 and an ASMR of 17.98/105. It suggested that the mortality of primary liver cancer was on a decreasing trend. During the 15 years, the ASMR of primary liver cancer was 15.56/105 in urban areas and 19.29/105 in rural areas. In urban areas, CMR was 32.89/105 in males and 12.14/105 in females, respectively; while in rural areas, CMR was 38.39/105 in males and 14.02/105 in females, respectively. The CMR in eastern, central and western urban regions was 22.25/105, 22.66/105 and 23.50/105, respectively. The CMR in the rural areas of these three regions was 27.82/105, 26.98/105 and 23.85/105, respectively. The patients were divided into four age groups: 0-19 years old, 20-39 years old, 40-59 years old, and more than 60 years old. The CMR of four groups in urban areas was 0.14/105, 2.59/105, 24.51/105 and 91.80/105. In rural areas, the CMR of four groups was 0.17/105, 4.05/105, 32.16/105 and 103.02/105. Conclusion:From 2004 to 2018, the mortality rate of liver cancer in China has a decreasing trend. However, the primary liver cancer death burden is still serious because of the large population base, severe aging population problem, and significant urban-rural and male-female disparities in China.

Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 570-574, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873800


ObjectiveTo investigate the association of common clinical indices and noninvasive liver fibrosis scores with hepatic-type Wilson’s disease (WD) in Chinese patients and their ability to identify advanced liver fibrosis. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 236 Chinese patients with WD who were diagnosed and treated in Beijing YouAn Hospital and China-Japan Friendship Hospital from May 1996 to April 2020. A total of 26 patients with hepatic-type WD who underwent liver pathological examination and had complete clinical data were enrolled; the METAVIR score was used to determine liver fibrosis stage, and the patients were divided into advanced liver fibrosis (F3 and F4 stages) group and non-advanced liver fibrosis (F0, F1, and F2 stages) groups. Three noninvasive liver fibrosis scores [Sheth index, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), and fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index] were calculated for both groups, and the above indices and related clinical indices were compared between the two groups. The independent samples t-test or the Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of continuous data between two groups, and the Fisher’s exact test was used for comparison of categorical data between two groups. The Spearman rank correlation test was used for further analysis of indices with statistical significance, and the clinical indices and scoring criteria correlated with liver fibrosis degree were screened out; the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted, and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was calculated. ResultsMost of the patients in this study developed the disease in childhood and adolescence, and among these patients, 10 (38.5%) had positive K-F ring and 17 (65%) were in the stage of advanced liver fibrosis. There were significant differences between the advanced liver fibrosis group and the non-advanced liver fibrosis group in white blood cell count (WBC) (Z=-2.102, P=0.036), hemoglobin (Hb) (t=-2.860, P=0009), platelet count (PLT) (t=-4.053, P<0.001), direct bilirubin (DBil) (Z=-2.130, P=0.033), albumin (Alb) (t=-2.875, P=0.008), and Sheth index (Z=-3.369, P=0.001). WBC, Hb, PLT, and Alb were negatively correlated with liver fibrosis degree in WD patients (r=-0.587, -0.610, -0.656, and -0.411, all P<0.05), and DBil and Sheth index were positively correlated with liver fibrosis degree (r=0.486 and 0.711, both P<0.05). The ROC curve analysis showed that WBC, DBil, Sheth index, Hb, PLT, and Alb had an AUC of >0.7, among which Sheth index had the largest AUC of 0.908, with a sensitivity of 70.6%, a specificity of 100.0%, a positive predictive value of 100.0%, and a negative predictive value of 64.3%. ConclusionSheth index has a better diagnostic efficiency than the other clinical indices alone and can well identify advanced liver fibrosis in Chinese patients with hepatic-type WD.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873739


Schistosomiasis was once endemic in 12 provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) along and south of the Yangtze River basin, which seriously damages human health and hinders socioeconomic developments in China. Following the concerted efforts for 70 years, remarkable achievements have been gained in the national schistosomiasis control program of China. However, there are still multiple challenges for elimination of schistosomiasis in the country. This paper describes the current status of schistosomiasis and the challenges during the progress towards the elimination of schistosomiasis, and proposes the goals, key points and research priorities of schistosomiasis control in China during the 14th Five-Year Plan Period.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-848017


BACKGROUND: Preliminary study found that polylactic acid composite material could accelerate the bone construction rate, and the underlying mechanism still needs to be studied further. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of lactic acid at different concentrations on osteoclast differentiation of mononuclear cells in mice. METHODS: Mouse RAW264.7 cells were cultured in DMEM with 0 (control group), 5, 10 and 20 mmol/L lactic acid, respectively, under the induction of 50 µg/L RANKL for 5 days. The effect of lactic acid concentration on the cell proliferation rate was analyzed by cell counting kit-8 assay. Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase positive polykaryotic cells were stained and counted with tartrate resistant acid phosphatase staining kit. mRNA expression levels of acid phosphatase 5, nuclear factor of activated T-cells 1 and RANK were detected by RT-PCR. Protein expression levels of cathepsin K and nuclear factor of activated T-cells 1 were detected by western blot assay. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) 5 mmol/L lactic acid produced the highest proliferation rate of raw264.7 cells, whereas the 20 mmol/L lactic acid produced lowest cell proliferation rate. Compared with the control group, the proliferation rate of raw264.7 cells by 10 mmol/L lactic acid was insignificant. (2) Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase staining showed the highest positive rate and mRNA expression levels of acid phosphatase 5, nuclear factor of activated T-cells 1 and RANK under the condition of 10 mmol/L lactic acid. (3) With the increase of lactic acid concentration, the expression level of cathepsin K increased, while the expression level of nuclear factor of activated T-cells 1 was on a decline. (4) Under the current experimental conditions, with the increase of lactic acid concentration, the ability of lactic acid to promote the osteoclast differentiation of mouse RAW264.7 cells is firstly increased and then decreased, and 10 mmol/L lactic acid was the optimal concentration to promote the osteoclast differentiation of mouse RAW264.7 cells. Lactic acid can affect the osteoclastic differentiation of mouse raw264.7 cells by nuclear factor of activated T-cells 1 in nuclear factor-KB signaling pathway.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912835


The construction of Health Hospital will become an important opportunity to promote the strategy of Healthy China. The authors analyzed the connotation of Health Hospital, and the feasibility of building Health Hospital from four aspects, including integrating health policy, building healthy environment, implementing health actions and optimizing health services. Then, six essential factors of building Health Hospital were put forward, namely, establishing a green environment, improving the operation mechanism, disseminating health culture, developing information technology, creating intelligent health care and strengthening top-level design.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912800


Health literacy serves as the foundation of health for all. Hence the authors introduced the connotation and extension of health literate health care organization(HLHO) and related concepts. On such basis, the paper presented the construction method of HLHO from the perspective of health policy, healthcare organizations and inter-institutional cooperation, in order to improve the health literacy of the Chinese people and implement the Healthy China initiative(2019—2030).

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912790


Objective:To understand the practice of humanistic care and social worker voluntary service in public hospitals in China.Methods:From January to March 2021, 38 typical cases concerning " medical social worker and volunteer system" and " building a harmonious doctor-patient relationship through humanistic service" were collected by relying on the evaluation of China Healthcare Improvement Initiative. By means of statistics on the frequency of the subject words in the cases, hotspots of these hospitals in " paying attention to medical humanistic care and promoting social work voluntary service" were identified.Results:By classifying the keywords of the 38 cases, the hotspots mainly focused on strengthening the construction and management of social work volunteer platform and team, providing convenient and high-quality services, integrating humanistic care into diagnosis and treatment services, and building characteristic brand projects.Conclusions:The concept of humanistic care should be integrated into the hospital culture construction, the standardized and institutionalized development of humanistic care and volunteer work in the hospital should be promoted. Supporting measures should be introduced to promote the professional and stable development of talent team, and the routine service system should be established based on the needs assessment of both doctors and patients.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912789


Objective:To analyze the practice and experience of " patient-centered, popularizing multi-disciplinary team(MDT) mode" in medical institutions, and to put forward reasonable suggestions and opinions for medical institutions to further improve and popularize MDT mode.Methods:Based on the evaluation of China Healthcare Improvement Initiative, 40 typical cases of MDT in medical institutions were collected, and descriptive analysis and textual analysis were carried out on the cases.Results:There were more specialized hospitals carrying out MDT, the application scope of MDT services was constantly expanding, and the management system and diagnosis and treatment process were constantly optimized.Conclusions:The mode of MDT in China is in the stage of exploration and development. In the promotion process, it is necessary to give full play to the role of information means, establish scientific and reasonable cost measurement and charge standard, and improve the enthusiasm of medical institutions and medical personnel to participate in MDT.