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Chinese Journal of Blood Transfusion ; (12): 967-970, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1004734


Massive transfusion protocol (MTP) is a programmatic procedure for massive blood transfusions, which is an important means of patient blood management (PBM) for trauma and massive hemorrhage patients. MTP can be initiated in a variety of modes, including the McLaughlin, ABC and TASH scoring systems and the mode depending on the patient′s hemorheology. After MTP has been activated, blood components should be injected as soon as possible. Generally, red blood cells should be injected first, followed by plasma and platelets injected proportionally. MTP should be based on good damage control measures and good hemostatic treatment, and should try to avoid the waste of blood components.This article reviews the progress of research on MTP in the above aspects.

Rev. méd. Urug ; 39(2): e401, 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1508724


La transfusión masiva plantea desafíos clínicos, organizacionales y logísticos para el personal de la salud en general y los servicios de Medicina Transfusional en particular. No existe una definición universalmente aceptada de transfusión masiva, las definiciones más comúnmente utilizadas se basan en el número de unidades de sangre administradas dentro de un cierto período de tiempo. La mayoría de los eventos de transfusión masiva ocurren en el contexto de hemorragias graves en pacientes quirúrgicos, politraumatizados, con hemorragia gastrointestinal u obstétrica. La reanimación de control de daños y los protocolos de transfusión masiva son las estrategias más utilizadas actualmente para el tratamiento inicial, seguidas de un tratamiento personalizado, dirigido por objetivos, mediante la monitorización de la coagulación en tiempo real mediante estudios viscoelásticos. Existen una serie de controversias alrededor del tratamiento óptimo, incluyendo el uso de sangre total, la relación de hemocomponentes a utilizar, el uso de concentrados de factores de la coagulación, y la indicación óptima del ácido tranexámico. El estudio de los productos ideales para el tratamiento de los pacientes con sangrado masivo se ha convertido en un área de gran interés de la investigación científica. El contexto clínico en el que ocurrió el evento hemorrágico, el número de hemocomponentes transfundidos, la edad del paciente y las comorbilidades son los predictores más importantes de la sobrevida a corto y largo plazo. Esta revisión narrativa explora el estado actual del conocimiento sobre la transfusión masiva, así como los avances que podemos esperar en el futuro cercano.

Massive transfusion poses clinical, organizational and logistic challenges for the health staff in general, and the Transfusion Medicine Services in particular. There is no universally accepted definition for massive transfusion, the most widely used being based on the number of blood units administered in a certain period of time. Most massive transfusion events occur in the context of severe hemorrhage on surgical or multiple-trauma patients or patients with gastrointestinal or obstetric bleeding. Today, damage control resuscitation and massive transfusion protocols are the most common strategies for initial treatment, followed by personalized therapy, goal-directed, my means of monitoring coagulation in real time with viscoelastic studies. There are disputes as to the best surgical treatment, including using whole blood, the relation of blood components to be used, the use of coagulation factor concentrates and the optimal indication of tranexamic acid. The study of ideal products to treat patients with massive hemorrhage has become an area of great interest for scientific research. The clinical context of the hemorrhagic event, the number of blood components transfused, patient's age and comorbilities are the most important predictors for survival in the short and long term. This narrative review explores the current state of affairs on knowledge about massive transfusion, as well as progress to be expected in the near future.

A transfusão maciça apresenta desafios clínicos, organizacionais e logísticos para o pessoal de saúde em geral e para os serviços de Medicina Transfusional em particular. Não existe uma definição universalmente aceita de transfusão maciça; as definições mais comumente usadas são baseadas no número de unidades de sangue administradas em um determinado período de tempo. A maioria dos eventos de transfusão maciça ocorre no contexto de sangramento maior em pacientes cirúrgicos, politraumatizados, com sangramento gastrointestinal ou obstétrico. Atualmente, a ressuscitação para controle de danos e os protocolos de transfusão maciça são as estratégias mais usadas para o tratamento inicial, seguidos por tratamento personalizado e orientado por objetivos usando monitoramento de coagulação em tempo real usando testes viscoelásticos. Há uma série de controvérsias em torno do tratamento ideal, incluindo o uso de sangue total, a proporção de componentes sanguíneos a serem usados, o uso de concentrados de fator de coagulação e a indicação ideal de ácido tranexâmico. O estudo dos produtos ideais para o tratamento de pacientes com sangramento maciço tornou-se uma área de grande interesse na pesquisa científica. O contexto clínico em que ocorreu o evento hemorrágico, o número de hemocomponentes transfundidos, a idade do paciente e as comorbidades são os preditores mais importantes de sobrevida a curto e longo prazo. Esta revisão narrativa explora o estado atual do conhecimento sobre transfusão maciça, bem como os avanços que podemos esperar no futuro próximo.

Blood Transfusion/standards , Clinical Protocols
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 261-266, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691018


<p><b>PURPOSE</b>To evaluate massive transfusion protocol practices by trauma type at a level I trauma center.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A retrospective analysis was performed on a sample of 76 trauma patients with MTP activation between March 2010 and January 2015 at a regional trauma center. Patient demographics, transfusion practices, and clinical outcomes were compared by type of trauma sustained.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Penetrating trauma patients who required MTP activation were significantly younger, had lower injury severity score (ISS), higher probability of survival (POS), decreased mortality, and higher Glasgow Coma scale (GCS) compared to blunt trauma patients. Overall, the mortality rate was 38.16%. The most common injury sustained among blunt trauma patients was head injury (36.21%), whereas the majority of the penetrating trauma patients sustained abdominal injuries (55.56%). Although the admission coagulation parameters and timing of coagulopathy were not significantly different between the two groups of patients, a significantly higher proportion of penetrating trauma patients received high plasma content therapy relative to blunt trauma patients (p < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Despite the use of the same MTP for all injured patients requiring massive transfusion, significant differences existed between blunt trauma patients and penetrating trauma patients. These differences in transfusion characteristics and outcomes following MTP activation underscore the complexity of implementing MTPs and warrant vigilant transfusion practices to improve outcomes in trauma patients.</p>

Singapore medical journal ; : 238-241, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296424


<p><b>INTRODUCTION</b>Massive transfusion protocol (MTP) is increasingly used in civilian trauma cases to achieve better haemostatic resuscitation in patients requiring massive blood transfusions (MTs), with improved survival outcomes. However, in non-trauma patients, evidence for MTP is lacking. This study aims to assess the outcomes of a newly established MTP in a civilian setting, for both trauma and non-trauma patients, in an acute surgical care unit.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A retrospective cohort analysis was performed on 46 patients for whom MTP was activated in Changi General Hospital, Singapore. The patients were categorised into trauma and non-trauma groups. Assessment of Blood Consumption (ABC) score was used to identify MTP trauma patients and analyse over-activation rates.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Only 39.1% of all cases with MTP activation eventually received MTs; 39.8% of the MTs were for non-trauma patients. Mean fresh frozen plasma to packed red blood cells (pRBC) ratio achieved with MTP was 0.741, while mean platelet to pRBC ratio was 0.213. The 24-hour mortality rate for all patients who received an MT upon MTP activation was 33.3% (trauma vs. non-trauma group: 45.5% vs. 14.3%). The ABC scoring system used for trauma patients had a sensitivity and specificity of 81.8% and 41.2%, respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>MTP may be used for both trauma and non-trauma patients in acute care surgery. Scoring systems to predict the need for an MT, improved compliance to predefined transfusion ratios and regular reviews of the MTP are necessary to optimise MTPs and to improve the outcomes of patients receiving MTs.</p>

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Blood Transfusion , Methods , Emergency Medicine , Methods , Health Services , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Plasma , Resuscitation , Methods , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Singapore , Treatment Outcome , Wounds and Injuries , Therapeutics
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 60-63, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-173767


The number of massive transfusions for pediatric patients has risen owing to the increasing number of complex surgeries and trauma centers. However, as there are only a few studies on pediatric massive transfusion, adult massive transfusion protocols are used for pediatric patients in many hospitals and institutions. Although massive transfusion protocols would improve the outcomes and reduce the received blood products during transfusion, pediatric patients differ from adults in the tolerability to transfusion, incidence of coagulopathy, and mechanisms of injuries. Therefore clinical physicians have requested for a pediatric massive transfusion protocol. Herein, we reviewed pediatric massive transfusion protocols that have been used in various clinical settings. To date, only a few single-center studies with a small number of pediatric patients have been performed. Even though these studies did not show improvement in outcomes such as mortality and side effects, they reported a short preparation time for fresh frozen plasma products and a low coagulopathy rate in pediatric massive transfusion groups. Therefore, large, prospective, multicenter studies are needed to identify the empiric ratio of blood products for improving outcomes of pediatric patients who need massive transfusion.

Adult , Humans , Incidence , Mortality , Plasma , Prospective Studies , Trauma Centers