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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253065, 2024. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350311

ABSTRACT

Abstract Routine blood culture is used for the detection of bloodstream infections by aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and by common pathogenic yeasts. A retrospective study was conducted in a public hospital in Maceió-AL, by collecting data of all medical records with positive blood cultures. Out of the 2,107 blood cultures performed, 17% were positive with Staphylococcus coagulase negative (51.14%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (11.21%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.32%). Gram-positive bacteria predominated among positive blood cultures, highlighting the group of Staphylococcus coagulase-negative. While Gram-negative bacteria had a higher number of species among positive blood cultures.


Resumo A cultura sanguínea de rotina é usada para a detecção de infecções na corrente sanguínea por bactérias aeróbias e anaeróbias e por leveduras patogênicas comuns. Estudo retrospectivo realizado em hospital público de Maceió-AL, por meio da coleta de dados de todos os prontuários com culturas sanguíneas positivas. Das 2.107 culturas sanguíneas realizadas, 17% foram positivas com Staphylococcus coagulase negativo (51,14%), seguido por Staphylococcus aureus (11,21%) e Klebsiella pneumoniae (6,32%). As bactérias Gram-positiva predominaram entre as culturas de sangue positivas, destacando-se o grupo das Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo. Enquanto as bactérias Gram-negativas apresentaram um número maior de espécies entre as culturas de sangue positivas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sepsis , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248717, 2023. graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339344

ABSTRACT

Abstract The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the most common cause of severe lower respiratory tract diseases in young children worldwide, leading to a high number of hospitalizations and significant expenditures for health systems. Neutrophils are massively recruited to the lung tissue of patients with acute respiratory diseases. At the infection site, they release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that can capture and/or inactivate different types of microorganisms, including viruses. Evidence has shown that the accumulation of NETs results in direct cytotoxic effects on endothelial and epithelial cells. Neutrophils stimulated by the hRSV-F protein generate NETs that are able to capture hRSV particles, thus reducing their transmission. However, the massive production of NETs obstructs the airways and increases disease severity. Therefore, further knowledge about the effects of NETs during hRSV infections is essential for the development of new specific and effective treatments. This study evaluated the effects of NETs on the previous or posterior contact with hRSV-infected Hep-2 cells. Hep-2 cells were infected with different hRSV multiplicity of infection (MOI 0.5 or 1.0), either before or after incubation with NETs (0.5-16 μg/mL). Infected and untreated cells showed decreased cellular viability and intense staining with trypan blue, which was accompanied by the formation of many large syncytia. Previous contact between NETs and cells did not result in a protective effect. Cells in monolayers showed a reduced number and area of syncytia, but cell death was similar in infected and non-treated cells. The addition of NETs to infected tissues maintained a similar virus-induced cell death rate and an increased syncytial area, indicating cytotoxic and deleterious damages. Our results corroborate previously reported findings that NETs contribute to the immunopathology developed by patients infected with hRSV.


Resumo O vírus sincicial respiratório humano (hRSV) é a causa mais comum de doenças graves do trato respiratório inferior em crianças pequenas em todo o mundo, resultando em grande número de hospitalizações e gastos significativos para os sistemas de saúde. Neutrófilos são recrutados em massa para o tecido pulmonar de pacientes com doenças respiratórias agudas. No local da infecção, eles liberam armadilhas extracelulares de neutrófilos (NETs) que podem capturar e/ou inativar diferentes tipos de microrganismos, incluindo vírus. Evidências demonstraram que o acúmulo de NETs resulta em efeitos citotóxicos diretos nas células endoteliais e epiteliais. Os neutrófilos estimulados pela proteína F do vírus sincicial respiratório (hRSV-F) geram NETs que são capazes de capturar partículas virais, reduzindo assim sua transmissão. No entanto, a produção maciça de NETs obstrui as vias aéreas e aumenta a gravidade da doença. Assim, um maior conhecimento sobre os efeitos das NETs durante as infecções por hRSV é essencial para o desenvolvimento de novos tratamentos específicos e eficazes. Este estudo avaliou os efeitos das NETs no contato prévio ou posterior à infecção de células Hep-2 com hRSV. As células Hep-2 foram infectadas com diferentes quantidades de hRSV (multiplicidade de infecção ou MOI 0,5 ou 1,0), antes ou após a incubação com NETs (0,5-16 μg/mL). Células infectadas e não tratadas mostraram redução da viabilidade celular e intensa coloração com azul de tripano, que foi acompanhada pela formação de sincícios numerosos e grandes. O contato prévio entre as NETs e as células não resultou em efeito protetor. As células em monocamadas mostraram um número e área de sincícios reduzidos, mas a morte celular foi semelhante àquela apresentada por células infectadas e não tratadas. A adição de NETs aos tecidos infectados manteve taxa de morte celular e formação de sincícios semelhantes àqueles induzidos pelo vírus em células não tratadas, indicando danos citotóxicos e deletérios. Nossos resultados corroboram achados relatados anteriormente de que as NETs contribuem para a imunopatologia desenvolvida por pacientes infectados com hRSV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Extracellular Traps , Epithelial Cells , Lung
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244966, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360197

ABSTRACT

Abstract Dengue fever (DF) is increasingly recognized as one of the world's major mosquito borne diseases and causes significant morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical countries. Dengue fever is endemic in most part of Pakistan and continues to be a public health concern. Knowledge, attitude and practices can play an important role in management of the disease. Current study was aimed to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding dengue fever among health practitioners, to study the level of knowledge and attitude with preventive practices for dengue fever. A cross sectional study was carried out in medical practitioners of the four districts of Malakand region during October to November 2019. A pre-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from medical practitioners. Data was analyzed using Graph Pad version 5. Significant value was considered when less than 0.05 (at 95% confidence of interval). The results revealed that most of participants have seen dengue vector (62%), the media being the most quoted source of information. Nearly 81.2% participants were aware from transmission of dengue fever is by mosquito bite. Practices based upon preventive measures were found to be predominantly focused towards prevention of mosquito bites rather than elimination of breeding places. Although the knowledge regarding DF and mosquito control measure was quite high among the medical practitioners but this knowledge was not put into practice. Further studies are required to aware the people about dengue and its vector in order to get prevention and control.


Resumo A dengue (DF) é cada vez mais reconhecida como uma das principais doenças transmitidas por mosquitos do mundo e causa significativa morbidade e mortalidade em países tropicais e subtropicais. A dengue é endêmica na maior parte do Paquistão e continua a ser um problema de saúde pública. Conhecimento, atitude e práticas podem desempenhar papel importante no manejo da doença. O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar o nível de conhecimento, atitude e práticas em relação à dengue entre os profissionais de saúde, para estudar o nível de conhecimento e atitude com as práticas preventivas da dengue. Um estudo transversal foi realizado com médicos dos quatro distritos da região de Malakand de outubro a novembro de 2019. Um questionário pré-estruturado foi usado para coletar dados de médicos. Os dados foram analisados no Graph Pad versão 5. Valor significativo foi considerado quando menor que 0,05 (com intervalo de confiança de 95%). Os resultados revelaram que a maioria dos participantes já viu o vetor da dengue (62%), sendo a mídia a fonte de informação mais citada. Quase 81,2% dos participantes sabiam que a transmissão da dengue é por picada de mosquito. Constatou-se que as práticas baseadas em medidas preventivas se concentravam predominantemente na prevenção de picadas de mosquitos, e não na eliminação de criadouros. Embora o conhecimento sobre DF e medidas de controle de mosquitos fosse bastante elevado entre os médicos, esse conhecimento não foi colocado em prática. Mais estudos são necessários para conscientizar a população sobre a dengue e seu vetor, a fim de se obter prevenção e controle.

4.
Infectio ; 26(2): 161-167, Jan.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356263

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Determinar los factores asociados, las características clínicas, microbiológicas y perfiles de resistencia en las infecciones sintomáticas de tracto urinario asociado a catéter (ISTU-AC) en los dos Instituciones de alto nivel de complejidad. Materiales y métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio de casos y controles. Se incluyeron todos los pacientes con más de 48 horas de hospitalización con inserción de catéter urinario y se recolectaron todas las variables clínicas y microbiológicas de cada paciente. Se incluyeron 446 pacientes, 223 con infección sintomática del tracto urinario asociado a catéter. El análisis multivariado se realizó por medio de regresión logística. Resultados: Se evidenció una mayor proporción de hombres en los controles (60,5%) en comparación con los casos (51,1%), la mediana de la edad fue muy similar para los dos grupos de estudio. Se evidenció por el análisis de regresión logística multivariado que la estancia en UCI (OR 2,176; IC de 95% 1,332 - 3,555), más de 10 días de catéter urinario (OR 2,907; IC de 95% 1,744 - 4,846) y la terapia antibiótica previa (OR 0,060; IC de 95% 0,037 - 0,103) fueron los principales factores asociados con la ocurrencia de ISTU-AC. No se encontró asociación entre presentar el evento de interés y la edad, esta variable no está relacionada con la pre sencia de infecciones intrahospitalarias. Es probable que las comorbilidades, presentes con más frecuencia en el adulto mayor, hayan sobrepasado el efecto de la edad en esos estudios. La asociación con género no fue identificada como un factor de riesgo, lo cual podría esperarse, dado que el uso de la sonda vesical hace equiparable el riesgo entre los hombres y las mujeres. Conclusiones: Este estudio mostró que la infecciones sintomáticas de tracto urinario asociado a catéter sigue siendo la entidad más frecuente) en el ámbito hospi talario, poniendo en riesgo la seguridad de los pacientes y aumentando tanto las tasas de morbi-mortalidad


Summary Objective: To determine the associated factors, clinical and microbiological characteristics, and resistance profiles in symptomatic urinary tract infections associated with catheters in the two institutions with a high level of complexity. Materials and methods: A case-control study was carried out. All patients with more than 48 hours of hospitalization with urinary catheter insertion were included and all the clinical and microbiological variables of each patient were collected. 446 patients were included, 223 with symptomatic urinary tract infection associated with a catheter. The multivariate analysis was carried out by means of logistic regression. Results: A greater proportion of men was evidenced in the controls (60.5%) compared to the cases (51.1%), the median age was very similar for the two study groups. It was evidenced by the multivariate logistic regression analysis that the stay in the ICU (OR 2.176; 95% CI 1.322 - 3.555), more than 10 days of urinary catheter (OR 2.907; 95% CI 1.744 - 4.846) and antibiotic therapy previous (OR 0.060; 95% CI 0.037 - 0.103) were the main factors associated with the occurrence of CA-UTI. No association was found between presenting the event of interest and age, this variable is not related to the presence of intrahospital infections. Co morbidities, which are more frequently present in the elderly, are likely to have outweighed the effect of age in these studies. The association with gender was not identified as a risk factor, which could be expected, since the use of the urinary catheter makes the risk comparable between men and women. Conclusions: This study showed that symptomatic urinary tract infections associated with catheters are still a frequent entity in the hospital setting, putting the safety of patients at risk and increasing both morbidity and mortality rates

5.
Infectio ; 26(2): 181-188, Jan.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356266

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hepatitis E virus produces approximately 20-million infections per year; symptomatic cases are over 3-million and deaths are approximately 60,000. Generally, it is self-limited; however, it can cause up to 30% mortality in pregnant women and can be chronic in immunosuppressed people. The transmission path of the Hepatitis E virus is principally fecal-oral, especially in developing countries; in industrialized countries, it is transmitted as a zoonosis, through organ transplants or blood transfusions. The vaccine developed is only licensed in China. Currently, no treatment is available for the HEV infection and work is underway in identifying the viral cycle and the immune response. This article sought to offer a review of the theme on the hepatitis E virus, from the last six years, to describe current general aspects of the Hepatitis E virus, genome, ways of transmission and contribute to its visibility for its prevention and control.


Resumen El virus de la hepatitis E produce aproximadamente 20 millones de infecciones por año; los casos sintomáticos superan los 3 millones y las muertes son apro ximadamente 60.000. Generalmente es autolimitada; sin embargo, puede causar hasta un 30% de mortalidad en mujeres embarazadas y puede ser crónica en personas inmunodeprimidas. La vía de transmisión del virus de la hepatitis E, es principalmente fecal-oral; especialmente en los países en desarrollo. En los países industrializados, se transmite como zoonosis, a través de trasplantes de órganos o transfusiones sanguíneas. La vacuna desarrollada solo tiene licencia en China. Actualmente, no hay tratamiento disponible para la infección por HEV y se está trabajando para identificar el ciclo viral y la respuesta inmune. Este artículo buscó ofrecer una revisión del tema sobre el virus de la hepatitis E, de los últimos seis años, para describir aspectos del virus de la Hepatitis E, genoma, vías de transmisión y contribuir a su visibilidad para su prevención y control.

6.
Infectio ; 26(2): 193-196, Jan.-June 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356268

ABSTRACT

Resumen Scedosporium sp. es un género de hongos filamentosos que de forma infrecuente se relaciona a infecciones localizadas o diseminadas en pacientes inmunocom prometidos, o inmunocompetentes con trauma penetrante contaminado. Reportamos el caso de un paciente masculino de 31 años con antecedente de trauma penetrante por arma de fuego requiriendo enucleación de su ojo izquierdo, quien 12 años posterior al trauma inicial presenta necrosis de la cavidad anoftálmica con extrusión del implante y lisis del párpado inferior, finalmente identificando Scedosporium sp. como germen causal, y un mucocele en el seno frontal como reservorio. El paciente recibió tratamiento médico con voriconazol sistémico, desbridamiento quirúrgico amplio, y resección endoscópica del quiste de retención mucoso, con una evolución satisfactoria. Las infecciones micóticas de la cavidad anoftálmica son infrecuentes, requiriendo una alta sospecha diagnóstica y trata miento agresivo para evitar consecuencias potencialmente devastadoras.


Abstract Scedosporium sp. is a genus of filamentous fungi that is infrequently related to localized or disseminated infections in either immunocompromised patients, or immunocompetent patients with penetrating contaminated trauma. We report the case of a 31-year-old patient with a history of penetrating gunshot wound that required enucleation of his left eye, who 12 years after initial trauma presents necrosis of the anophthalmic socket with implant extrusion and lysis of inferior eyelid, finally identifying the causal agent to be Scedosporium sp. The patient received medical treatment with systemic voriconazole, and wide surgical debridement, with a satisfactory evolution. Fungal infections of anophthalmic sockets are infrequent, requiring a high diagnostic suspicion and aggressive treatment to avoid potentially devastating consequences.

7.
ABCS health sci ; 47: e022203, 06 abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363538

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Contamination of cell phones can contribute to the dissemination of pathogens in the community and/or hospital environment. OBJECTIVE: To characterize Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from cell phones of university students. METHODS: Samples were collected from 100 cell phones. Detection of genes associated with virulence factors such as biofilm formation (icaA and icaD), enterotoxins production (SEA, SEB, SEC, and SED), and resistance to methicillin (mecA and mecC) was performed in S. aureus isolates by PCR. Typing mecA gene performed by multiplex PCR. Susceptibility to antimicrobials and biofilm formation rate also evaluated by using disk diffusion test and crystal violet staining. RESULTS: S. aureus was present in 40% of the total samples and about 70% of them belonged to Nursing students. Of the isolates, 85% presented resistance to penicillin and 50% were classified as moderate biofilm producers. In addition, 92.5% of isolates contained the gene icaA and 60% of the gene icaD. Approximately 25% of the isolates presented the mecA gene. Typing of the mecA gene showed the presence of staphylococcal chromosome cassette SCCmec I and c III respectively in 20% and 10% of the isolates. 70% of the samples could not be typed by the technique. Regarding the enterotoxins, the most prevalent gene was SEA (30%) followed by the SEC gene (2.5%). The presence of SED and SEB genes not observed in any of the isolates. CONCLUSION: The cleaning and periodic disinfection of cell phones can contribute to the reduction of the risk of nosocomial infection.


INTRODUÇÃO: A contaminação de celulares pode contribuir para a disseminação de patógenos na comunidade e/ou ambiente hospitalar. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar cepas de Staphylococcus aureus de telefones celulares de estudantes universitários. MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas amostras de 100 telefones celulares. Detecção de genes associados a fatores de virulência quanto a: formação de biofilme (icaA e icaD), produção de enterotoxinas (SEA, SEB, SEC e SED) e resistência à meticilina (mecA e mecC) foi realizada em isolados de S. aureus por PCR. A Tipagem do gene mecA foi realizada por PCR multiplex. A susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos e a taxa de formação de biofilme pelo teste de difusão em disco e coloração com cristal violeta. RESULTADOS: S. aureus esteve presente em 40% do total de amostras, destas, 70% pertenciam a estudantes do curso de enfermagem. Dos isolados, 85% apresentaram resistência à penicilina e 50% foram classificados com moderada formação de biofilme. Além disso, 92,5% dos isolados continham o gene icaA e 60% o gene icaD. Aproximadamente 25% dos isolados apresentaram o gene mecA. A tipagem do gene mecA mostrou a presença do cassete cromossômico estafilocócico SSCmec I e III em respectivamente 20% e 10% dos isolados. 70% das amostras não puderam ser identificadas pela técnica. Das enterotoxinas, o gene mais prevalente foi o SEA (30%), seguido pelo gene SEC (2.5%). A presença dos genes SED e SEB não foi observada nos isolados. CONCLUSÃO: A limpeza e desinfecção periódica dos telefones celulares podem contribuir para a redução do risco de infecção nosocomiais.


Subject(s)
Students, Health Occupations , Universities , Cell Phone , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Virulence , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Biofilms , Enterotoxins
8.
ABCS health sci ; 47: e022202, 06 abr. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363542

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Tigecycline is an antimicrobial agent, approved for the treatment of complicated skin and soft tissue infections, hospital-acquired and community-acquired pneumonia, intra-abdominal infections and anaerobic or atypical infections. OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of tigecycline in a teaching hospital and to compare data from patients who had their prescriptions audited by the hospital infection committee with those who did not have audited prescriptions. METHODS: Retrospective observational cohort study conducted at a teaching hospital from April 2012 to March 2014 including patients who received tigecycline. Demographic variables, comorbidities, microbiological findings, prescribed antibiotics and technical opinions issued by the Hospital Infection Control Service were collected. RESULTS: 71 patients were included, aged between 13 and 92 years, 63.4% were male and 56.3% were non-white. Tigecycline was the first antimicrobial choice in 19.7% (14/71) of the cases, while the use associated with other antibiotics was observed in 66.2% (45/71) of the prescriptions. mainly with meropenem (28.9%). Empirical use was performed in 69.0% of cases, after culture and the antibiogram in 31.0% and off label use in 81.7%. The microorganisms frequently identified by the culture tests were Enterococcus faecalis (17.6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.7%) and Klebsiella penumoniae (11.8%). CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated that empirical and off label use is common in clinical practice and few prescriptions were guided by the results of the culture and the antibiogram, demonstrating the need for prescribers to evaluate the benefits/ risks of using this antibiotic, risk of resistance, adverse effects and drug interactions, in addition to cost.


INTRODUÇÃO: A tigeciclina é agente antimicrobiano, aprovada para o tratamento de infecções complicadas na pele e tecidos moles, pneumonia hospitalar e adquirida na comunidade, infecções intra-abdominal e infecções anaeróbias ou atípicas. OBJETIVO: Descrever o uso da tigeciclina em hospital de ensino e comparar dados de pacientes que tiveram suas prescrições auditadas pela comissão de infecção hospitalar com os que não tiveram prescrições auditadas. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo observacional realizado em hospital de ensino de abril de 2012 a março de 2014 incluindo pacientes que receberam tigeciclina. Foram coletadas variáveis ​​demográficas, comorbidades, achados microbiológicos, antibióticos prescritos e pareceres técnicos emitidos pelo Serviço de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 71 pacientes, com idade entre 13 e 92 anos, 63,4% eram do sexo masculino e 56,3% eram não brancos. A tigeciclina foi primeira escolha antimicrobiana em 19,7% (14/71) dos casos, enquanto o uso associado a outros antibióticos foi observado em 66,2% (45/71) das prescrições. principalmente com meropenem (28,9%). O uso empírico foi realizado em 69,0% dos casos, após cultura e o antibiograma em 31,0% e o uso off label em 81,7%. Os microrganismos frequentemente identificados pelos testes de cultura foram Enterococcus faecalis (17,6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14,7%) e Klebsiella penumoniae (11,8%). CONCLUSÃO: O estudo demonstrou que o uso empírico e off label é comum na prática clínica e poucas prescrições foram orientadas pelos resultados da cultura e do antibiograma, demonstrando necessidade de prescritores avaliarem os benefícios/riscos do uso desse antibiótico, risco de resistência, efeitos adversos e interações medicamentosas, além do custo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tigecycline , Hospitals, University , Cross Infection , Off-Label Use , Anti-Infective Agents
9.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 37(1): 76-79, jan.mar.2022. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368224

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O ultrassom tem sido utilizado na atualidade na medicina intensiva. A fasciite necrosante quando não diagnosticada e tratada rapidamente apresenta progressão rápida e alta mortalidade. O objetivo é apresentar a importância da anatomia na fasciite necrosante e o uso do ultrassom no diagnóstico precoce. Métodos: Apresentou-se a aplicação do ultrassom point of care e a relevância da anatomia na fasciite necrosante. Resultados: As comunicações anatômicas entre as fáscias das regiões escrotal, perineal, peniana e abdominal permitem a disseminação do processo infeccioso decorrente da gangrena de Fournier para as regiões adjacentes. O ultrassom possibilitou o diagnóstico precoce na fasciite necrosante. Conclusão: As comunicações entre as fáscias das regiões escrotal, perineal, peniana e abdominal contribuíram para a progressão do processo infeccioso decorrente da gangrena de Fournier e o ultrassom possibilitou o diagnóstico precoce.


Introduction: Ultrasound is currently being used in intensive care medicine. When not diagnosed and treated quickly, necrotizing fasciitis has a rapid progression and high mortality. The objective is to present the importance of anatomy in necrotizing fasciitis and the use of ultrasound in early diagnosis. Methods: The application of point-of-care ultrasound and the relevance of anatomy in necrotizing fasciitis were presented. Results: The anatomical communications between the fasciae of the scrotal, perineal, penile and abdominal regions allow the spread of the infectious process resulting from Fournier's gangrene to the adjacent regions. Ultrasound enabled early diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis. Conclusion: Communications between the fasciae of the scrotal, perineal, scrotal, penis and abdominal regions contributes to the progression of the infectious process resulting from Fournier gangrene and ultrasound permitted earlier diagnose.

10.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(1): 42-55, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357468

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Maintenance of oral microbiota balance is the simplest way to prevent infectious oral diseases, through controlling dental biofilm. Combined use of mouthwash and mechanical removal has been shown to be a very effective way for this. OBJECTIVES: To identify clinical studies comparing the antimicrobial effect and possible adverse effects and/or side effects of chlorhexidine-based mouthwashes with those of mouthwashes containing chlorine dioxide and/or polyhexanide, for controlling oral microbiota. DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review designed by the stomatology sector of postgraduation in applied dental sciences of Bauru Dentistry School, University of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted using online databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Science Direct) up to April 8, 2020. The search was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. RESULTS: The studies included comprised eight articles published between 2001 and 2017. A total of 295 young adults, adults and elderly people were evaluated (males 44.75% and females 55.25%). Three articles compared polyhexanide with chlorhexidine and five articles compared chlorine dioxide with chlorhexidine. No studies comparing all three mouthwashes were found. The concentrations of the study solutions were quite varied, and all rinses had an antimicrobial effect. In four studies, it was stated that no side effects or adverse effects had been found. Three studies did not address these results and only one study addressed side effects and/or adverse effects. CONCLUSION: Mouthwashes containing chlorine dioxide and polyhexanide are viable alternatives to chlorhexidine, since they reduce oral biofilm and have little or no reported side or adverse effects.

11.
Braz. dent. j ; 33(1): 1-12, jan.-fev. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1364486

ABSTRACT

Abstract Dental implants made of titanium (Ti) material is recognized as the leading treatment option for edentulous patients' rehabilitation, showing a high success rate and clinical longevity. However, dental implant surface acts as a platform for microbial adhesion and accumulation once exposed to the oral cavity. Biofilm formation on implant surfaces has been considered the main etiologic factor to induce inflammatory diseases, known as peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis; the latter being recognized as the key reason for late dental implant failure. Different factors, such as biofilm matrix production, source of carbohydrate exposure, and cross-kingdom interactions, have encouraged increased microbial accumulation on dental implants, leading to a microbiological community shift from a healthy to a pathogenic state, increasing inflammation and favoring tissue damage. These factors combined with the spatial organization of biofilms, reduced antimicrobial susceptibility, complex microbiological composition, and the irregular topography of implants hamper biofilm control and microbial killing. In spite of the well-known etiology, there is still no consensus regarding the best clinical protocol to control microbial accumulation on dental implant surfaces and treat peri-implant disease. In this sense, different coatings and Ti surface treatments have been proposed in order to reduce microbial loads and control polymicrobial infections on implantable devices. Therefore, this critical review aims to discuss the current evidence on biofilm accumulation on dental implants and central factors related to the pathogenesis process of implant-related infections. Moreover, the potential surface modifications with anti-biofilm properties for dental implant devices is discussed to shed light on further promising strategies to control peri-implantitis.


Resumo Implantes dentários em titânio (Ti) são reconhecidos como principal modalidade terapêutica para a reabilitação oral de pacientes edêntulos, demonstrando uma alta taxa de sucesso e longevidade clínica. No entanto, após inserção no ambiente bucal, os implantes dentários agem como substrato para adesão e acúmulo microbiano. A formação de biofilmes em implantes dentários tem sido considerada o principal fator etiológico para induzir doenças inflamatórias conhecidas como mucosite peri-implantar e peri-implantite, sendo está última reconhecida como principal razão para falha tardia dos implantes dentários. Diferentes fatores têm sido atribuídos por promover o acúmulo microbiano em implantes dentários, levando a uma mudança microbiológica e favorecendo o dano tecidual, como a matriz do biofilme, exposição a carboidratos e interação entre reinos. Esses fatores combinados com a organização espacial de biofilmes, reduzida suscetibilidade microbiana, complexa composição microbiológica e a superfície irregular dos implantes dificultam o controle do biofilme e a morte microbiana. Apesar da etiologia bem conhecida, ainda não há consenso sobre o melhor protocolo clínico para controlar o acúmulo microbiano nas superfícies dos implantes dentários e tratar a doença peri-implantar. Nesse sentido, diferentes coberturas e tratamentos de superfície no Ti têm sido desenvolvidos objetivando a redução dos níveis microbianos e o controle das infecções polimicrobianas em implantes. Portanto, essa revisão crítica objetiva discutir a atual evidência em relação ao acúmulo de biofilmes em implantes dentários e fatores chave relacionados ao processo patogênico das infecções peri-implantares. Além disso, o potencial de alterações de superfícies com propriedades antimicrobianas para implantes dentários é discutido para ressaltar futuras estratégias promissoras no controle da peri-implantite.

12.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(1): 112-117, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364566

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Microcephaly is recognized as one of the main consequences of congenital Zika syndrome, but other serious problems such as global hypertonia, irritability, excessive crying, swallowing disorders, seizures, visual impairment and sensorineural hearing loss have been identified as associated with the syndrome. Objective Describe the developmental characteristics of hearing and language skills in the first year of life of children with normal hearing thresholds' and congenital Zika syndrome. Methods This is a cross-sectional study that evaluated hearing and language skills in the first year of life of 88 children with normal peripheral hearing and confirmed congenital Zika syndrome. All children were submitted to a behavioral auditory test and a validated questionnaire addressed to parents or caregivers, which was used as an instrument for assessing hearing and communicative skills. Results The delay in communicative skills was present in 87.5% of the children, while 44.3% of them demonstrated a delay in hearing acuity. Only the alteration of cervical motor control presented as a statistically significant association with delays in both skills (p-value = 0.006 and <.001 for hearing and communicative skills, respectively), while the presence of microcephaly and the degree of its severity were only associated with delayed development of communicative skills. Conclusion Despite a normal peripheral auditory system, children with congenital Zika syndrome may demonstrate delayed language development by having neurological damage at the center of auditory processing, requiring more specific studies to clarify language acquisition in this population.


Resumo Introdução A microcefalia é reconhecida como uma das principais consequências da síndrome congênita do Zika, mas outros problemas graves, como hipertonia global, irritabilidade, choro excessivo, distúrbios da deglutição, convulsões, deficiência visual e perda auditiva neurossensorial, foram identificados como associados à síndrome. Objetivo Descrever as características do desenvolvimento das habilidades auditivas e de linguagem no primeiro ano de vida de crianças com limiares auditivos normais e síndrome congênita do Zika. Método Estudo transversal que avaliou habilidades auditivas e de linguagem no primeiro ano de vida de 88 crianças com audição periférica normal e síndrome congênita do Zika confirmada. Todas as crianças foram submetidas a um teste auditivo comportamental e um questionário validado foi endereçado aos pais ou cuidadores e usado como instrumento para avaliar as habilidades auditivas e de comunicação. Resultados O atraso nas habilidades de comunicação estava presente em 87,5% das crianças, enquanto 44,3% delas apresentaram atraso nas habilidades auditivas. Somente a alteração do controle motor cervical apresentou associação estatisticamente significante com atrasos nas duas habilidades (valor de p = 0,006 e < 0,001 para habilidades auditivas e de comunicação, respectivamente), enquanto a presença de microcefalia e o grau de sua gravidade foram associados apenas ao atraso no desenvolvimento das habilidades de comunicação. Conclusão Apesar de um sistema auditivo periférico normal, crianças com síndrome congênita do Zika podem apresentar atraso no desenvolvimento da linguagem por apresentarem danos neurológicos no centro do processamento auditivo, exige estudos mais específicos para esclarecer a aquisição da linguagem nessa população.

13.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(2): 142-146, Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365338

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The vast majority of patients who hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 are given empirical antibiotic therapy. However, information on the frequency, microorganism species, and resistance rates of secondary bacterial infections in coronavirus disease 2019 patients are insufficient. We aimed to show the frequency of secondary infections and resistance conditions in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 hospitalized in the intensive care unit. METHODS: The results of tracheal aspirate culture, blood culture, and urine culture obtained from coronavirus disease 2019 patients - at least 2 days after their admission to the intensive care unit - were examined microbiologically. RESULTS: A total of 514 patients hospitalized in intensive care unit were included in our study. Tracheal aspirate, blood, or urine cultures were collected from 369 patients (71.8%). Bacterial reproduction was detected in at least one sample in 171 (33.3%) of all patients. The rate of respiratory tract infection and/or bloodstream infection was found to be 21%. Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in tracheal aspirate culture; Coagulase-negative staphylococci, K. pneumoniae, and A. baumannii in blood culture; and Escherichia coli, K. pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecalis in urine culture were the most common microorganisms. A. baumannii was resistant to most antibiotics except colistin and P. aeruginosa strains were resistant to most antibiotics except amikacin, colistin, cefepime, and imipenem. In K. pneumoniae, the highest meropenem sensitivity (73%) was observed; there was a strong resistance to most of the remaining antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: We think that our study can be useful in choosing empirical antibiotic therapy in the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and reducing the mortality that may occur with secondary infection.

14.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(1): 13-19, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365547

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) after off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) grafting surgery. Methods: A total of 8,442 patients undergoing OPCAB from April 1, 2009 to December 31, 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 956 were eventually enrolled on this study based on our exclusion criteria. All subjects were divided into two groups: group 1 (n=63) - DSWI; group 2 (n=893) - without DSWI. Patients were excluded if they had one of the following: acute coronary syndrome, conversion to OPCAB grafting surgery, redo procedure, concomitant cardiac surgery procedures. Results: The prevalence of body mass index (BMI) ≥40 kg/m2 (7.9% vs. 1.9%, respectively; P=0.01), lower extremity atherosclerotic artery disease (23.8% vs. 7.2%, respectively; P=0.001) and use of bilateral internal thoracic artery (19.5% vs. 2.5%, respectively; P=0.008) was significantly higher in patients with DSWI. The incidence of morbidities, including reoperation for bleeding (26.4% vs. 2.1%, respectively; P<0.001), stroke (4.8% vs. 0.8%, respectively; P=0.02), acute renal failure (7.9% vs. 0.8%, respectively; P=0.001), delirium (7.9% vs. 1.7%, respectively; P=0.008) and blood transfusion (30.6% vs. 9.8%, respectively; P<0.001) was significantly higher in patients with DSWI. Conclusions: A BMI of >40 kg/m2, lower extremity artery disease, use of bilateral internal thoracic artery (BITA) graft, postoperative stroke, sepsis, reoperation due to postoperative complications and blood product requirement significantly increased the risk of sternal infection after OPCAB.

15.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 44: e54648, Jan. 14, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363590

ABSTRACT

Healthcare services must be guided by biosafety practices and microbial control. This control is highly influenced by humidity, which directly impacts the maintenance of sterility of the materials used in the appointments. High concentration of moisture, in the form of aerosol, splashes and spills, is caused during dental care. During the COVID-19 times the contamination by aerosol and droplets worries greatly. Considering that it could cause harm to the sterility of an autoclaved material, especially in dental environments, the objective was to evaluate the behavior of SMS sterilization packages (Spunbonded / Meltblown / Spunbonded) against microbial penetration in an aqueous vehicle. SMS of three brands were challenged, equally divided into two groups: virgin and processed (subjected to a single autoclaving cycle). Each specimen was aseptically deposited on Macconkey agar. Subsequently, 5 µL of Escherichia coliATCC 25922 saline solution [108CFU mL-1] was deposited in center of the SMS specimen and the dish incubated at36°C/ 48h. Reading was performed by the presence or absence of bacterial growth typical of the species under the SMS, observed on the back of Petri dish. The lowest penetration rate observed was 60% for one of the brands in the virgin condition, and 75% for two brands in the processed condition. Statistical analysis showed an association between bacterial penetration and the evaluated group, this association being valid only in the virgin condition. The different SMS behave similarly in terms of resistance to bacterial penetration after being processed. The data show that moisture can assist in bacterial transport through sterilized SMS. Therefore, SMS packages are not able to prevent bacterial penetration, and possibly other microorganisms, when in aqueous vehicles, offering a potential risk of breaking the aseptic chain. Thus, care must be taken in routines for handling and storage sterile packaging.

16.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 44(1): 32-39, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364905

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Invasive fungal diseases represent important causes of morbidity and mortality among pediatric oncohematological patients. Acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis is a rare and aggressive disease that occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients. The mortality rate is high and therefore, accurate and early diagnosis is essential. Objectives The aim of this study was to describe the frequency of acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis among pediatric oncohematological patients and characterize them with confirmed diagnoses. Methods This was a retrospective study that analyzed the medical records of pediatric patients diagnosed with oncohematological diseases and suspected fungal infections, who were included after obtaining informed consent, from January to December 2017, in the pediatric unit of a tertiary university hospital. Data collected from medical record analysis included the following: underlying diagnosis, absolute neutrophil count, clinical presentation, culture and biopsy results, surgical procedures performed, survival and mortality. Results A total of 27 patients were evaluated, with three suspected cases of acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. Histopathological and microbiological analyses confirmed two cases. In both cases, the pathogen isolated in the culture was Fusarium sp. The two confirmed cases were female, aged 12 and 14 years, both with an absolute neutrophil count of 10 cells/μL. The underlying disease of the first patient was acute myeloid leukemia (subtype M5), whereas the second patient presented idiopathic bone marrow aplasia. Conclusion Both confirmed cases of acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis presented with constitutional symptoms and signs of nasal and sinusital inflammation. This demonstrates the importance of fever as a symptom in immunocompromised patients and it should prompt otorhinolaryngological investigation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Fusariosis , Invasive Fungal Infections , Hematologic Diseases , Sinusitis , Febrile Neutropenia , Fusarium
17.
Odontol. sanmarquina (Impr.) ; 25(1): e20982, ene.-mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish, English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358548

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El presente artículo resume las recomendaciones basadas en evidencias de la guía de práctica clínica (GPC) para el tratamiento de los pacientes con infecciones odontogénicas (absceso dentoalveolar, celulitis facial y absceso cervicofacial) en el Seguro Social de Salud del Perú (EsSalud). Objetivo. Brindar recomendaciones clínicas basadas en evidencia para el tratamiento de pacientes con infecciones odontogénicas en EsSalud. Métodos. Se conformó un grupo elaborador de la guía (GEG) que incluyó cirujanos dentistas, especialistas y metodólogos. El GEG formuló cuatro preguntas clínicas a ser respondidas en la presente GPC. Se realizó búsquedas sistemáticas de revisiones sistemáticas y cuando fue considerado pertinente­ estudios primarios en PubMed y CENTRAL durante el año 2019. Se seleccionó la evidencia para responder cada una de las preguntas clínicas planteadas. La certeza de la evidencia fue evaluada usando la metodología Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE). En reuniones de trabajo periódicas, el GEG usó la metodología GRADE para revisar la evidencia y formular las recomendaciones, los puntos de buena práctica clínica y el flujo- grama de tratamiento. Finalmente, la GPC fue aprobada con Resolución N° 067­IET- SI-ESSALUD-2020. Resultados. La presente GPC abordó cuatro preguntas clínicas, divididas en dos temas: manejo farmacológico y manejo quirúrgico de las infecciones odontogénicas. En base a dichas preguntas se formularon seis recomendaciones fuertes, dos recomendaciones condicionales, 11 puntos de buena práctica clínica, y un flujograma. Conclusión. El presente artículo resume la metodología y las conclusiones basadas en evidencias de la GPC para tratamiento de las infecciones odontogénicas (absceso dentoalveolar, celulitis facial y absceso cervicofacial) en EsSalud.


Introduction. This article summarizes the evidence-based recommendations of the clinical practice guide (CPG) for the treatment of patients with odontogenic infections (dentoalveolar abscess, facial cellulitis and cervicofacial abscess) in the Social Security of Health of Peru (EsSalud). Objective. To provide evidence-based clinical recommendations for the treatment of patients with odontogenic infections in EsSalud. Methods. A guideline development group (GEG) was formed that included dental surgeons, specialists, and methodologists. The GEG formulated four clinical questions to be answered in this CPG. We conducted systematic searches for systematic reviews and when deemed relevant - primary studies in PubMed and CENTRAL during 2019. The evidence was selected to answer each of the clinical questions posed. The certainty of the evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. In periodic work meetings, the GEG used the GRADE methodology to review the evidence and formulate the recommendations, the points of good clinical practice and the treatment flow chart. Finally, the CPG was approved with Resolution No. 067 ­ IETSI-ESSALUD-2020. Results. This CPG addressed four clinical questions, divided into two topics: pharmacological management and surgical management of odontogenic infections. Based on these questions, six strong recommen- dations were formulated, two conditional recommendations, 11 points of good clinical practice, and a flow chart. Conclusion. This article summarizes the methodology and evidence-based conclusions of the CPG for the treatment of odontogenic infections (dentoalveolar abscess, facial cellulitis and cervicofacial abscess) in EsSalud.

18.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1362835

ABSTRACT

Background: Since its discovery in late 2019, COVID-19 has claimed approximately three million lives worldwide, causing a significant economic burden and strain on health care delivery and services. Therefore, the COVID-19 vaccine may offer the potential to promote global recovery. Objective: To determine the acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine among Nigerian doctors and the factors influencing the acceptance. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, an anonymous online survey was administered to medical doctors across the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria between 13 January and 31 January 2021, using the health belief model (HBM). Results: Out of 830 respondents, 38.8% were willing to take the COVID-19 vaccine, 36.0% were unsure, while the remaining 26.5% refused to take the vaccine. Following adjustments, males were more likely to take the vaccine (OR = 3.357; 95% CI 2.009-5.610; p = 0.0001), whereas increasing age, higher perceived viral virulence and perceived viral infectivity were observed to be significantly associated with less likelihood of accepting the vaccine. Respondents who believed in the efficacy of ivermectin were much less likely to receive the vaccine (OR = 0.217; 95% CI 0.108-0.436; p=0.001). Concerns on vaccination safety were the main barriers to vaccine acceptability. Hypothetically addressing these concerns increased vaccine acceptance rates by approximately a third (34.6%) (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The proposed nationwide distribution of the COVID-19 vaccine may be met with poor vaccine acceptability among Nigerian medical practitioners. Measures specifically addressing vaccine safety concerns should be provided to allay fears and enhance the acceptability of the vaccine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Physicians , Medication Adherence , COVID-19 Vaccines , Mass Vaccination
19.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1362841

ABSTRACT

Background:Healthcare workers have a higher risk of SARS CoV2 infection with implications for transmission of infection and the safety of workers and patients. Objective: To assess knowledge on COVID-19 and the safety practices among selected healthcare workers in southwest Nigeria. Methods:A cross-sectional study of 210 workers providing direct care to patients during the COVID-19 pandemic was conducted. Respondents wererecruited through simple random sampling of members of online platforms of healthcare workers in Osun, Ondo and Ekiti States. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge of PPE and safety practices was obtained through a close-ended questionnaire. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 36.5±7.5 years. About 29% and 30% of respondents were from the State and Federal Government-owned Teaching Hospitals, respectively. A little above half (58.1%) had good knowledge of COVID-19, while 62.1%used PPE always when attending to suspected COVID19 cases. More than half (53.8%) had been trained on infection prevention and control (IPC), but only 34.3% adhered to good safety practices. Healthcare workers in State government-owned teaching hospitals had lower odds of good safety practices than those in Federal Teaching Hospitals (OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.19-0.93, p = 0.031).Conclusion: The knowledge of appropriate PPE and practice of safety precautions among healthcare workers is sub-optimal. This may predispose to increased COVID-19 transmission among healthcare workers, patients, and their families. Training and retraining healthcare workers, especially those from hospitals identified by the study as having poor safety practices, should be encouraged.


Subject(s)
Knowledge , Disease Prevention , Personal Protective Equipment , COVID-19 , Equipment Safety
20.
S. Afr. med. j ; 112(2): 96-101, 2022.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1358378

ABSTRACT

Background. Better integration of HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention and treatment services is needed to accelerate progress towards the goal of zero new HIV infections. Objectives. To describe HIV positivity, antiretroviral therapy (ART) use, viral suppression and recency of HIV infection among symptomatic STI service attendees at two primary care clinics in South Africa. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, male and female STI service attendees presenting with symptoms consistent with STI syndromes were enrolled following informed consent. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was completed and appropriate genital and blood specimens were collected for STI testing and HIV biomarker measurements including recency of infection and antiretroviral (ARV) drug levels. Descriptive statistics were used to describe enrolled attendees, and to determine the proportion of attendees who were HIV-positive, recently infected, taking ART and virally suppressed. HIV-positive attendees with detectable ARVs were considered to be on ART, while those with viral loads (VLs) ≤200 copies/mL were considered virally suppressed. Results. Of 451 symptomatic attendees whose data were analysed, 93 (20.6%) were HIV-positive, with 15/93 (16.1%) being recently infected. Recent infection was independently associated with genital ulcer disease at presentation, especially ulcers with no detectable STI pathogens. Among the 78 (83.9%) with long-term infection, only 30 (38.5%) were on ART, with 23/30 (76.7%) virally suppressed. Conclusions. In a population at risk of HIV transmission, there was a high burden of recent infection and unsuppressed VLs. Incorporating pre-exposure prophylaxis, ART initiation and adherence support into STI services will be necessary for progress towards eliminating HIV transmission


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Viral Load , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , HIV Seropositivity
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