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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913071

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the performance of FibroTouch in combination with four hepatic fibrosis biomarkers for assessment of the degree of hepatic fibrosis among patients with chronic schistosomiasis-induced liver disorders. Methods A total of 63 patients with chronic schistosomiasis-induced liver diseases admitted to The Third People’s Hospital of Kunshan City from January to March 2021 were enrolled as the observation group, while 50 healthy volunteers receiving health examinations in the hospital during the study period were randomly selected as the control group. The liver stiffness measurement (LSM) was determined using the FibroTouch technique, and the serum levels of four hepatic fibrosis biomarkers were detected using chemilumi-nescence immunoassay, including type IV collagen (IV-C), type III procollagen (PC-III), hyaluronidase (HA) and laminin (LN). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of LSM and four hepatic fibrosis biomarkers alone and in combination for assessing the degree of hepatic fibrosis among patients with chronic schistosomiasis-induced liver disorders were plotted and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was estimated to examine the value of LSM and four hepatic fibrosis biomarkers alone and in combination for assessing the degree of hepatic fibrosis. Results There were 63 subjects in the observation group, including 28 men and 35 women, and the participants had a mean age of (65.34 ± 12.56) years and a mean body mass index (BMI) of (24.47 ± 11.05) kg/m2. There were 50 subjects in the control group, including 22 men and 28 women, and the participants had a mean age of (64.28 ± 13.10) years and a mean BMI of (25.12 ± 11.64) kg/m2. There were no significant differences between the observation and control groups in terms of gender ratio (χ2 = 0.002, P > 0.05), age (t = 0.437, P > 0.05) or BMI (t = 0.303, P > 0.05). The LSM [(8.65 ± 5.22) vs. (3.24 ± 1.10) kPa; t = 8.013, P < 0.05], IV-C [(51.80 ± 9.45) vs. (30.10 ± 10.34) ng/L; t = 11.506, P < 0.05], PC-III [(77.28 ± 17.22) vs. (48.62 ± 9.54) ng/L; t = 11.224, P < 0.05], HA [(39.55 ± 5.32) vs. (84.89 ± 10.34) ng/L; t = 30.158, P < 0.05] and LN [(99.47 ± 7.37) vs. (61.93 ± 9.80) ng/L; t = 22.496, P < 0.05] were significantly greater in the observation group than in the control group, and Spearman correlation analysis showed that the degree of liver fibrosis positively correlated with LSM (rs = 0.675, P < 0.01), IV-C (rs = 0.421, P < 0.01), PC-III (rs = 0.517, P < 0.01), HA (rs = 0.550, P < 0.01) and LN (rs = 0.539, P < 0.01) among patients with chronic schistosomiasis-induced liver diseases. ROC curve analysis revealed that the AUC of LSM for assessment of the hepatic fibrosis degree was 0.884 (P < 0.001), and the LSM cutoff, sensitivity and specificity were 11.75 kPa, 71.43% and 84.00% at the highest Youden index, respectively. In addition, the AUC of four hepatic fibrosis biomarkers for assessment of the hepatic fibrosis degree was 0.577 to 0.670, with 70.174 to 115.237 ng/L cutoff values, 17.46% to 68.25% sensitivity and 71.01% to 96.00% specificity. In addition, the sensitivity and specificity of LSM combined with four hepatic fibrosis biomarkers were 92.06% and 95.07% for assessment of the hepatic fibrosis degree among patients with chronic schistosomiasis-induced liver diseases. Conclusion FibroTouch in combination with detection of four hepatic fibrosis biomarkers has a high sensitivity and specificity for assessing the degree of hepatic fibrosis among patients with chronic schistosomiasis-induced liver diseases, which deserves widespread clinical uses.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913062

ABSTRACT

Currently, the national schistosomiasis control program of China is moving from transmission control and transmission interruption to elimination; however, there is still a threat of schistosomiasis outbreak in area where the transmission of schistosomiasis has not been interrupted, and in areas where transmission interruption and even elimination have been achieved because of the complex factors relating to schistosomiasis transmission, as well as socioeconomic factors and natural environments, which greatly affects the consolidation of schistosomiasis control outcomes and the achievement of the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in the country. Here, we summarized the outbreaks of schistosomiasis in China during the past six decades, evaluated the impact of schistosomiasis outbreak on the national schistosomiasis control program and proposed management of schistosomiasis outbreak and prevention of schistosomiasis resurgence as the key point and difficulty for schistosomiasis control in the current stage. Improving the surveillance-response mechanisms and minimizing the development of schistosomiasis outbreak and the resultant damages and losses are recommended to provide technical supports for elimination of schistosomiasis in China.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920739

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the dynamic changes of schistosomiasis in Poyang County of Jiangxi Province from 2004 to 2020, so as to provide insight into the development of the schistosomiasis elimination strategy. Methods Schistosomiasis control data were captured from Poyang County from 2004 to 2020, and the epidemiological data of schistosomiasis were collected from national schistosomiasis surveillance sites in Poyang County from 2005 to 2020. The endemic status of schistosomiasis was analyzed in Poyang County from 2004 to 2020, and a Joinpoint regression analysis was performed to investigate the trends of schistosomiasis in Poyang County from 2004 to 2020. Results The sero-prevalence and egg-prevalence of human Schistosoma japonicum infections reduced from 24.39% (24 976/102 397) and 4.53% (259/5 721) in 2004 to 5.37% (2 421/45 100) [annual percent change (APC) = average annual percent change (AAPC) = −8.64%] and 0 (0/3 963) in 2020 (APC = AAPC = −32.07%) in Poyang County, and the trends were both significant (both P < 0.01). The sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections reduced from 1.21% (294/24 332) in bovines in 2013 to 0.58% (35/5 999) in 2020 in Poyang County, with one turning point (AAPC = −8.20%, P > 0.05). There were no townships or villages with emerging snail habitats in Poyang County from 2004 to 2020, and there were three turning points of trend in the proportion of snail areas detected in total snail areas (AAPC = −2.30%, P > 0.01). The sero-prevalence and adjusted prevalence of S. japonicum infections reduced from 60.82% (742/1 220) and 10.16% (124/1 220) in local residents in 2005 to 5.73% (70/1 221) and 0 in 2020 in national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of Poyang County, and the trends for sero-prevalence (APC = AAPC = 17.47%, P < 0.01) and adjusted prevalence of S. japonicum infections (APC = AAPC = −44.92%, P < 0.01) were both statistically significant. S. japonicum infections were identified in 10 (2005) and 2 local livestock (2007), with prevalence of 10.00% (10/100) and 13.33% (2/15), respectively, and S. japonicum infections were detected in snails in 2008 and 2009; however, no positive samples of mixed O. hupensis were detected by loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Conclusions The endemic situation of schistosomiasis control had remarkably reduced in Poyang County from 2004 to 2020; however, there are still challenges for consolidating schistosomiasis control achievements and even elimination of schistosomiasis.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920378

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the schistosomiasis transmission risk after flood disaster in Hubei Province in 2021, so as to provide a scientific basis for schistosomiasis prevention and control in corresponding areas. Methods The data pertaining to the endemic situation of schistosomiasis were collected from Hubei, including oncomelania snail distribution, and humans and livestock schistosomiasis infection. The warning water level and actual water situation were collected in corresponding water areas. The cumulative numbers of S. japonicum egg-positive people and cattle from 2014 to 2020, the distribution area of oncomelania snail in 2020, and the water levels from May 1 to August 31, 2021, were estimated and employed as parameters for classification of schistosomiasis transmission risk. The cumulative value of each risk index was calculated in each epidemic county (city and district) to comprehensively assess the risk of schistosomiasis transmission after flood disaster in each region. Results After the flood disaster in Hubei province in 2021, there were 2 counties (districts) at high risk of schistosomiasis transmission in Hubei based on the single risk index of fecal positive number. Based on comprehensive risk indices, there were 2 counties identified at grade 4 risk of schistosomiasis transmission. Conclusion After the flood in 2021, schistosomiasis in Hubei Province is mainly at low and medium epidemic risk. Xiantao City and Hanchuan City in Hanjiang River Basin are the two most seriously affected schistosomiasis epidemic cities. Flood disasters can increase the risk of schistosomiasis transmission and epidemic, so the monitoring and control of schistosomiasis after flood should be strengthened to control the disease transmission to the maximum extent.

5.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 276-280, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345295

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Hepatoportal sclerosis HPS or obliterative portal venopathy (OPV), one of the differential diagnoses for non-cirrohtic portal hypertension, is characterized by the disappearance of the portal branches, portal and septal fibrosis, perisinusoidal fibrosis and regenerative nodular hyperplasia (RNH). It is a spectral disease that may progress to severe portal hypertension. Its etiopathogenesis is still little understood, especially in Brazil, it has been probably misdiagnosed due to its histopatological similarities with the hepatosplenic form of schistosomiasis. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the profile of patients with HPS in Northeastern Brazil and to demonstrate the pathological characteristics of HPS. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed cases of OPV in liver biopsies and explants from a referral center for liver in Bahia - Brazil. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the portal tracts and liver parenchyma was made so that comparisons could be done among the HPS findings of our population and the findings described by other authors. RESULTS: From the 62 patients identified with HPS, 42% were male, while 58% were female. The average age at diagnosis was 48.3 years. From this group, we analyzed the liver biopsy of 10 patients whose diagnosis of schistosomiasis could be ruled out. From these 100% (10/10) presented dense portal fibrosis and portal venous obliteration. Liver parenchymal atrophy was present in 60% (6/10) of the patients, sinusoidal dilation was present in 30% (3/10), the presence of portal septa occurred in 50% (5/10) and dense portal fibrosis in all patients analyzed. Nodular regenerative hyperplasia was found in 30% (3/10) of the patients. CONCLUSION: HPS seems to be neglected and misdiagnosed in Brazil, due to its similarities with schistossomiasis. In our study dense portal fibrosis, obliteration of the portal vein branches, parenchymal atrophy, sinusoidal dilatation and parenchymal nodular hyperplasia were the main histopathological findings and were similar to that described in other countries.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Esclerose hepatoportal EHP ou venopatia portal obliterativa VPO, um dos diagnósticos diferenciais para a hipertensão portal não cirrótica, é caracterizada pelo desaparecimento dos ramos portais, fibrose portal e septal, fibrose sinusoidal e hiperplasia nodular regenerativa HNR. A EHP é um doença espectral, que pode progredir para hipertensão portal severa. Sua etiopatologia é ainda pouco compreendida, especialmente no Brasil, onde ela é provavelmente subdiagnoticada devido as suas similaridades com a forma hepatoesplênica da esquistossomose. OBJETIVO: Analizar o perfil dos pacientes com EHP no Nordeste do Brasil, e demontrar as características patológicas da EHP. MÉTODOS: Analisamos restrospectivamente os casos de VPO em biópsias hepáticas e explantes de um centro de referência em fígado na Bahia, Brasil. A análise qualiquantitativa dos tratos portais e parênquima hepático foi realizada, permitindo a comparação entre os nossos paciente e os achados descritos por outros autores. RESULTADOS: Entre os 62 paciente identificados com EHP, 42% era do sexo masculino, 58% era do sexo feminino. A média de idade no diagnótico foi 48,3 anos. Desse grupo, analizamos a biópsia hepática de 10 pacientes nos quais o diagnóstico de esquistossomose pode ser excluído. Desses pacientes, 100% 10/10 se apresentou com fibrose portal densa e obliteração venosa portal. Atrofia do perênquima hepático estava presente em 60% 6/10 dos pacientes, dilatação sinusiodal em 30% 3/10 a presença de septos portais ocorreu em 50% 5/10 e fibrose portal densa foi achada em todos os pacientes. Hiperplasia nodular regenerativa foi encontrada em 30% dos pacientes. CONCLUSÃO: A EHP parece ser negligenciada e subdiagnosticada no Brasil, devido as suas similaridades com esquistossomose. Em nosso estudo, fibrose portal densa, obliteração dos ramos da veia porta, atrofia do parênquima, dilatação sinusoidal e hiperplasia nodular do parênquima foram os principais achados histopatológicos e foram semelhantes aos descritos em outros países.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hypertension, Portal/etiology , Hypertension, Portal/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation , Sclerosis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
6.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 37(1,supl.1): 163-168, mayo 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248595

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La esquistosomiasis es una enfermedad parasitaria causada por helmintos del género Schistosoma. La neuroesquistosomiasis es la afectación del sistema nervioso central (SNQ en la esquistosomiasis. Se trata de una afectación grave, infradiagnosticada y potencialmente letal. La verdadera prevalencia de la neuroesquistosomiasis se desconoce y las cifras obtenidas de los diferentes estudios son muy dispares. Los esquistosomas son trema-todos cuyo hábitat principal se ubica en los vasos sanguíneos de los vertebrados. El sistema nervioso central (SNC) puede afectarse en todas las fases de la esquistosomiasis, incluyendo la fase postinfecciosa precoz, el estadio intermedio paucisintomático y los estadios crónicos avanzados. A la fecha no existe consenso respecto al tratamiento de la neuroesquistosomiasis, pero se cuenta con algunas opciones orales y, en algunos casos, el abordaje quirúrgico.


SUMMARY Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by helminths of the genus Schistosoma. Neuroschistosomiasis is the involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) in the schistosomiasis. It is a serious, underdiagnosed, and potentially fatal condition. The true prevalence of neuroschistosomiasis is unknown and the figures obtained from the different studies are very disparate. Schistosomes are trematodes whose main habitat is located in the blood vessels of vertebrates. The central nervous system (CNS) can be affected in all phases of schistosomiasis including the early postinfectious phase, the paucisymptomatic intermediate stage and advanced chronic stages. To date, there is no consensus regarding the treatment of neuroschistosomiasis, but there are some oral options and, in some cases, the surgical approach.

7.
RECIIS (Online) ; 15(1): 201-210, jan.-mar. 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177407

ABSTRACT

O trabalho dos educadores pode ser enriquecido com o uso de recursos pedagógicos importantes no processo de ensino e aprendizagem. Considerando este aspecto, uma animação baseada no livro O feitiço da lagoa, de Virginia Schall, que trata do tema esquistossomose foi construída para estimular o conhecimento sobre a doença entre escolares e exibida para alunos do ensino básico em quatro municípios endêmicos: Jaboticatubas, Malacacheta e Santa Luzia, em Minas Gerais; e João Pessoa, na Paraíba. Após sua exibição, um questionário foi aplicado com a finalidade de verificar a aceitação e o entendimento do material. De acordo com as respostas, o desenho animado apresentou boa aceitação. Todos identificaram a esquistossomose como a doença retratada e o caramujo como o transmissor do esquistossomo. Os resultados apontaram que o desenho pode ser um importante recurso pedagógico no processo educativo, auxiliando os programas de controle da endemia, especialmente quando desenvolvidos no espaço escolar.


The educators' work can be enriched with the use of pedagogical resources which are important in the teaching and learning process. With this aspect in mind, a cartoon with the theme schistosomiasis was created, so as to promote knowledge about the disease among middle school students, and exhibited in four endemic municipalities - Jaboticatubas, Malacacheta and Santa Luzia in the state of Minas Gerais; and João Pessoa in the state of Paraíba. The animation was based on the book O feitiço da lagoa by Virginia Schall and it was shown to students in those four towns. A questionnaire was answered by them after the respective exhibitions in order to verify the acceptance and understanding of the material that was shown. According to the responses, the cartoon presented good acceptance. Everyone identified schistosomiasis as the disease displayed, and the snail that transmits the schistosome. The results showed that the cartoon can be an important pedagogical resource in the educational process, helping endemic control programs, especially when these programs are developed in the school environment.


El trabajo de los educadores puede ser enriquecido con el uso de recursos pedagógicos importantes en el proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje. Considerando este aspecto, un dibujo animado sobre el tema esquistosomiasis fue realizado para estimular el conocimiento, entre estudiantes del ciclo básico, acerca de la enfermedad y exhibido en cuatro municipios endémicos: Jaboticatubas, Malacacheta y Santa Luzia en Minas Gerais; y João Pessoa en Paraíba. La animación fue basada en el libro O feitiço da lagoa de Virginia Schall y fue mostrada a alumnos en las cuatro localidades. Un cuestionario fue aplicado, después de cada proyección, con la finalidad de verificar la aceptación y el entendimiento del material exhibido. De acuerdo con las respuestas, el dibujo tuvo buena aceptación. Todos identificaron la esquistosomiasis como la enfermedad retratada y el caracol como el transmisor del esquistosoma. Los resultados indicaran que el dibujo animado puede ser un importante recurso pedagógico en el proceso educativo, auxiliando a los programas de control de la endemia, especialmente cuando desarrollados en el espacio escolar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Schistosomiasis , Health Education , Education, Primary and Secondary , Educational and Promotional Materials , Health Communication , Brazil , Surveys and Questionnaires , Drawing
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0851, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288085

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Ourinhos is a municipality located between the Pardo and Paranapanema rivers, and it has been characterized by the endemic transmission of schistosomiasis since 1952. We used geospatial analysis to identify areas prone to human schistosomiasis infections in Ourinhos. We studied the association between the sewage network, co-occurrence of Biomphalaria snails (identified as intermediate hosts [IHs] of Schistosoma mansoni), and autochthonous cases. METHODS: Gi spatial statistics, Ripley's K12-function, and kernel density estimation were used to evaluate the association between schistosomiasis data reported during 2007-2016 and the occurrence of IHs during 2015-2017. These data were superimposed on the municipality sewage network data. RESULTS: We used 20 points with reported IH; they were colonized predominantly by Biomphalaria glabrata, followed by B. tenagophila and B. straminea. Based on Gi statistics, a significant cluster of autochthonous cases was superimposed on the Christoni and Água da Veada water bodies, with distances of approximately 300 m and 2200 m from the points where B. glabrata and B. straminea were present, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The residence geographical location of autochthonous cases allied with the spatial analysis of IHs and the coverage of the sewage network provide important information for the detection of human-infection areas. Our results demonstrated that the tools used for direct surveillance, control, and elimination of schistosomiasis are appropriate.

9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0744-2020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155546

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Suckling by schistosomotic mice improves anti-ovalbumin (OA) antibody production, while delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) remains unaffected. This property of milk from schistosomotic mice was investigated in IL-12/IL-23-deficient mice (IL-12p40KO). METHODS We compared anti-OA DTH, IgG2a and cytokines in wild-type and IL-12p40KO mice suckled by infected (SIM) or non-infected (CONTROL) mothers. RESULTS SIM mice showed similar intensity and eosinophils in the DTH, which was abolished in IL-12p40KO and IL-12p40KO-SIM mice. In IL-12p40KO-SIM, IgG2a and TGF-β levels were higher, but IL-6 levels were lower. CONCLUSIONS Milk from schistosomotic mothers may evoke IgG2a without eliciting DTH in IL-12/IL-23 deficiencies, by changing TGF-β/IL-6 levels.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Schistosoma mansoni , Interleukin-12 , Immunoglobulin G , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Interleukin-23 , Mice , Mothers
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904636

ABSTRACT

Praziquantel not only has broad-spectrum anti-trematode and anti-tapeworm effects, but also has pharmacological effects such as regulating inflammatory response and anti-fibrosis. Hereby, the anti-fibrosis effect of praziquantel and its mechanism were reviewed in order to provide theoretical basis for the treatment of liver fibrosis.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904634

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of urban construction projects on Oncomelania snails control in Wuhan City, so as to provide insights into the development of an integrated control strategy for urban schistosomiasis. Methods The data pertaining to the endemic situation of schistosomiasis, schistosomiasis control data, the construction of the Yangtze River Bridge, marshland management and park constructions were collected from Wuhan City from 1990 to 2020. The changes of areas of snail habitats and high-risk settings were compared before and after implementation of these urban construction projects to evaluate the effectiveness of urban construction projects on Oncomelania snails control. Results The number of schistosomiasis cases decreased by 97.35%, and the number of cattle with schistosomiasis decreased by 100% in Wuhan City from 1990 to 2020, with a 41.99% reduction in areas of snail habitats, including 94.97% and 34.40% reductions in snail habitats inside and outside the embankment decreased. During the period from 1990 through 2020, a total of 10 Yangtze River bridges were built in Wuhan City, and areas of snail habitats around the bridges reduced from 11 699.05 hm2 before the bridge building to 8 726.14 hm2 after the building (a 25.41% reduction), while the areas of high-risk settings reduced from 411.69 hm2 before the bridge building to 276.78 hm2 after the building (a 32.77% reduction). Following treatment of three marshlands in Hankou, Hanyang and Wuchang, the areas of snail habitats reduced from 225.80 hm2 before the management to 199.47 hm2 after the management (a 11.66% reduction), and the areas of high-risk settings reduced from 23.14 hm2 before the treatment to 17.73 hm2 after the building (a 23.38% reduction). Following the building of 5 parks in snail-infested settings, the areas of snail habitats reduced from 319.61 hm2 before the construction to 280.80 hm2 after the construction (a 12.14% reduction), and the areas of high-risk settings reduced from 35.00 hm2 before the construction to 27.73 hm2 after the construction (a 20.77% reduction). Conclusion Simultaneous implementation of urban construction projects and schistosomiasis control measures is effective to shrink snail-infested setting and high-risk settings and control the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in endemic foci in Wuhan City.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904632

ABSTRACT

Chengdu-Chongqing economic circle is centered on Chengdu City and Chongqing Municipality, with aims to build the “fourth growth pole” of China’s economy. During this circle, elimination of schistosomiasis had been achieved in 82.5% of the endemic counties (districts) of Sichuan Province, and schistosomiasis is not historically endemic in Chongqing Municipality; however, there is still a risk of schistosmiasis transmission in Sichuan Province and Chongqing Municipality because the natural and social factors affecting schistosomiasis transmission have not been completely eliminated in these areas. Based on the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in Sichuan Province and Chongqing Municipality, we analyzed the opportunities and challenges of schistosomiasis control during the construction of Chengdu-Chongqing economic circle, and proposed the corresponding suggestions, so as to provide insights into the sustainable development of schistosomiasis control in the context of the Chengdu-Chongqing economic circle construction.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904631

ABSTRACT

As a successful example of global public health, Chinese schistosomiasis control technology and experiences have been included in global public health governance. Chinese schistosomiasis control program progresses with China’s international discourse power. During the period from the initial stage of the founding of the People’s Republic of China to China’s Reform and opening-up, the national schistosomiasis control program of China achieved great successes through mobilizing multi-sectorial resources under the policy of Independence and Self-reliance. Following China’s Reform and opening-up, all advantageous opportunities were captured to solve problems pertaining to schistosomiasis control in the context of complex international situations. As a consequence, transmission control of schistosomiasis was achieved across China in 2015. Since the Eighteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China, China has contributed the discourse system with distinct Chinese characteristics to the world, and has actively participated in health cooperation projects between China and other “Belt and Road” countries, which has contributed China’s wisdom to global schistosomiasis control program and conveyed China’s voice to the world.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904621

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the impact of water pollutants, water levels and meteorological factors on the Oncomelania hupensis density in Eastern Dongting Lake regions, so as to provide insights into schistosomiasis control. Methods O. hupensis snails were surveyed using a systematic sampling method in snail-infested marshlands in Eastern Dongting Lake regions from 2007 to 2014, and data pertaining to water pollutants, water levels and meteorological factors were collected. The duration of submergence and the date of the start of submergence were calculated. The snail density and its influencing factors were descriptively analyzed, and a linear mixed model was generated to examine the impacts of variables on the snail density. In addition, smooth curves were fitted to investigate the relationship between snail density and variables. Results The snail density appeared a fluctuation in Eastern Dongting Lake regions during the period from 2007 to 2014, with the highest density on October, 2010 (52.79 snails/0.1 m2) and the lowest density on January 2009 (2.15 snails/0.1 m2). Linear mixed-model analysis showed that permanganate index, total phosphorus and the date of the start of submergence affected the snail density (t = 6.386, −2.920 and −3.892, all P values < 0.01). Smooth curve analysis revealed that the associations of the snail density with the permanganate index and total phosphorus appeared an approximately quadratic curve. After the end of April, the earlier date of the start of submergence resulted in a higher snail density. Conclusion Permenganate index, total phosphorus and the date of the start of submergence affect the O. hupensis snail density in Eastern Dongting Lake regions.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882042

ABSTRACT

With the deepening of the schistosomiasis research, risk assessment models have been widely used in schistosomiasis research and control. This paper reviews the theoretical basis and applications of common schistosomiasis risk assessment models and the Bayesian model, so as to provide insights into national schistosomiasis elimination program in China.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882040

ABSTRACT

Due to the relative shortage of health resources, rational allocation and utilization of health resources is critical to achieving the maximum economic benefits in developing countries, which requires a health economic assessment to meet the needs to balance the competitive requirements of cost reduction and effectiveness enhancement. This review describes the advances in applications of health economic assessment techniques in four major infectious diseases, including AIDS, tuberculosis, hepatitis B and schistosomiasis. Currently, there is no standard economic assessment in the prevention and control of infectious diseases, and notably, the transparency of cost research is limited, which may affect the popularization of the study conclusions. Further health economic assessments of infectious diseases are required to improve the quality, standard and transparency of the economic evaluation through formulating strategies, to improve the standardization of studies, to improve the popularization of the study conclusions and to improve the applicability of the economic evaluation for policies.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882037

ABSTRACT

The invalid patents associated with schistosomiasis control were retrieved in the Chinese Patent Database of China National Intellectual Property Administration, the Baiten database and the incoPat database, and the overall trends, legal status, types, patent indexing and technical fields of all retrieved invalid patents were analyzed. As of December 30, 2020, there were totally 859 patents relating to schistosomiasis control, and 512 were invalid patents, with an invalid rate of 59.6%. The number of patent applications and invalid patents peaked in 2018, including 71 patent applications and 53 invalid patents. Among the 511 schistosomiasis control-related invalid patents with complete records, there were 425 invention patents, 81 utility model patents and 5 design patents, and 219 patents (42.9%) were invalid due to the termination of the patented right and 292 (57.1%) due to loss of the right for patent applications. The major technical points included medicines (chemicals), basic research, devices and detections, and the specialized fields were mainly concentrated in A61P33, G01N33, C12N15, C07K14 and A01N65. Our data demonstrate a high invalid rate of patents relating to schistosomiasis control in China. Secondary development and mining of the invalid patents in relation to schistosomiasis are recommended to make use of their values in the national schistosomiasis elimination program of China.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882027

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish an indicator system for assessment of schistosomiasis transmission risk after transmission interruption in Hubei Province, so as to provide insights into the precise control of schistosomiasis. Methods The indicator system was preliminarily established based on data collection, literature review, expert interviews. Two rounds of expert consultation were performed. The indicator system was screened based on the importance, operability, sensitivity and comprehensive score of the indicators, and the weights of each indicator were calculated. The credibility of the Delphi method was evaluated by calculating the active coefficient of the experts, degree of expert authority and coordination levels of experts’ opinions. Results An indicator system for assessment of schistosomiasis transmission risk was preliminarily established, including 3 primary indicators, 12 secondary indicators and 44 tertiary indicators. A Delphi consultation was performed among 17 experts participating in schistosomiasis control, management and research. Following two rounds of consultation, a risk assessment indicator system was finally constructed, including 3 primary indicators, 10 secondary indicators and 35 tertiary indicators. Among the primary indicators, the variable with the highest normalized weight was the current status of schistosomiasis (0.420 2), followed by social factors (0.397 3) and natural environments (0.182 5). Among the secondary indicators, those with high combined weights included risk monitoring (0.142 3), current snail status (0.140 1), and current prevalence of human and livestock infections (0.137 8). Among the tertiary indicators, those with high combined weights included the positive rate of wild feces (0.049 8), the prevalence of snail infections (0.047 4), and the area of snail habitats submerged by floods (0.046 8). During the two-round consultation, the active coefficients of the experts were 85.00% and 100.00%, the degree of expert authority was both 0.75 and greater, and the coordination levels of experts’ opinions were 0.405 to 0.521 and 0.592 to 0.695 (all P values < 0.05). Conclusion An indicator system for assessment of schistosomiasis transmission risk is successfully established after transmission interruption in Hubei Province based on the Delphi method, which provides insights into the identification of the schistosomiasis transmission risk and the targets for schistosomiasis control in Hubei Province.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882026

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of current advanced schistosomiasis cases in China, so as to provide the scientific evidence for the precision management and medical care of advanced schistosomiasis. Methods The baseline data pertaining to the current advanced schistosomiasis cases in China were collected from the Epidemiological Dynamic Data Collection Platform (EDDC) operated by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The demographic characteristics, population and regional distribution and medical care of advanced schistosomiasis cases were analyzed with a descriptive method. Results A total of 31 889 cases with advanced schistosomiasis were reported in China by the end of June, 2019, and these cases were mainly identified in Hubei Province (7 737 cases) followed by in Jiangxi Province (7 256 cases), Hunan Province (5 615 cases), Anhui Province (5 236 cases) and Jiangsu Province (2 908 cases), accounting for 90.2% (28 752/31 889) of total cases in China. The current advanced schistosomiasis cases had a male/female ratio of 1.5∶1, and a mean age of (67.0 ± 11.2) years, with 92.6% (29 521/31 889) detected in individuals at ages of over 50 years. There were 97.6% (31 109/31 889) of the cases with an educational level of junior high school and lower, and 95.2% (30 359/31 889) with an occupation of farmers. Ascites (72.6%, 23 164/31 889) and splenomegaly types (26.3%, 8 386/31 889) were predominant in current advanced schistosomiasis cases in China, and there was a significant difference in the constituent ratio of disease types among current advanced schistosomiasis cases with different age groups (χ2 = 362.31, P < 0.01), with the ascites type as the predominant type of advanced schistosomiasis. Among the current advanced schistosomiasis cases, 88.9% (28 358/31 889) and 18.7% (5 973/31 889) had received medical treatment and surgical treatment, respectively. Conclusions The current advanced schistosomiasis cases are predominantly reported in five marshland and lake endemic provinces of China where schistosomiasis is not eliminated, and are mostly categorized as the ascites and megalosplenia types, with minor differences seen in gender and disease-type distributions. Precision medical care should be reinforced according to the epidemiological features of the current advanced schistosomiasis cases, and early screening and standard management and follow-up is required.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882025

ABSTRACT

This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2020, and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, Shanghai Municipality, Zhejiang Province, Fujian Province, Guangdong Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, and Sichuan and Jiangsu provinces maintained the criteria of transmission interruption, while Yunnan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan provinces maintained the criteria of transmission control by the end of 2020. A total of 450 counties (cites, districts) were found to be endemic for schistosomiasis in China, with 28 376 endemic villages covering 71 370 400 people at risk of infections. Among the 450 endemic counties (cities, districts), 74.89% (337/450), 21.87% (98/450) and 3.33% (15/450) achieved the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control of schistosomiasis, respectively. By the end of 2020, 29 517 cases with advanced schistosomiasis were documented in China. In 2020, 11 117 655 individuals received inquiry examinations and 1 798 580 were positive; 5 263 082 individuals received serological tests and 83 179 were sero-positive. A total of 273 712 individuals received stool examinations and 3 were positive, including one case of acute schistosomiasis. In 2020, snail survey was performed in 19 733 endemic villages in China and Oncomelania snails were found in 7 309 villages, accounting for 37.04% of all surveyed villages, with 15 villages identified with emerging snail habitats. Snail survey covered an area of 736 984.13 hm2 and 206 125.22 hm2 snail habitats were found, including 1 174.67 hm2 emerging snail habitats and 1.96 hm2 habitats with infected snails. In 2020, 544 424 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis-endemic areas of China, and 147 887 received serological examinations, with 326 positives detected, while 130 673 bovines received stool examinations, with no positives identified. In 2020, there were 19 214 patients with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and 964 103 person-time individuals and 266 280 herd-time bovines were given expanded chemotherapy. In 2020, molluscicide treatment was performed in 136 141.92 hm2 snail habitats, and the actual area of chemical treatment was 71 980.22 hm2, while environmental improvements were performed in snail habitats covering an area of 1 464.03 hm2. Data from the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections were both zero in humans and bovines in 2020, and no S. japonicum infection was detected in snails. The results demonstrate that the overall endemic status of schistosomiasis remains at a low level in China and the goal of the National Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for Schistosomiasis Control was achieved as scheduled; however, the endemic situation of schistosomiasis rebounded in local areas. Precision schistosomiasis control and intensified monitoring of the endemic situation and transmission risk of schistosomiasis are required to be performed to facilitate the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis steadily.

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