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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913066

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the changes in the awareness rate of Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge among medical professionals before and after training in Fangcheng County, a disease-elimination pilot area of Henan Province, so as to evaluate the effectiveness of the training. Methods Three townships in Fangcheng County were randomly selected as the study townships, including Dushu, Bowang and Yangji townships, while Erlangmiao, Yanglou and Xiaoshidian townships in the county were randomly selected as the control townships. The grassroots medical professionals in the study townships were given once training on T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge each year from 2016 to 2020, while those in the control townships were given no interventions. All village-level doctors and a part of township-level public health professionals were sampled from the study and control townships as intervention and control groups. The baseline and final assessments of the awareness of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge were performed using questionnaire survey in intervention and control groups in 2016 and 2020, and the awareness of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge was compared between the two groups. Results A total of 663 medical professionals were investigated in Fangcheng County from 2016 to 2020, including 474 participants in the intervention group and 189 participants in the control group. Results from the 2016 baseline survey showed that the awareness rate of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge was 28.83% (47/163) among grassroots medical professionals in Fangcheng County, and there were no significant differences in the awareness between the intervention (32.47%, 25/77) and control groups (25.58%, 22/86) (χ2 = 0.939, P > 0.05), between men (30.50%, 43/141) and women (18.18%, 4/22) (χ2 = 1.406, P > 0.05) or between village- (31.39%, 43/137) and township-level medical professionals (15.38%, 4/26) (χ2 = 2.727, P > 0.05), while significant differences were found in the awareness rate of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge among medical professionals in terms of education levels (χ2 = 8.190, P < 0.05) and duration of working experiences (χ2 = 12.617, P < 0.05), and the awareness rate of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge increased with education levels among medical professionals (χ2 = 6.768, P < 0.05). Only 5.52% (9/163) of the medical professionals had a history of diagnosis and therapy of T. solium taeniasis or cysticercosis, and only 1.23% (2/163) received training on T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge during the past 5 years. Results from the 2020 questionnaire survey showed a higher awareness rate of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge among medical professionals in the intervention group (93.55%, 116/124) than in the control group (46.60%, 48/103) (χ2 = 61.845, P < 0.05), and no significant differences were seen in the awareness rate of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge among medical professionals in terms of gender, level of medical professionals, duration of working experiences or history of diagnosis/therapy of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis in the intervention group (χ2 = 1.089, 0.140, 0.081 and 0.453, all P values > 0.05), while there was a significant difference in the awareness rate among medical professionals with different education levels (χ2 = 36.338, P < 0.05). In addition, the awareness rate of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge significantly increased among medical professionals with various chracteristics in 2020 than in 2016. Conclusions In the low-prevalence areas of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis, long-term and persistent training may improve the awareness of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge among grassroots medical professionals, which facilitates the timely identification of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis and the establishment of a sensitive disease surveillance system.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913062

ABSTRACT

Currently, the national schistosomiasis control program of China is moving from transmission control and transmission interruption to elimination; however, there is still a threat of schistosomiasis outbreak in area where the transmission of schistosomiasis has not been interrupted, and in areas where transmission interruption and even elimination have been achieved because of the complex factors relating to schistosomiasis transmission, as well as socioeconomic factors and natural environments, which greatly affects the consolidation of schistosomiasis control outcomes and the achievement of the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in the country. Here, we summarized the outbreaks of schistosomiasis in China during the past six decades, evaluated the impact of schistosomiasis outbreak on the national schistosomiasis control program and proposed management of schistosomiasis outbreak and prevention of schistosomiasis resurgence as the key point and difficulty for schistosomiasis control in the current stage. Improving the surveillance-response mechanisms and minimizing the development of schistosomiasis outbreak and the resultant damages and losses are recommended to provide technical supports for elimination of schistosomiasis in China.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913060

ABSTRACT

The RTS,S/AS01 is a subunit malaria vaccine against the pre-erythrocytic stage of Plasmodium falciparum. After over 30 years of research and development and clinical trials, this vaccine has been recommended by the WHO for use among children living in highly malaria endemic areas. Although the RTS, S/AS01 vaccine suffers from problems of a low protective efficacy (about 30%), need of four doses and short duration of protective immunity, this malaria vaccine is expected to save tens of thousands of children’s lives, and avoid tens of millions of malaria cases annually, because there have been tens of thousands of childhood deaths due to malaria recently. The introduction of the RTS, S/AS01 vaccine is therefore, widely accepted as a milestone in the history of battle against malaria, which brings a hope to contain malaria and even eventually eliminate malaria. Although there are still multiple challenges in the development of a satisfactory malaria vaccine, the success of the RTS, S/AS01 malaria greatly facilitates the progress towards the development of parasitic disease vaccines, and a more perfect malaria vaccine deserves expectations.

4.
rev. udca actual. divulg. cient ; 24(2): e1818, jul.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361221

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Cacao has high social importance in Colombia but requires cultivation techniques that improve its productivity, especially in the production of organic cacao. Pruning and organic fertilizers were assessed as treatments to increase the bean yield in an old cacao crop in Cundinamarca. The positive effects of organic fertilizer application and pruning on the pod morphometry and bean yield were established. The application of organic fertilizers with pruning, in general, increased the length and circumference of cacao pods. A negative correlation (R=-0.618) was found among the relative chlorophyll contents in leaves at the end of the harvest period and with the number of pods per tree. A positive correlation (R=0.748) was obtained between the fresh weight of pods and the dry weight of beans. No correlation was established between the relative chlorophyll contents in leaves and the bean dry weight. Pruning plus organic fertilization increased the total dry weight of beans per tree at almost 15 %, which makes pruning with organic fertilizer application the best tool for increasing yield in organic cacao production in old plantations in Cundinamarca.


RESUMEN El cultivo de cacao tiene una alta importancia social en Colombia, pero requiere la implementación de técnicas de cultivo que mejoren su productividad, principalmente, en la producción de cacao orgánico. La poda y los fertilizantes orgánicos fueron evaluados, como los tratamientos para incrementar el rendimiento de cacao, en una plantación antigua en el departamento Cundinamarca. La aplicación de fertilizantes orgánicos y la poda tuvieron efectos positivos sobre la morfometría del fruto y el rendimiento del cacao. La aplicación de fertilizantes orgánicos con poda, en general, aumentó la longitud y el diámetro de frutos de cacao. Se encontró una correlación negativa (R=-0,618) entre el contenido relativo de clorofila en hojas al final del período de cosecha y el número de frutos por árbol. Se obtuvo una correlación positiva (R=0,748) entre el peso fresco de frutos y el peso seco de semillas. No se estableció correlación entre el contenido relativo de clorofila en hojas y el peso seco de semillas. La poda más fertilización orgánica aumentó el peso seco total de semillas por árbol, en casi un 15 %, lo que convierte la poda con aplicación de fertilizante orgánicos en una herramienta para aumentar el rendimiento de cacao orgánico en antiguas plantaciones, en el departamento Cundinamarca.

5.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(2): 252-256, June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287277

ABSTRACT

Abstract The clinical management of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection presents several challenges today. WHO's goal is to eliminate it by 2030. It is an ambitious goal and difficult to meet given the barriers to care that arise. This is possible today thanks to the discovery of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). This treatment achieves a high cure rate and is virtually free of adverse effects. To try to comply with this, in addition to the use of DAAs, it is necessary to reduce the rate of undiagnosed patients and facilitate the access of those diagnosed to care and treatment. For that, it is proposed to carry out a simplified treatment of HCV. This involves reducing controls during and after treatment. This simplification varies according to whether patients have cirrhosis or not. In this way, it seeks to increase significantly the number of patients treated and cured to reduce the burden on public health of this disease.


Resumen El manejo clínico de la infección por el virus la hepatitis C (HCV) presenta varios desafíos en la actualidad. El objetivo de la OMS es eliminarlo para el 2030. Es un objetivo ambicioso y muy difícil de cumplir dadas las barreras al cuidado que se presentan. Sin embargo, esto es posible hoy gracias al descubrimiento de los antivirales de acción directa (AAD). Este tratamiento logra una alta tasa de curación y prácticamente está libre de efectos adversos. Para tratar de cumplirlo, además del uso de los AAD, es nece sario reducir la tasa de pacientes no diagnosticados y facilitar el acceso de los diagnosticados al cuidado y el tratamiento. Para eso se propone llevar adelante el tratamiento simplificado del HCV. Esto implica reducir los controles durante y después del tratamiento. Esta simplificación varía según los pacientes tengan o no cirrosis. De esta manera se busca aumentar significativamente el número de pacientes tratados y curados para así poder reducir el impacto en la salud pública de esta enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepacivirus , Liver Cirrhosis
6.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 93(1): e1302, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251745

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En Cuba se plantean metas progresivas para la eliminación de la tuberculosis en niños. Objetivo: Evaluar las desigualdades en la ocurrencia de la tuberculosis en menores de 15 años en cinco provincias occidentales cubanas y sus municipios. Métodos: Estudio ecológico de series temporales en las provincias Pinar del Río, Artemisa, La Habana, Mayabeque y Matanzas. Los datos provinieron del Sistema de Vigilancia del Ministerio de Salud Pública. Se analizaron el número de casos y las tasas de notificación por 100 000 habitantes. Se calcularon los porcentajes por grupos de edad; las tasas anuales, sus variaciones 2011-2015 y las tendencias mediante regresión lineal simple. Se estimaron las medias geométricas de las tasas, la menor fue la referencia para calcular las diferencias absolutas y relativas. Se estratificaron las provincias y sus municipios según las metas progresivas hacia la eliminación de la tuberculosis. Resultados: Las provincias occidentales notificaron 56,1 por ciento del total Cuba. Pinar del Río fue la provincia de referencia, mostró una reducción de 100 por ciento de su tasa. La tendencia en La Habana y Mayabeque fue ligeramente ascendente con tasas 17 y 14 veces mayores que la de referencia. Artemisa, Matanzas y Pinar del Río estuvieron en preeliminación; cinco municipios de La Habana, dos de Mayabeque y uno de Matanzas están en ultracontrol muy avanzado. Conclusiones: Las desigualdades de la tuberculosis en menores de 15 años para algunas provincias fueron relevantes, así el control debe ser fortalecido sostenidamente en La Habana y Mayabeque(AU)


Introduction: In Cuba, progressive goals are set for the elimination of tuberculosis in children. Objective: Assess inequalities in the occurrence of tuberculosis in children less than 15 years in five western Cuban provinces and their municipalities. Methods: Ecological study of time series in the following provinces: Pinar del Río, Artemisa, Havana, Mayabeque and Matanzas. The data came from the Surveillance System of the Ministry of Public Health. The number of cases and reporting rates per 100,000 inhabitants were assessed. Percentages by age group were calculated, and the annual rates, their variations in 2011-2015 and trends were assessed through simple linear regression. The geometric means of the rates were estimated; the lower was the reference for calculating absolute and relative differences. Provinces and their municipalities were stratified according to progressive goals for TB elimination. Results: Western provinces reported 56.1 percent of the total in Cuba. Pinar del Río was the reference province, showing a 100 percent reduction in its rate. The trend in Havana and Mayabeque was slightly upward with rates 17 and 14 times higher than the reference rate. Artemisa, Matanzas and Pinar del Río were in pre-elimination stage; five municipalities in Havana, two in Mayabeque and one in Matanzas are in a very advanced far-control. Conclusions: TB inequalities in children under 15 years old for some provinces are relevant, so control must be strengthened steadily in Havana and Mayabeque(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Tuberculosis , Time Series Studies , Surveillance , Goals
7.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21210181, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360188

ABSTRACT

Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a category of metabolic disorders caused by high blood sugar. The DM affects human metabolism, and this disease causes many complications like Heart disease, Neuropathy, Diabetic retinopathy, kidney problems, skin disorder and slow healing. It is therefore essential to predict the presence of DM using an automated diabetes diagnosis system, which can be implemented using machine learning algorithms. A variety of automated diabetes prediction systems have been proposed in previous studies. Even so, the low prediction accuracy of DM prediction systems is a major issue. This proposed work developed a diabetes mellitus prediction system to improve the diabetes mellitus prediction accuracy using Optimized Gaussian Naive Bayes algorithm. This proposed model using the Pima Indians diabetes dataset as an input to build the DM predictive model. The missing values of an input dataset are imputed using regression imputation method. The sequential backward feature elimination method is used in this proposed model for selecting the relevant risk factors of diabetes disease. The proposed machine learning classifier named Optimized Gaussian Naïve Bayes (OGNB) is applied to the selected risk factors to create an enhanced Diabetes diagnostic system which predicts Diabetes in an individual. The performance analysis of this prediction architecture shows that, over other traditional machine learning classifiers, the Optimized Gaussian Naïve Bayes achieves an 81.85% classifier accuracy. This proposed DM prediction system is effective as compared to other diabetes prediction systems found in the literature. According to our experimental study, the OGNB based diabetes mellitus prediction system is more appropriate for DM disease prediction.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910889

ABSTRACT

Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) can achieve a high cure rates in most patients with hepatitis C, including many previously refractory patients, making it possible to eliminate hepatitis C. The prevalence of hepatitis C in high-risk populations is significantly higher than that in general population. Therefore, the micro elimination strategy of elimination of hepatitis C according to the characteristics of different high-risk groups may be a more practical and feasible way. Currently, the screening of HCV in some high-risk or special populations has been applied in China, such as dialysis patients, pregnant women, and patients with hepatitis B or human immunodeficiency virus infection. However, there are still other high-risk groups of hepatitis C that can’t be identified by the routine screening system due to their scattered distribution, the first diagnosis in the non-infectious department, the lack of understanding of hepatitis C by the medical staff, or belonging to the marginalized group, which have become the blind spots and difficulties in the elimination of hepatitis C. This article discusses the challenges in diagnosis and treatment of these special populations, in order to provide reference for public health workers and clinicians, especially doctors in non-infectious or hepatology departments to better carry out the screening, diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis C in China.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907138

ABSTRACT

In May 2018, the World Health Organization (WHO) called for the "global elimination of cervical cancer" and China committed to join 194 countries worldwide to "eliminate cervical cancer". In November 2020, WHO released the Global Strategy for Accelerating the Elimination of Cervical Cancer, specifying the 2030 strategic goal. China has a large population, which makes the task of eliminating cervical cancer difficult. Based on the global and local burden of cervical cancer,we discussed the current situation of cervical cancer in China in the achievement of the elimination. We showed that in order to achieve the phased elimination goal of cervical cancer by 2030, the supply of HPV vaccine needs to increase by 38% every year, the HPV vaccination coverage needs to increase by 45% every year, and the screening coverage of cervical cancer in appropriate-aged women needs to increase by 10% every year. In conclusion, efforts should be made to expand cervical cancer screening, and to incorporate HPV vaccination into the national immunization program.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907115

ABSTRACT

In May 2018, the World Health Organization (WHO) called for the "global elimination of cervical cancer" and China committed to join 194 countries worldwide to "eliminate cervical cancer". In November 2020, WHO released the Global Strategy for Accelerating the Elimination of Cervical Cancer, specifying the 2030 strategic goal. China has a large population, which makes the task of eliminating cervical cancer difficult. Based on the global and local burden of cervical cancer,we discussed the current situation of cervical cancer in China in the achievement of the elimination. We showed that in order to achieve the phased elimination goal of cervical cancer by 2030, the supply of HPV vaccine needs to increase by 38% every year, the HPV vaccination coverage needs to increase by 45% every year, and the screening coverage of cervical cancer in appropriate-aged women needs to increase by 10% every year. In conclusion, efforts should be made to expand cervical cancer screening, and to incorporate HPV vaccination into the national immunization program.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904626

ABSTRACT

Objective To re-examine the diagnosis results of reported malaria cases in Sichuan Province from 2014 to 2020, so as to assess the malaria diagnostic capability of Sichuan Provincial Malaria Diagnostic Reference Laboratory. Methods The blood and blood smear samples from reported malaria cases were collected by Sichuan Provincial Malaria Diagnostic Reference Laboratory from 2014 to 2020, and subjected to re-examinations using microscopy and nested PCR assay. The re-examination results were compared. Results A total of 1 710 samples from reported malaria cases were re-examined by Sichuan Provincial Malaria Diagnostic Reference Laboratory from 2014 to 2020, and 1 634 samples were identified positive, with a positive coincidence rate of 95.56% (1 634/1 710) and a 92.29% (1 508/1 634) total coincidence rate of the Plasmodium species. The coincidence rates with P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae and P. ovale were 99.48% (961/966), 97.07% (430/443), 83.05% (98/118) and 67.86% (19/28), respectively, and the coincidence rate was 91.81% (1 513/1 648) between microscopic and nested-PCR results. Conclusions The capability of microscopists remains weak at grassroot medical institutions in Sichuan Province. Further training is required among microscopists to improve the malaria surveillance capability in Sichuan Province during the post-elimination stage.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886761

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics and diagnosis of imported malaria before and after malaria elimination in Nanjing City of Jiangsu Province, so as to provide the scientific evidence for formulating the malaria control strategy after malaria elimination. Methods Data pertaining to the epidemic situation and individual investigation of malaria in Nanjing City before (from 2012 to 2016) and after malaria elimination (from 2017 to 2020) were captured from the National Notifiable Communicable Disease Reporting System and the Information System for Parasitic Diseases Control and Prevention and were analyzed statistically. Results A total of 178 malaria cases were reported in Nanjing City from 2012 to 2020, and all were imported cases. There were 99 malaria cases reported before malaria elimination in Nanjing City, including 78 cases with Plasmodium falciparum malaria (78.79%), 5 cases with P. vivax malaria (5.05%), 10 cases with P. ovale malaria (10.10%), 3 cases with P. malariae malaria (3.03%) and 3 cases with mixed infections (3.03%), and 79 malaria cases reported after elimination, including 63 cases with P. falciparum malaria (79.75%), 5 cases with P. vivax malaria (6.33%), 9 cases with P. ovale malaria (11.39%), 2 cases with P. malariae malaria (2.53%). There was no significant difference in the proportion of each type of malaria cases in Nanjing City before and after malaria elimination (χ2 =2.400, P > 0.05). Malaria cases mainly acquired Plasmodium infections in African regions, and no significant difference was seen in the proportion of malaria cases returning to Nanjing City from African countries before and after malaria elimination (χ2 = 0.093, P > 0.05). The number of malaria cases peaked in Nanjing City in January and during the period from May to July before elimination, and there was no apparent seasonal variation in the distribution of malaria cases after elimination. The proportion of malaria cases living in Nanjing City was significantly greater after malaria elimination than before elimination (72.15% vs. 55.56%; χ2 = 5.187, P = 0.023). The proportions of businessmen and international students were both 5.05% before malaria elimination, and increased to 15.19% and 13.92% after elimination, respectively (χ2 = 5.229 and 4.229, both P values < 0.05). The percentage of definitive diagnosis of malaria at initial diagnosis was 18.75% in county-level hospitals before malaria elimination and increased to 61.11% after elimination (χ2 = 6.275, P = 0.012), while the proportion of malaria cases with definitive diagnoses in county-level hospitals was 4.04% before malaria elimination and increased to 13.92% after elimination (χ2 = 5.562, P = 0.018). During the period from 2012 to 2020, the proportion of malaria cases with definitive diagnoses within 1 to 3 days post-admission increased from 27.27% in Nanjing City before malaria elimination to 45.57% after elimination (χ2 = 6.433, P = 0.011). Conclusions The epidemic situation of imported malaria remains serious in Nanjing City during the post-elimination stage, and malaria parasite infections predominantly occur in African regions. In addition, there are changes in regional and occupational distributions of malaria cases and the diagnostic capability of malaria increases in county-level hospitals in Nanjing City after malaria elimination. Further improvements in the malaria surveillance system and the diagnostic and treatment capability of malaria in medical institutions at each level are required to consolidate malaria elimination achievements in Nanjing City.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882224

ABSTRACT

World Health Organisation proposed to accelerate the elimination of cervical cancer worldwide at the end of 2020. To achieve the goal of "global elimination of cervical cancer", this paper described the progress and effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention and control in Shanghai since the 1950s, and summarized the achievements of cervical cancer prevention and control in Jing’an, Jiangxi Province, aiming to provide evidence and experience for better prevention and control of cervical cancer in Shanghai, and then help the world to eliminate cervical cancer.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876700

ABSTRACT

Surveillance is an important part of the national schistosomiasis control program of China, which play a critical role in facilitating the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis in China. The coverage of schistosomiasis surveillance has shifted from the high-risk regions at the initial stage of the national schistosomiasis control program of China to the current all endemic counties (cities, districts), and the surveillance contents have extended from single surveillance of endemic status to comprehensive surveillance of endemic status, epidemic factors and transmission risks. With the continuous progress towards schistosomiasis elimination, the national schistosomiasis control program has shifted from “extensive control” to surveillance and early warning-based “precision control” in China, which proposes much higher requirements for schistosomiasis surveillance. Currently, the surveillance of schistosomiasis has been covered in all schistosomiasis-endemic counties (cities, districts) of China, and the development of rapid and early identification of Schistosoma japonicum cercariae and S. japonicum-infected Oncomelania hupensis snails will greatly improve the sensitivity of and the duration of responses to schistosomiasis surveillance, which will provide powerful tools for elimination of schistosomiasis in China.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873741

ABSTRACT

Since 2015 when the transmission of schistosomiasis was controlled in China, the country has been moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis, with the surveillance-response as the main interventions for schistosomiasis control. During the period of the 13th Five-Year Plan, the transmission of schistosomiasis had been interrupted in four provinces of Sichuan, Jiangsu, Yunnan and Hubei and the prevalence of schistosomiasis has been at the historically lowest level in China. As a consequence, the goal set in The 13th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China is almost achieved. However, there are multiple challenges during the stage moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis in China, including the widespread distribution of intermediate host snails and complicated snail habitats, many types of sources of Schistosoma japonicum infections and difficulty in management of bovines and sheep, unmet requirements for the current schistosomiasis control program with the currently available tools, and vulnerable control achievements. During the 14th Five-Year period, it is crucial to consolidate the schistosomiasis control achievements and gradually solve the above difficulties, and critical to provide the basis for achieving the ultimate goal of elimination of schistosomiasis in China. Based on the past experiences from the national schistosomiasis control program and the challenges for schistosomiasis elimination in China, an expert consensus has been reached pertaining to the objectives, control strategy and measures for The 14th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China, so as to provide insights in to the development of The 14th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873739

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis was once endemic in 12 provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) along and south of the Yangtze River basin, which seriously damages human health and hinders socioeconomic developments in China. Following the concerted efforts for 70 years, remarkable achievements have been gained in the national schistosomiasis control program of China. However, there are still multiple challenges for elimination of schistosomiasis in the country. This paper describes the current status of schistosomiasis and the challenges during the progress towards the elimination of schistosomiasis, and proposes the goals, key points and research priorities of schistosomiasis control in China during the 14th Five-Year Plan Period.

17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1885-1902, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888840

ABSTRACT

Multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1) is significantly hindering effective cancer chemotherapy. However, currently, no ABCB1-inhibitory drugs have been approved to treat MDR cancer clinically, mainly due to the inhibitor specificity, toxicity, and drug interactions. Here, we reported that three polyoxypregnanes (POPs) as the most abundant constituents of

18.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(6): 734-739, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139365

ABSTRACT

Background: Evaluation of 24-hour collection accuracy is based on urinary creatinine excretion (UCr), usually using wide ranges indexed by weight. Equations that predict the expected UCr are also available. Aim: To generate an equation for estimating UCr in Chilean population and evaluate its performance in comparison to existing formulas. Material and Methods: A total of 464 24-hour urine collections from outpatients aged between 15 and 88 years old were used. Ninety percent of collections (n = 418) were randomly extracted to assess the association between absolute UCr values with sex, age, height and weight of participants. A formula was created to estimate the 24-hour UCr using a multiple linear regression model. In the remaining 10% of urine collections (n = 46), the performance of this formula and others reported in the literature were tested. Results: Age, sex and weight were significantly associated with 24-hour UCr values. The new equation was able to predict UCr values with a similar accuracy than CKD-EPI and Walser equations and outperformed other equations. Conclusions: Our equation developed with Chilean values predicts 24-hour UCr values accurately.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Creatinine/urine , Body Weight , Linear Models , Chile , Glomerular Filtration Rate
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-861566

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of vaginal elimination in the treatment of giant stage IIIB cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Methods: From January 2016 to June 2017, clinical data of 49 patients with giant stage IIIB cervical SCC in Chongqing University Cancer Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Survival and influencing factors were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariable Cox model. Results: After a median 36.0-month follow-up, the complete remission, local recurrence, and distant metastasis rates were 83.7% (41/49), 4.1% (2/49), and 34.7% (17/49), respectively. The overall survival (OS) rate, disease-free survival rate, distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rate, and local control rate (LCR) were 76.6%, 26.7%, 26.7%, and 77.8%, respectively. The occurrence rates of acute grade 3-4 adverse hematological events, diarrhea, frequency of urination, late grades 3-4 adverse rectitis events, and cystitis were 40.82% (20/49), 20.41% (10/49), 6.12% (3/49), 20.41% (10/49), and 8.16% (4/49), respectively. Cox analysis showed that the duration of radiotherapy affected OS and LCR (P<0.05), the dose of EQD2 affected DMFS and LCR (P<0.05), and the recurrence rate of SCC that persisted despite concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy was 61% (11/18). Conclusions: Patients with giant stage IIIB cervical SCC benefit from vaginal elimination combined with radiotherapy and chemotherapy; however, adverse reactions in the rectum and bladder increase, and thus, individualized treatment is recommended. The duration of radiotherapy is an independent factor for the prognosis of cervical cancer. SCC can be used for follow-up and monitoring cervical cancer recurrence.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886767

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the epidemic situation of malaria in Jiangsu Province in 2019, so as to provide the scientific basis for the development of the strategy for the prevention of re-introduction of imported malaria. Methods The malaria case report information, epidemiological case investigation information, epidemic foci investigation and management report in Jiangsu Province in 2019 were collected, and all epidemiological data were descriptively analyzed. Results A total of 244 malaria cases were reported in Jiangsu Province in 2019, and all cases were laboratory-confirmed overseas imported cases, including 4 cases with vivax malaria, 206 cases with falciparum malaria, 12 cases with malariae malaria and 22 cases with ovale malaria. In 2019, there were 12 malaria cases progressing into severe cases in Jiangsu Province, with one death. Nanjing, Nantong, Lianyungang, Taizhou and Changzhou cities contributed the largest number of malaria cases in 2019, with the number of malaria cases accounting for 59.84% of total cases in Jiangsu Province. The infections occurred in Papua New Guinea (2 cases), Pakistan (1 case) and 27 African countries (241 cases), including Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea, Cote d'Ivoire and so on. There were 77 cases (31.55%) with a visit to doctor on the day of onset, and 146 cases (59.84%) within 1 to 3 days after onset. In addition, there were 149 cases (61.06%) with definitive diagnosis at the first visit and 77 cases (31.55%) diagnosed within 1 to 3 days after the visit, and the mean duration from the visit to definitive diagnosis was (0.80 ± 1.59) d, which significantly shortened as compared to that (1.34 d ± 2.59 d) in 2018 (U = 2.53, P < 0.05). Conclusions Intensifying the surveillance and management of imported malaria and improving the diagnostic capability of imported malaria and the treatment of severe malaria cases are required to consolidate the achievements of malaria elimination in Jiangsu Province.

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