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Journal of the Philippine Medical Association ; : 135-140, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006376


@#Massive intra operative bloodloss require sex pectant measures, efficient coordination among providers, and timely feedback to optimize outcomes. In the Philippines, case reports on massive blood loss and transfusion are lacking. This report describes a 67-year-old female who underwent elective adrenalectomy, nephrectomy, and hepaticresection, with a total intraoperative blood loss of 20 liters in a 13-hour surgery. Efficient conduct of the institution's massive transfusion protocol, multiple press or support, electrolyte and glucose correction, and anticipatory management of associated complications of hypovolemia and transfusion were important elements to successful management. The patient tolerated the surgery and was discharged well after 12 days. In theabsence of more sophisticated monitoring and management options in a low-resource setting, maximizing available means and anticipatory interventions is key.

Chinese Journal of Blood Transfusion ; (12): 967-970, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1004734


Massive transfusion protocol (MTP) is a programmatic procedure for massive blood transfusions, which is an important means of patient blood management (PBM) for trauma and massive hemorrhage patients. MTP can be initiated in a variety of modes, including the McLaughlin, ABC and TASH scoring systems and the mode depending on the patient′s hemorheology. After MTP has been activated, blood components should be injected as soon as possible. Generally, red blood cells should be injected first, followed by plasma and platelets injected proportionally. MTP should be based on good damage control measures and good hemostatic treatment, and should try to avoid the waste of blood components.This article reviews the progress of research on MTP in the above aspects.

Chinese Journal of Blood Transfusion ; (12): 1123-1127, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003947


【Objective】 To analyze the value of plasmin-α2-plasmin inhibitor complex (PIC) and thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) for risk stratification of massive transfusion (MT) in patients with postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). 【Methods】 Clinical data and blood samples of patients with PPH in our hospital from January 2019 to December 2022 were retrospectively analyzed. MT (MT group, n=60) was defined as transfusion of red blood cells≥10 U within 24 h after delivery, and 3.25 ng/mL and PIC level>1.04 μg/mL were independent risk factors for MT after PPH. 【Conclusion】 Elevated TAT and PIC levels are independent predictors of MT in patients with PPH, and their combined predictive efficacy is better.

Rev. méd. Urug ; 39(2): e401, 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1508724


La transfusión masiva plantea desafíos clínicos, organizacionales y logísticos para el personal de la salud en general y los servicios de Medicina Transfusional en particular. No existe una definición universalmente aceptada de transfusión masiva, las definiciones más comúnmente utilizadas se basan en el número de unidades de sangre administradas dentro de un cierto período de tiempo. La mayoría de los eventos de transfusión masiva ocurren en el contexto de hemorragias graves en pacientes quirúrgicos, politraumatizados, con hemorragia gastrointestinal u obstétrica. La reanimación de control de daños y los protocolos de transfusión masiva son las estrategias más utilizadas actualmente para el tratamiento inicial, seguidas de un tratamiento personalizado, dirigido por objetivos, mediante la monitorización de la coagulación en tiempo real mediante estudios viscoelásticos. Existen una serie de controversias alrededor del tratamiento óptimo, incluyendo el uso de sangre total, la relación de hemocomponentes a utilizar, el uso de concentrados de factores de la coagulación, y la indicación óptima del ácido tranexámico. El estudio de los productos ideales para el tratamiento de los pacientes con sangrado masivo se ha convertido en un área de gran interés de la investigación científica. El contexto clínico en el que ocurrió el evento hemorrágico, el número de hemocomponentes transfundidos, la edad del paciente y las comorbilidades son los predictores más importantes de la sobrevida a corto y largo plazo. Esta revisión narrativa explora el estado actual del conocimiento sobre la transfusión masiva, así como los avances que podemos esperar en el futuro cercano.

Massive transfusion poses clinical, organizational and logistic challenges for the health staff in general, and the Transfusion Medicine Services in particular. There is no universally accepted definition for massive transfusion, the most widely used being based on the number of blood units administered in a certain period of time. Most massive transfusion events occur in the context of severe hemorrhage on surgical or multiple-trauma patients or patients with gastrointestinal or obstetric bleeding. Today, damage control resuscitation and massive transfusion protocols are the most common strategies for initial treatment, followed by personalized therapy, goal-directed, my means of monitoring coagulation in real time with viscoelastic studies. There are disputes as to the best surgical treatment, including using whole blood, the relation of blood components to be used, the use of coagulation factor concentrates and the optimal indication of tranexamic acid. The study of ideal products to treat patients with massive hemorrhage has become an area of great interest for scientific research. The clinical context of the hemorrhagic event, the number of blood components transfused, patient's age and comorbilities are the most important predictors for survival in the short and long term. This narrative review explores the current state of affairs on knowledge about massive transfusion, as well as progress to be expected in the near future.

A transfusão maciça apresenta desafios clínicos, organizacionais e logísticos para o pessoal de saúde em geral e para os serviços de Medicina Transfusional em particular. Não existe uma definição universalmente aceita de transfusão maciça; as definições mais comumente usadas são baseadas no número de unidades de sangue administradas em um determinado período de tempo. A maioria dos eventos de transfusão maciça ocorre no contexto de sangramento maior em pacientes cirúrgicos, politraumatizados, com sangramento gastrointestinal ou obstétrico. Atualmente, a ressuscitação para controle de danos e os protocolos de transfusão maciça são as estratégias mais usadas para o tratamento inicial, seguidos por tratamento personalizado e orientado por objetivos usando monitoramento de coagulação em tempo real usando testes viscoelásticos. Há uma série de controvérsias em torno do tratamento ideal, incluindo o uso de sangue total, a proporção de componentes sanguíneos a serem usados, o uso de concentrados de fator de coagulação e a indicação ideal de ácido tranexâmico. O estudo dos produtos ideais para o tratamento de pacientes com sangramento maciço tornou-se uma área de grande interesse na pesquisa científica. O contexto clínico em que ocorreu o evento hemorrágico, o número de hemocomponentes transfundidos, a idade do paciente e as comorbidades são os preditores mais importantes de sobrevida a curto e longo prazo. Esta revisão narrativa explora o estado atual do conhecimento sobre transfusão maciça, bem como os avanços que podemos esperar no futuro próximo.

Blood Transfusion/standards , Clinical Protocols
Chinese Journal of Blood Transfusion ; (12): 608-611, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1004217


【Objective】 To explore the effects of massive intraoperative RBC transfusion on multiple clinical test indicators and prognosis of patients, underwent tumor surgery in order to provide evidence for rational blood transfusion and effective intervention of complications caused by massive blood transfusion in tumor patients. 【Methods】 A total of 208 patients who underwent tumor resection in our hospital from January 2019 to December 2020 and received intraoperative RBC transfusion(>10 U) were selected as the study subjects. According to the amount of blood transfusion, they were divided into group A: 10~15 U, 144 patients; Group B: >15~25 U, 48 people; Group C: >25 U, 16 people. Data of liver function, coagulation, electrolyte, platelet count and short-term prognosis were collected and compared among 3 groups before and after surgery. 【Results】 No significant difference was noticed in patient pre-operation variables including ALT (U/L), AST (U/L) and TBIL (μmol/L) among three groups recieved massive blood transfusion (P>0.05), while AST was significantly lower than that after operation (P<0.05) : 105.33±238.18 vs 113.50±185.04 vs 291.25±457.33 (P<0.05). After operation, PT (s) (14.12±2.10, 14.79±2.67 and 16.10±4.06), INR(1.25±0.20, 1.31±0.26 and 1.44±0.38) and APTT (s) (30.52±5.63, 34.57±12.80 and 34.80±10.49) extended significantly than those before operation (P<0.05), while Plt (×109/L) decreased significantly (142.32±70.07, 100.04±57.50 and 85.40±41.10)(P<0.05). After operation, serum K+ and Ca2+ decreased significantly, Na+ and Cl- increased significantly, and pH value decreased (P < 0.05). Hospital stay of group C (d) was 33.73±34.62 vs 17.74±14.83 vs 20.92±17.69 (P<0.05). The mortality rate was 2.8%(4/44) vs 6.3%(3/48) vs 18.8%(3/16)(P<0.05), and mortality rate of group C was higher than the other two groups. 【Conclusion】 Postoperative dysfunction of liver and coagulation in tumor patients may be related to intraoperative RBC transfusions and consequent acid-base imbalance and electrolyte disturbance. The more the units of RBC transfused, the more abnormal the patients' clinical indicators, also the longer the hospital stay and the worse the short-term prognosis.

Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2021. 150 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1381172


As causas externas estão entre os principais motivos de óbito no mundo e, dentre elas, o trauma se destaca por causar óbitos e incapacitações permanentes. A perda sanguínea maciça é a principal causa de morte evitável no trauma. Nos casos de hemorragias volumosas, a transfusão maciça de hemocomponentes pode ser necessária; entretanto aspectos sobre o procedimento são controversos na literatura. No Brasil, estudos sobre a transfusão maciça, ainda que escassos, ressaltam a elevada mortalidade e a necessidade de maior conhecimento de enfermeiros e equipes sobre a transfusão. Assim, este estudo objetivou analisar os aspectos epidemiológicos das transfusões maciças em pacientes vítimas de trauma, em um hospital referência neste tipo de atendimento em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Trata-se de um estudo de coorte não concorrente, em que foram analisados os registros de transfusão maciça de 110 pacientes vítimas de trauma, com idade superior a 18 anos, admitidos no período compreendido entre janeiro de 2019 e junho de 2020. Os dados foram obtidos por meio dos registros da agência transfusional do hospital e dos prontuários dos pacientes. Para a análise, foi empregada a estatística descritiva e inferencial, utilizando frequência simples e acumulada, medidas de tendência central e dispersão, análise de perdas de informações, bem como estatística Kappa, estimativa de incidência, estatística de Kaplan-Meier e teste log-rank. Em 78,18% dos casos houve a ocorrência de trauma contuso, provocado por colisões (40,00%) e atropelamentos (18,18%). O maior número de pacientes era do sexo masculino com mediana da idade de 36,5 anos. As Unidades de Suporte Avançado do Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência conduziram 45,37% das vítimas ao hospital. À admissão, a mediana dos dados dos pacientes indicava alteração do sensório (Escala de Coma de Glasgow 13), pressão arterial sistólica limítrofe (90 mmHg) e taquicardia (110 BPM). Ocorreram 45 óbitos, sendo 19,09% em até 6 horas após a admissão, 12,73% entre 6 e 24 horas e 9,09% após 24 horas da admissão. Infecção, sepse e insuficiência renal aguda foram complicações mais relatadas na internação, sendo os mais acometidos os pacientes vítimas de trauma contuso com traumatismo cranioencefálico. No momento da alta, os pacientes apresentavam alguma limitação, demanda de cuidado ou recomendação de acompanhamento ou nova cirurgia. Em 77,27% dos casos o protocolo de transfusão de emergências foi acionado, e a mediana do tempo entre a admissão e a primeira dispensação de hemocomponente foi de 19 minutos. Índice de choque (com ponto de corte de 0,9) e a escala Assessment of Blood Consumption (com ponto de corte de 2,0) tiveram uma concordância moderada (42,77%/ p<0,001), pelo Teste de Kappa, para predizer a necessidade de transfusão maciça. A incidência de óbitos foi de 40,90%, sendo a densidade para esse grupo de pacientes de 13,57 (10,13-18,17 IC95%) por mil pessoas-dia. A probabilidade de óbitos foi maior entre pacientes que não fizeram uso de plaquetas e ácido tranexâmico, não havendo diferença estatisticamente significativa em relação aos que não usaram tais substâncias. Identificou-se que a probabilidade de óbito dentre os pacientes que fizeram uso de volumes iguais ou superiores a 10 unidades de concentrado de hemácias foi superior àqueles pacientes que usaram volumes menores deste hemocomponente (p <0,05). A análise evidenciou que as vítimas de trauma submetidas à transfusão maciça são homens jovens, com quadro grave e com maior probabilidade de evoluir à óbito quando recebem volumes de concentrado de hemácias superiores a 3000ml. Os resultados fornecem informações que contribuem para a avaliação e acompanhamento destes pacientes, tais como sinais de gravidade e fatores a serem observados em sua evolução e que podem determinar maior probabilidade de óbito. Os dados reforçam, ainda, a importância do cuidado do ambiente pré-hospitalar após a alta.

External causes are among the main reasons off mortality in the world, with trauma accounting for a great number of deaths and permanent disability. Massive blood loss is the leading cause of preventable death in trauma. In cases of massive hemorrhages, massive transfusion of blood components may be necessary, however aspects about this procedure are controversial in the literature. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the epidemiological aspects of massive transfusions in trauma patients admitted in a hospital that is recognized for trauma care in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. This is a non-concurrent cohort study, in which records of massive transfusions of 110 trauma patients aged over 18 years, admitted between january 2019 and june 2020, were analyzed. Data were obtained through the records of the hospital's transfusion agency and the patients' charts. For data analysis, descriptive and inferencial statistics were used, using simple and accumulated frequency, measures of central tendency and dispersion, analysis of information loss, as well as Kappa statistics, incidence estimation and Kaplan-Meier statistics and log-test. rank. In 78.18% of the cases there was the occurrence of blunt trauma, caused by most of the time by collisions (40.00%) and being run over (18.18%). The largest number of patients was male with a median age of 36.5 years. The Advanced Support Units of the Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência, was responsible for 45.37% of transport of the victims to the hospital. At admission, the median of patient data indicated sensory alteration (Glasgow Coma Scale 13), hypotension (90 mmHg) and tachycardia (110 BPM). There were 45 deaths, 19.09% within 6 hours of admission, 12.73% between 6 and 24 hours after admission, and 9.09% after 24 hours of admission. Infection, sepsis, and acute renal failure were the most reported complications during hospitalization, with patients suffering from blunt trauma with traumatic brain injury being the most affected. At the time of discharge, the patients had some limitation, demand for care or recommendation for follow-up or new surgery. In 77.27% of the cases, the emergency transfusion protocol was activated, and the median time between admission and the first dispensing of blood components was 19 minutes. Shock Index (with a cutoff point of 0.9) and the Assessment of Blood Consumption score (with a cutoff point of 2.0) had moderate agreement (42.77%/p<0.001), by the Kappa test, to predict the need for massive transfusion. The incidence density of deaths for this group of patients was 13.57 (10.13-18.17 95%CI) per thousand person-day. The probability of death was higher among patients who did not use platelets and tranexamic acid, with no statistically significant difference compared to those who did not use these substances. It was identified that the probability of death among patients who used volumes equal to or greater than 10 units of packed red blood cells was higher than for those patients who used smaller volumes of this blood component (p < 0.05). The analysis showed that trauma victims submitted to massive transfusiosns are young men, with severe condition and who are more likely to progress to deth when they receive volume of red blood cells greater than 3000ml. The results provide information that contributes to the assessment and follow-up of these patients, as signs of severity and factors to be observed in its evolution, as well as whic can determine a greater probability of death. They reinforce the importance of caring in pre-hospital environment, during hospital care and after discharge.

Wounds and Injuries , Blood Transfusion , Blood Component Transfusion , Shock, Hemorrhagic , Tranexamic Acid , Incidence , Mortality , Academic Dissertation , Emergencies
Rev. méd. Urug ; 37(4): e37406, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1389659


Resumen: Introducción: la enfermedad traumática es un problema de salud mundial. La coagulopatía asociada al trauma (CAT) constituye una complicación grave, multifactorial y de diagnóstico controversial. Objetivos: valorar la incidencia de CAT, los factores asociados a su desarrollo y su asociación con el pronóstico, en una serie de pacientes traumatizados ingresados a la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos de nuestro hospital. Pacientes y métodos: estudio prospectivo de todos los pacientes ingresados con diagnóstico de trauma grave a la UCI. Se definió CAT en base a los parámetros clásicos de laboratorio, por la presencia de al menos uno de: INR mayor a 1,3, plaquetopenia menor a 100.000/mm3, y/o aPTT mayor a 38 segundos. Las variables continuas se expresaron como la media ± desvío estándar. Se realizó análisis de chi cuadrado, test exacto de Fisher y regresión logística binaria para estudiar la asociación entre las variables. Se consideró significativo un valor p < 0,05. Resultados: se analizaron 103 pacientes, con media de edad de 33 años y predominio de sexo masculino. Se encontró CAT en 42 pacientes (40,8%), presentándose al ingreso hospitalario en la mayoría de los casos. Los factores de riesgo asociados a CAT fueron: gravedad al ingreso, shock, hipoperfusión, acidosis, transfusión masiva, sangrado significativo (estudio univariado), así como trauma penetrante y disfunción multiorgánica (estudio multivariado). No se encontró asociación significativa entre CAT y mortalidad. Conclusiones: presentamos el primer reporte de este tema en nuestro medio. En nuestra población la CAT es frecuente y se presenta ya al ingreso hospitalario. Se relaciona con la gravedad y el tipo de trauma. Su diagnóstico precoz es clave en el manejo de los pacientes con trauma grave.

Abstract: Introduction: trauma is a global health problem. Trauma-associated coagulopathy constitutes a severe and multifactorial complication whose diagnosis is controversial. Objectives: to assess the incidence of trauma-associated coagulopathy, the factors associated to the development of this condition and their impact on prognosis in a series of trauma patients admitted into the intensive care unit of our hospital. Method: prospective study of all patients admitted to the ICU with a diagnosis of acute trauma. Trauma-associated coagulopathy was defined according to classical laboratory parameters, when it complies with one of the following: International normalized ratio (INR) greater than 1.3, thrombocytopenia smaller than 100000/mm3, and/or aPTT greater than 38 seconds. Continuous variables were expressed as the average ± standard deviation. The chi square analysis, Fisher exact test and binary logistic regression were performed, p < 0,05 being considered significant. Results: 103 patients were analysed, average age was 33 years old and they were mostly male. Trauma-associated coagulopathy was found in 42 patients (40.8 %), and it was seen in most patients at the time they were hospitalized. Risk factors of trauma-associated coagulopathy were the following: severity upon hospitalization, shock, hypoperfusion, acidosis, massive transfusion, significant bleeding (univariate analysis); penetrating trauma and multi-organ dysfunction (multivariate analysis). No significant association between trauma- associated coagulopathy and mortality was found. Conclusions: the study presents the first report on this topic in our country. Trauma associated coagulopathy is rather common in our population and it is seen upon hospitalization. This condition is related to severity and the kind of trauma. Early diagnosis is essential in the handling of patients with severe trauma.

Resumo: Introdução: as doenças traumáticas são um problema de saúde global. A coagulopatia associada a trauma (TAC) é uma complicação diagnóstica séria, multifatorial e controversa. Objetivos: avaliar a incidência de TAC, os fatores associados ao seu desenvolvimento e sua associação com o prognóstico, em uma série de pacientes com trauma internados na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva do Hospital Maciel em Montevidéu, Uruguai. Pacientes e métodos: estudo prospectivo de todos os pacientes admitidos na UTI com diagnóstico de trauma grave. A TAC foi definida com base nos parâmetros laboratoriais clássicos, pela presença de pelo menos um dos seguintes: coeficiente internacional normalizado - INR maior que 1,3, trombocitopenia menor que 100.000 / mm3 e / ou PTTa maior que 38 segundos. As variáveis contínuas foram expressas como média ± desvio padrão. A análise do qui-quadrado, o teste exato de Fisher e a regressão logística binária foram realizados para estudar a associação entre as variáveis. Um valor de p <0,05 foi considerado significativo. Resultados: foram analisados 103 pacientes, com média de idade de 33 anos e predomínio do sexo masculino. A TAC foi encontrada em 42 pacientes (40,8%), apresentando-se na admissão hospitalar na maioria dos casos. Os fatores de risco associados à TAC foram: gravidade na admissão, choque, hipoperfusão, acidose, transfusão massiva, sangramento significativo (estudo univariado); bem como trauma penetrante e disfunção de múltiplos órgãos (estudo multivariado). Nenhuma associação significativa foi encontrada entre CAT e mortalidade. Conclusões: apresentamos o primeiro relatório sobre o tema em nosso meio. Em nossa população, a TAC é frequente e já está presente na admissão hospitalar. Está relacionado à gravidade e ao tipo de trauma. Seu diagnóstico precoce é fundamental no manejo de pacientes com traumas graves.

Wounds and Injuries/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders , Intensive Care Units
Chinese Journal of Blood Transfusion ; (12): 599-603, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1004492


【Objective】 To evaluate common laboratory items in a large-dose blood loss model in vitro using thromboelastogram (TEG), to provide a reasonable infusion solution for clinical massive transfusions. 【Methods】 On March 2nd, 2017, eight healthy blood donors who participated in voluntary blood donation in the Department of Blood Transfusion Medicine of the First Medical Center of the PLA General Hospital were selected to undergo phlebotomy, and an in vitro dilution model of massive blood loss was established based on the previous research, namely Model 1 (M1, given massive transfusion protocol) and Model 2 (M2, given packed red blood cells and plasma) were established. Then blood routine, routine coagulation function, clotting factor activity, TEG of each model were tested. 【Results】 The platelet count in the M1 model was 61.00±10.24 (×109/L), and reduced to 28.83±10.36(×109/L) in M2 (P<0.01). The MA value (mm) of two groups detected by TEG was 29.35±2.37 vs 20.53± 2.76 (P<0.01). In M1 and M2 model, The activities of primary clotting factors respectively decreased to about 40% and 30% to original in M1 and M2. The R value of TEG prolonged to (6.32±0.85) min and (7.27±0.63) min respectively, still within the normal range(baseline 4.97±1.04). The fibrinogen concentration in the M1 and M2 model decreased to (1.10±0.08) g/L and (0.81±0.10) g/L(P<0.01), which had the same variation tendency to Alpha angle of TEG (25.65±4.95 vs 16.63±3.94, P>0.05). 【Conclusion】 MTP with blood components supplemented such as platelet and cryoprecipitate in time has effectively improved the Plt and Fib in vitro large-dose blood loss/transfusion model.

Pediátr. Panamá ; 49(3): 77-84, December 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177155


La transfusión masiva es la transfusión de más del 50% del volumen sanguíneo total en 3 horas; 100% en 24 horas o reemplazar la pérdida de sangre en curso de más de 10% del volumen sanguíneo total por minuto. Los pacientes pediátricos requieren transfusión masiva en una variedad de entornos. Existen datos limitados para apoyar estrategias óptimas de transfusión masiva en niños, los datos son extrapolados de adultos y no es lo más conveniente, sin embargo alrededor de 15% de los niños la requieren. La evidencia actual sugiere que en centros donde se realizan transfusiones masivas basadas en protocolos, la morbimortalidad es mucho menor.

Massive transfusion is the transfusion of more than 50 % of the total blood volume in 3 h; 100 % in 24 h or to replace the ongoing blood loss of more than 10% total blood volume per minute. Pediatric patients require massive transfusion in a variety of settings. There are limited data to support optimal mass transfusion strategies in children, the data is extrapolated from adults and is not the most convenient, however, about 15% of children require it. Current evidence suggests that in centers where massive protocol-based transfusions are performed, morbidity and mortality is much lower.

Ginecol. obstet. Méx ; 88(10): 675-685, ene. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346148


Resumen OBJETIVO: Determinar la morbilidad y mortalidad debidas a la aplicación de protocolos de transfusión masiva en pacientes con hemorragia obstétrica atendidas en cuidados intensivos. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio de una cohorte retrospectiva de pacientes con hemorragia obstétrica severa atendidas en la unidad de cuidados intensivos obstétricos del Hospital Materno Infantil del Instituto de Seguridad Social del Estado de México y Municipios, entre septiembre de 2014 y mayo de 2019. Se compararon tres protocolos de transfusión masiva en los que se aplicaron los derivados de la sangre en relación con la proporción de concentrado eritrocitario, de plaquetas y plasma con las siguientes proporciones: 2:1:1, 1:1:1 y liberal. Para analizar la posible asociación de las complicaciones con la elección de los diferentes protocolos de transfusión masiva, se utilizó un análisis mediante prueba ANOVA y χ2 en el programa SPSS versión 21; se consideró significativo el valor de p < 0.05. RESULTADOS: Se analizaron 75 pacientes con edad promedio de 32.8 años; 63 eran multigestas. La causa principal de la hemorragia obstétrica fue la atonía uterina. 51 de 75 de los protocolos de transfusión masiva fueron liberales, 11 de ellos con una relación 2:1:1 y 4 de 51 de 1:1:1. Las complicaciones fueron: síndrome de insuficiencia respiratoria aguda, lesión renal aguda, lesión renal aguda originada por la transfusión, infecciones y reintervención quirúrgica. Se encontró asociación positiva con: los días de estancia en cuidados intensivos (p = 0.031), reintervención quirúrgica (p = 0.006) y síndrome de insuficiencia respiratoria aguda (p = 0.044) y los protocolos de transfusión masiva liberal respecto de los protocolos con relación 1:1:1. Solo una paciente falleció y ello se asoció con el protocolo de transfusión masiva liberal. CONCLUSIONES: La aplicación de protocolos de transfusión masiva 1:1:1 y 2:1:1 en pacientes con hemorragia obstétrica severa disminuye el riesgo de complicaciones. La mortalidad materna debido a la aplicación del protocolo de transfusión masiva liberal fue de solo un caso en 51 pacientes.

Abstract OBJECTIVE: To determine the morbidity and mortality due to the application of massive transfusion protocols in patients with obstetric hemorrhage treated in intensive care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: study of a retrospective cohort of patients with severe obstetric hemorrhage treated in the obstetric intensive care unit of the maternal and child hospital of the social Security Institute of the State of Mexico and municipalities, between september 2014 and may 2019. three massive transfusion protocols were compared in which blood derivatives were applied in relation to the ratio of erythrocyte concentrate, platelets and plasma with the following ratios: 2:1:1, 1:1:1 and liberal. to analyze the possible association of complications with the choice of the different mass transfusion protocols, an anova and χ2 test was used in the spss version 21 program; the value of p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Seventy-five patients with a mean age of 32.8 years were analyzed; 63 were multigrafted. The main cause of obstetric bleeding was uterine atony. 51 of 75 of the mass transfusion protocols were liberal, 11 of them with a 2:1:1 ratio and 4 of 51 of 1:1:1. The complications were: acute respiratory failure syndrome, acute renal injury, acute renal injury originated by transfusion, infections and surgical reintervention. Positive association was found with: days of stay in intensive care (p = 0.031), surgical reintervention (p = 0.006) and acute respiratory failure syndrome (p = 0.044) and liberal mass transfusion protocols with respect to 1:1:1 ratio protocols. Only one patient died and this was associated with the liberal mass transfusion protocols. CONCLUSIONS: The application of 1:1:1 and 2:1:1 mass transfusion protocols in patients with severe obstetric hemorrhage decreases the risk of complications. Maternal mortality due to the application of liberal mass transfusion protocols was only one case in 51 patients.

Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-206762


Background: Blood transfusion is a life saving measure. Various pregnancy complications and disorders of labor present as risk factors for extra blood loss during pregnancy and cause severe hemodynamic instability. This along with complications due to abortion (spontaneous or induced) and ruptured ectopic pregnancy show up as conditions needing transfusion in the day-to-day practice of obstetrics. In a country like India, limited and fixed resources of blood, forces us to titrate the use of blood and its components. Normally, blood loss during birth is well-tolerated because of changes during pregnancy.Methods: This is a retrospective observational study done at tertiary care hospital. This study is based on study of indoor patients admitted during one year duration. Detailed history and all necessary investigations were carried out. Details regarding blood transfusion were taken indication of blood transfusion, number and type of unit transfused, number of patients given blood components, indications where single unit was transfused. Analysis of the data was done.Results: Anemia followed by antepartum hemorrhage followed by postpartum hemorrhage was the major cause for blood and blood product transfusion. Approximately 60% patients required two units of PCV (Packed Cell Volume) transfusion. Anemia in pregnancy was the major cause of single unit PCV transfusion.Conclusions: A proper knowledge for blood and blood product transfusion is needed to make it available for people who are actually in need and also to decrease the economic burden. Measures to prevent anemia should be implemented. Active management of third stage of labour (AMTSL) should be done to avoid postpartum hemorrhage. Single unit transfusion should be avoided.

Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 219-222, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771606


PURPOSE@#After damage control surgery, trauma patients are transferred to intensive care units to restore the physiology. During this period, massive transfusion might be required for ongoing bleeding and coagulopathy. This research aimed to identify predictors of massive blood transfusion in the surgical intensive care units (SICUs).@*METHODS@#This is an analysis of the THAI-SICU study which was a prospective cohort that was done in the 9-university-based SICUs in Thailand. The study included only patients admitted due to trauma mechanisms. Massive transfusion was defined as received ≥10 units of packed red blood cells on the first day of admission. Patient characteristics and physiologic data were analyzed to identify the potential factors. A multivariable regression was then performed to identify the significant model.@*RESULTS@#Three hundred and seventy patients were enrolled. Sixteen patients (5%) received massive transfusion in the SICUs. The factors that significantly predicted massive transfusion were an initial sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) ≥9 (risk difference (RD) 0.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03-0.22, p = 0.01); intra-operative blood loss ≥ 4900 mL (RD 0.33, 95% CI: 0.04-0.62, p = 0.02) and intra-operative blood transfusion ≥ 10 units (RD 0.45, 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.84, p = 0.02). The probability to have massive transfusion was 0.976 in patients who had these 3 factors.@*CONCLUSION@#Massive blood transfusion in the SICUs occurred in 5%. An initial SOFA ≥9, intra-operative blood loss ≥4900 mL, and intra-operative blood transfusion ≥10 units were the significant factors to predict massive transfusion in the SICUs.

Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine ; (4): 330-339, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785629


OBJECTIVE: Several scoring systems have been developed to identify patients who require massive transfusion (MT) after major trauma to improve survival. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the usefulness of enhanced computed tomography attenuation values (CTAVs) of major vessels to determine the need for MT in patients with major blunt trauma.METHODS: This single-center retrospective cohort study evaluated patients aged 16 years or older who underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan of the torso after major blunt trauma. The CTAVs of six major vessel points in both the arterial and portal venous phases at initial computed tomography examination were assessed and compared between the MT and the no MT group. The capability of enhanced CTAVs to predict the necessity for MT was estimated based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve.RESULTS: Of the 254 eligible patients, 36 (14%) were in the MT group. Patients in the MT group had significantly higher CTAVs at all sites except the inferior vena cava in both the arterial and portal venous phases than that in the no MT group. The descending aorta in the arterial phase had the highest accuracy for predicting MT, with an AUROC of 0.901 (95% confidence interval, 0.855 to 0.947; P<0.001).CONCLUSION: Initial elevation of enhanced CTAV of the aorta is a predictor for the need for MT. A higher CTAV of the aorta should alert the trauma surgeon or emergency physician to activate their MT protocol.

Humans , Aorta , Aorta, Thoracic , Cohort Studies , Emergencies , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Torso , Vena Cava, Inferior , Wounds and Injuries
Chinese Pediatric Emergency Medicine ; (12): 368-371, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-752905


Hypovolemia is the most common cause of shock in children with multiple trauma. Early detection and treatment of hypovolemia is very important in the process of trauma resuscitation. Compensatory shock occurs when large amounts of blood are lost, and blood pressure is maintained by tachycardia and vas‐oconstriction. Hypobaric shock is characterized by hypotension and tachycardia. The fluid resuscitation of multiple traumas can be divided into two cases, when the bleeding is under control or not under control. In addition,massive transfusion is closely associated with multiple trauma.

Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 368-374, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742546


PURPOSE: After trauma and surgery, upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is the most common condition that can require massive transfusion (MT). The present study aimed to analyze and compare the prognostic performance of the Glasgow-Blatchford (GB), pre-endoscopy Rockall (PER), and modified early warning (MEW) scores for predicting MT in patients with unstable UGIB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective observational study included patients with UGIB from March 2016 to February 2018. Receiver operating characteristics analysis was performed to examine the prognostic performance of the GB, PER, and MEW scoring systems. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for MT, after adjusting for relevant covariates. The primary outcome was MT. RESULTS: Of the 484 included patients with unstable UGIB, 19 (3.9%) received an MT. The areas under the curves (AUCs) of the GB, PER, and MEW scores for MT were 0.577 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.531–0.621], 0.570 (95% CI, 0.525–0.615), and 0.767 (95% CI, 0.727–0.804), respectively. The AUC of the MEW score was significantly different from those of the GB and PER scores. In multivariate analysis, MEW score was independently associated with MT in patients with unstable UGIB (odds ratio, 1.495; 95% CI, 1.100–2.033; p=0.010). CONCLUSION: In unstable UGIB patients, MEW score had the best prognostic performance for MT among three scoring systems.

Humans , Area Under Curve , Emergency Service, Hospital , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Hemorrhage , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Observational Study , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , ROC Curve
Ann Card Anaesth ; 2018 Oct; 21(4): 433-436
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-185767


A 53-year-old female was admitted to the emergency department with an exsanguinating bleed from the rectum which was of unclear origin. In what could be considered an ultramassive transfusion, 60 units packed red blood cells, 23 units fresh frozen plasma, 20 units platelets, 6 units cryoprecipitate, 30 L of crystalloids, 2 L of colloids, and 4 g of tranexamic acid were transfused over the course of 7 h. An arterio-enteric fistula was diagnosed and treated by an interventional radiologist. The patient recovered rapidly thereafter without any major neurologic, pulmonary, cardiac, or hematologic complications.

Korean Journal of Blood Transfusion ; : 253-261, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718920


BACKGROUND: A massive blood transfusion (MT) requires significant efforts by the Blood Bank. This study examined blood product use in MT and emergency O Rh Positive red cells (O RBCs) available directly for emergency patients from the Trauma Center in Ajou University Hospital. METHODS: MT was defined as a transfusion of 10 or more RBCs within 24 hours. The extracted data for the total RBCs, fresh frozen plasma (FFP), platelets (PLTs, single donor platelets (SDP) and random platelet concentrates (PC)) issued from Blood Bank between March 2016 and November 2017 from Hospital Information System were reviewed. SDP was considered equivalent to 6 units of PC. RESULTS: A total of 345 MTs, and 6233/53268 (11.7%) RBCs, 4717/19376 (24.3%) FFP, and 4473/94166 (4.8%) PLTs were used in MT (P < 0.001). For the RBC products in MT and non-MT transfusions, 28.0% and 34.1% were group A; 27.1% and 26.0% were group B; 37.3% and 29.7% were group O, and 7.5% and 10.2% were group AB (P < 0.001). The ratios of RBC:FFP:PLT use were 1:0.76:0.72 in MT and 1:0.31:1.91 in non-MT (P < 0.001). A total of 461 O RBCs were used in 36.2% (125/345) of MT cases and the number of O RBCs transfused per patient ranged from 1 to 18. CONCLUSION: RBCs with the O blood group are most used for MT. Ongoing education of clinicians to minimize the overuse of emergency O RBCs in MT is required. A procedure to have thawed plasma readily available in MT appears to be of importance because FFP was used frequently in MT.

Humans , Blood Banks , Blood Platelets , Blood Transfusion , Education , Emergencies , Hospital Information Systems , Plasma , Tertiary Healthcare , Tissue Donors , Trauma Centers
Korean Journal of Blood Transfusion ; : 262-272, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718919


BACKGROUND: Massive hemorrhage due to trauma is one of the major causes of death in trauma patients, and the quick supply of appropriate blood products is critical in order to reduce the mortality rate. We introduced a massive transfusion protocol (MTP) for safe and rapid transfusion of trauma patients. Using records collected since its adoption, we compared the characteristics of MTP applied group (MTP group) and MTP not applied group (non-MTP group) to determine whether there is an indicator for predicting patients to be treated with MTP. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records and laboratory findings of patients who received massive transfusions in the trauma emergency room of a single tertiary hospital from February to August 2018. We analyzed various laboratory test results, the amount and ratio of the transfused blood products, and the time required for blood products to be released for the MTP group and the non-MTP group. RESULTS: Of the 54 trauma patients who received massive transfusions, 31 were in the MTP group and 22 in the non-MTP group. There was no significant difference in initial vital signs (except blood pressure) and laboratory test results. Also there was no difference in the amount and ratio of blood products, but the time required for blood product release was shorter in the MTP group. CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference in clinical findings such as initial vital signs and laboratory test results between the MTP and non-MTP groups, but required blood products were prepared and released more quickly for the MTP group.

Humans , Cause of Death , Electronic Health Records , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hemorrhage , Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Vital Signs
Korean Journal of Blood Transfusion ; : 130-139, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716149


BACKGROUND: Pretransfusion tests are essential for safe transfusions, but occasionally, part or all can be omitted when a transfusion is needed urgently in an emergency. The purpose of this study was to share the authors' experience of various pretransfusion test protocols in a tertiary referral hospital in Korea. METHODS: From July 2016 to June 2017, all transfusion cases at Samsung Medical Center were analyzed retrospectively. For each pretransfusion test protocol, the parameters regarding issue, return and disposal rate of blood products, occurrence of hemolytic transfusion adverse effect, and prescription frequency of each respective department and ordering site were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 90,539 units of red blood cells, 24,814 units of fresh frozen plasmas, 24,758 units of single donor platelets, and 23,303 units of platelet concentrates were issued during the study period. Among them, 3.6%, 1.8%, 0.3%, and 0.4% of red blood cells, fresh frozen plasmas, single donor platelets, and platelet concentrates were issued according to the emergency transfusion protocols. When various pretransfusion test protocols were applied to issue blood products, there was no case in which an adverse hemolytic transfusion reaction was suspected. When compared with usual pretransfusion test protocol, all emergency transfusion protocols showed significantly higher return and wastage rates in red blood cells and fresh frozen plasmas. Platelets also had a higher return and wastage rate, but the difference was not significant. CONCLUSION: These results suggests that there is no different risk of adverse hemolytic transfusion reaction regardless the pre-transfusion protocols, but management about of the increased rate of return and wastage of blood products in emergency transfusions should be considered.

Humans , Blood Platelets , Emergencies , Erythrocytes , Korea , Plasma , Prescriptions , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Tissue Donors , Transfusion Reaction