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1.
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1552191

ABSTRACT

Contexte & objectif : Les adultes fortement exposés par leurs activités professionnelles dans l'eau douce dans les régions d'endémicité de la schistosomiase, entretiennent la transmission de la maladie. Il est donc nécessaire d'investiguer sur leurs fréquences afin de lutter contre la pérennité de la schistosomiase. Méthodes : Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale, réalisée entre septembre et octobre 2019, chez creuseurs le long de la rivière N'djili. Les Schistoma étaient systématiquement recherchés à la fois dans les échantillons de selles et des urines. Résultats : Au total 224 creuseurs de sables ont été examinés. La fréquence de la Schistosomiase était de 28,6 % (IC : 22,8-35). Les S. mansoni (22,8 %), S. intercalatum (3,1 %) et S. haematobium (2,7 %) ont été détectés. Le revenu financier supérieur ou égal au SMIG (ORa= 1,8 ; IC 95% : 1,0 ­ 3,4), était associé à la schistosomiase. Conclusion : Les creuseurs s'exposent et entretiennent la schistosomiase. Parmi les espèces qui les affectent, nous comptons également le S. intercalatum à Kinshasa. Il faut donc une étude complémentaire de comparaison avec les autres catégories professionnelles


Context and objective. Adults who are highly exposed to schistosomiasis through their professional activities in freshwater in regions where the disease is endemic, maintain the transmission of the disease. It is therefore necessary to investigate their frequency in order to combat the perpetuation of schistosomiasis. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study, carried out from September to October 2019, among diggers along the N'djili River. Schistosoma were systematically tested both in the stools and urine. Results. A total of 224 sand diggers were included. The prevalence of Schistosomiasis was 28.6 % (95 % CI: 22.8-35). S. mansoni (22.8 %), S. intercalatum (3.1 %) and S. haematobium (2.7 %) were detected. Financial income greater than or equal to SMIG (ORa= 1.8; 95 % CI: 1.0 - 3.4), was associated with schistosomiasis. Conclusion: Diggers are exposed to and maintain schistosomiasis. S. intercalatum is found among the species that affect the diggers in Kinshasa. Therefore, there is need to carry out a further comparative study with other occupational categories.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Rivers
2.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 67-73, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013571

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the current status of capacity building in schistosomiasis control institutes in schistosomiasis-endemic provinces (municipality, autonomous region) of China. Methods The responsibilities and construction requirements of various schistosomiasis control institutions were surveyed by expert discussions, and field interviews and visits during the period between May and June, 2023, and the questionnaire for capacity maintenance and consolidation in schistosomiasis control institutions was designed. An online questionnaire survey was conducted in county-, municipal-, and provincial-level institutions that undertook schistosomiasis control and surveillance activities through the Wenjuanxing program. The distribution of schistosomiasis control institutions, the status of institutions, departments and staff undertaking schistosomiasis control activities and the translation of scientific researches on schistosomiasis control in China were analyzed. The laboratories accredited by China National Accreditation Service for Conformity Assessment (CNAS) were considered to be capable for testing associated with schistosomiasis control, and the testing capability of schistosomiasis control institutions was analyzed. Results A total of 486 valid questionnaires were recovered from 486 schistosomiasis control institutions in 12 endemic provinces (municipality, autonomous region) of China, including 12 provincial-level institutions (2.5%), 77 municipal-level institutions (15.8%) and 397 county-level institutions (81.7%). Of all schistosomiasis control institutions, 376 (77.4%) were centers for disease control and prevention or public health centers, 102 (21.0%) were institutions for schistosomiasis, endemic disease and parasitic disease control, and 8 (1.6%) were hospitals, healthcare centers or others. There were 37 713 active employees in the 486 schistosomiasis control institutions, including 5 675 employees related to schistosomiasis control, and the proportions of employees associated with schistosomiasis control among all active employees were 5.9% (231/3 897), 5.5% (566/10 134), and 20.6% (4 878/23 682) in provincial-, municipal-, and county-level institutions, respectively. There were 3 826 full-time employees working in schistosomiasis control activities, with 30.5% (1 166/3 826), 34.6% (1 324) and 34.9% (1 336/3 826) at ages of 40 years and below, 41 to 50 years and over 50 years, and there were 1 571 (41.0%) full-time schistosomiasis control employees with duration of schistosomiasis control activities for over 25 years, and 1 358 (35.5%) employees with junior professional titles and 1 290 with intermediate professional titles (35.5%), while 712 (18.6%) full-time employees working in schistosomiasis control activities had no professional titles. The three core schistosomiasis control activities included snail control (26.3%, 374/1 420), epidemics surveillance and management (25.4%, 361/1 420) and health education (18.8%, 267/1 420) in schistosomiasis control institutions. The Kato-Katz method, miracidium hatching test with nylon gauzes, and indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA) were the most commonly used techniques for detection of schistosomiasis, and there were less than 50% laboratories that had capabilities or experimental conditions for performing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), dipstick dye immunoassay (DDIA), dot immunogold filtration assay (DIG-FA), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. During the period from 2018 to 2022, schistosomiasis control institutions had undertaken a total of 211 research projects for schistosomiasis control, with a total funding of 18.596 million RMB, published 619 articles, participated in formulation of 13 schistosomiasis control-related criteria, and applied for 113 schistosomiasis control-related patents, including 101 that were granted, and commercialized 4 scientific research outcomes. Conclusions The proportion of independent specialized schistosomiasis control institutions is low in schistosomiasis control institutions in China, which suffers from problems of unsatisfactory laboratory testing capabilities, aging of staff and a high proportion of low-level professional titles. More investment into and intensified schistosomiasis control activities and improved capability building and talent cultivation in schistosomiasis control institutions are recommended to provide a powerful support for high-quality elimination of schistosomiasis in China.

3.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 7-12, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013563

ABSTRACT

On June 16, 2023, National Disease Control and Prevention Administration of the People’s Republic of China, in collaboration with other ministries, formulated and issued the Action Plan to Accelerate the Elimination of Schistosomiasis in China (2023—2030). The implementation of this plan provides an important basis for achieving the targets set in the “Healthy China 2030” action plan and the implementation of the rural revitalization strategy. This paper describes the background, principles, targets, control strategies, safeguard measures and effectiveness evaluation of the plan, in order to guide the scientific and standardized implementation of actions for schistosomiasis elimination at the grassroots level, and facilitate the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis in China with a high quality.

4.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 1-6, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013562

ABSTRACT

The goal of achieving elimination of schistosomiasis across all endemic counties in China by 2030 was proposed in the Outline of the Healthy China 2030 Plan. On June 16, 2023, the Action Plan to Accelerate the Elimination of Schistosomiasis in China (2023—2030) was jointly issued by National Disease Control and Prevention Administration and other 10 ministries, which deployed the targets and key tasks of the national schistosomiasis elimination programme in China. This article describes the progress of the national schistosomiasis control programme, analyzes the opportunities to eliminate schistosomiasis, and proposes targeted recommendations to tackle the challenges of schistosomiasis elimination, so as to accelerate the process towards schistosomiasis elimination and facilitate the building of a healthy China.

5.
Rev. medica electron ; 45(1)feb. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442023

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la esquistosomiasis es la infección por trematodos más importante a nivel global. El carcinoma de células escamosas constituye el 2 % de todos los tipos histológicos de cáncer vesical; sin embargo, la incidencia de esta variedad en países endémicos de esquistosomiasis es mayor. Objetivo: evaluar la relación entre la esquistosomiasis y el cáncer de vejiga en pacientes del Hospital Central de Nampula. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal en el período comprendido entre enero de 2014 y diciembre de 2020. Los pacientes se dividieron en grupos etarios, por intervalos de 10 años. Se tomaron muestras de biopsias de tumores de vejiga, clasificándose por tipo histológico, además de los hallazgos relacionados con infestación por esquistosomiasis y formas de presentación del cáncer de vejiga. El universo estuvo constituido por 184 pacientes, y la muestra se conformó por 135 casos. Resultados: se comprobó que el mayor número de pacientes con cáncer de vejiga es del sexo masculino; el tipo histológico más frecuente fue el carcinoma de células escamosas, representando un 84,3 % del total. La cistitis, la presencia de esquistosomas, y sus huevos estuvieron presentes en casi todas las biopsias realizadas. Sus formas de presentación más frecuente fueron la cistitis, la hematúrica y la dolorosa. Conclusiones: el cáncer de vejiga mostró una mayor incidencia en las edades comprendidas entre 30 y 69 años. El carcinoma de células escamosas fue el más frecuente, y su relación con la cistitis y la infección por esquistosomas estuvo presente en más del 90 % de las biopsias.


Introduction: schistosomiasis is the most important trematode infection globally. Squamous cell carcinoma constitutes 2% of all the histological types of bladder cancer; however, the incidence of this variety of cancer in squistosomiasis-endemic countries is higher. Objective: to evaluate the relationship between squistosomiasis and bladder cancer in patients from the Central Hospital of Nampula. Materials and methods: a cross-sectional descriptive observational study was carried in the period between January 2014 and December 2020. Patients were divided into age-groups, by 10-year intervals. Biopsy samples of bladder tumors were taken, classified by histological type, in addition to findings related to squistosomiasis infestations and bladder cancer presentation forms. The universe consisted of 184 patients and the sample of 135 cases. Results: it was found that the largest number of patients with bladder cancer is male; squamous cell carcinoma is the most frequent histological type, representing 84.3% of the total. Cystitis, schistosome and their eggs were present in almost all the biopsies performed. Its most frequent presentation forms were hematuric and painful cystitis. Conclusions: bladder cancer showed higher incidence at the ages between 30 and 69 years. The squamous cell carcinoma was the most frequent, and its relationship with cystitis and schistosome infection was present in more than 90% of biopsies.

6.
Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 857-862, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-998189

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo analyze the monitoring data of schistosomiasis from 2004 to 2021 in Suzhou New District, Jiangsu Province, and to provide evidence for improving schistosomiasis elimination strategies. MethodsFollowing the Opinions on Prevention and Control of Schistosomiasis, Parasitic Diseases and Endemic Diseases in Suzhou and the Technical Plan for Prevention and Control of Schistosomiasis, Parasitic Diseases and Endemic Diseases in Suzhou, the monitoring of schistosomiasis in the population and snail habitats from 2004 to 2021 was conducted. The Mann-Kendall method and Joinpoint regression method were employed to analyze the trend of epidemic indicators (such as seropositive rate, prevalence of snail frames, etc.). Time series analysis (exponential smoothing model) was conducted to predict snail occurrence. ResultsFrom 2004 to 2021, a total of 73 680 people were serologically tested for schistosomiasis, with a positive rate of 0.084%. The seropositivity rate showed statistically significant differences between different years (χ2=70.73, P<0.05), but there was no significant trend over time. In addition, 3 053 fecal tests were conducted and no positive result was found. The snail habitats covered an area of 70.11 hm2 and showed a decreasing trend (Z=-1.97, P<0.05). A total of 30 093 frames were surveyed, of which 19.038% contained snails. The difference in the prevalence of snail frames between different years was statistically significant (χ2=7 203.09, P<0.05), with a decreasing trend in the prevalence of snail frames (Z=-2.05, P<0.05). A total of 26 296 live snails were seized and density of live snails was 0.874 snails per frame, showing a decreasing trend in the density of live snails (Z=-2.35, P<0.05). A total of 12 391 snails were dissected and no infected snail was found. The areas treated with molluscicides remained stable at 264.60 hm2. An area of 27.77 hm2 achieved the goal of snail eradication through environmental modification, with a decreasing trend (Z=-2.44, P<0.05). It is estimated that the prevalence of snail frames and snail density will remain relatively stable from 2022 to 2026, but the snail habitat area will fluctuate significantly, showing an increasing trend. ConclusionNo indigenous cases of schistosomiasis and no infected snails are reported, indicating the successful consolidation of schistosomiasis prevention and control measures. However, the snail habitat area fluctuates greatly with an increasing trend, suggesting the need for long-term Oncomelania snail monitoring in local areas.

7.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449240

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The pancreatic form of tuberculosis (TB) is rare and its diagnosis is challenging, since it manifests itself with non-specific symptoms and non-pathognomonic radiological findings, mimicking a neoplasia of the pancreas. Here, we report the case of a patient who had previously undergone liver transplantation and sought care for abdominal pain, weight loss, anorexia, hematochezia and postprandial fullness. Following an exploratory laparotomy and nucleic acid amplification testing on a pancreatic sample that had been collected, the patient was diagnosed with pancreatic TB. The patient received anti-tubercular pharmacological therapy and required percutaneous biliary drainage. Awareness of the possibility of a pancreatic TB diagnosis is important for clinicians. This attention should be even greater in patients who have undergone transplants, who are immunodeficient or who are from endemic areas.

8.
ABCD (São Paulo, Online) ; 36: e1763, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1513503

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Hepatosplenic schistosomiasis is an endemic disease prevalent in tropical countries and is associated with a high incidence of portal vein thrombosis. Inflammatory changes caused by both parasitic infection and portal thrombosis can lead to the development of chronic liver disease with potential carcinogenesis. AIMS: To assess the incidence of portal vein thrombosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with schistosomiasis during long-term follow-up. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted involving patients with schistosomiasis followed up at our institution between 1990 and 2021. RESULTS: A total of 126 patients with schistosomiasis were evaluated in the study. The mean follow-up time was 16 years (range 5-31). Of the total, 73 (57.9%) patients presented portal vein thrombosis during follow-up. Six (8.1%) of them were diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma, all with portal vein thrombosis diagnosed more than ten years before. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with schistosomiasis and chronic portal vein thrombosis highlights the importance of a systematic long-term follow-up in this group of patients.


RESUMO RACIONAL: A esquistossomose hepatoesplênica é uma doença endêmica prevalente em países tropicais e está associada a uma alta incidência de trombose da veia porta. Alterações inflamatórias causadas tanto pela infecção parasitária quanto pela trombose portal podem levar ao desenvolvimento de doença hepática crônica com potencial carcinogênico. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a incidência de trombose da veia porta e carcinoma hepatocelular em pacientes com esquistossomose durante um seguimento de longo prazo. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo retrospectivo envolvendo pacientes com esquistossomose acompanhados em nossa instituição entre 1990 e 2021. RESULTADOS: Um total de 126 pacientes com esquistossomose foram avaliados no estudo. O tempo médio de acompanhamento foi de 16 anos (variando de 5 a 31). Do total, 73 (57,9%) pacientes apresentaram trombose da veia porta durante o seguimento e seis (8,1%) deles foram diagnosticados com carcinoma hepatocelular, todos com trombose da veia porta diagnosticada há mais de 10 anos. CONCLUSÕES: A incidência de carcinoma hepatocelular em pacientes com esquistossomose e trombose da veia porta crônica destaca a importância de um acompanhamento sistemático de longo prazo nesse grupo de pacientes.

9.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 47: e146, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1551015

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo. Analisar a distribuição espaço-temporal e os fatores associados à mortalidade por doenças tropicais negligenciadas (DTNs) no Brasil de 2000 a 2019. MÉtodo. Estudo ecológico que analisou os óbitos por DTNs registrados no Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade (SIM). Para a análise temporal, utilizou-se o método joinpoint. A dependência espacial foi analisada pelos índices de Moran global e local e Getis-Ord Gi*. Quatro modelos de regressão não espacial e espacial foram usados para identificar fatores associados ao óbito. Resultados. A taxa média de mortalidade por DTNs no Brasil foi de 3,32 óbitos/100 000 habitantes no período considerado, com a maior taxa (8,68 óbitos/100 000 habitantes) observada no Centro-Oeste. As causas mais prevalentes de morte foram doença de Chagas (n = 94 781; 74,9%) e esquistossomose (n = 10 271; 8,1%). Houve redução de 1,24% (IC95% = -1,6; - 0,9; P < 0,001) ao ano da mortalidade por DTNs no Brasil. Observou-se padrão alto/alto de distribuição espacial e hotspots em municípios dos estados de Goiás, Minas Gerais, Bahia, Tocantins e Piauí. Os indicadores "população em domicílios com densidade > 2 habitantes por dormitório" (β = -0,07; P = 0,00) e "índice de desenvolvimento humano municipal" (β = -3,36; P = 0,08) associaram-se negativamente ao desfecho, enquanto o indicador "índice de vulnerabilidade social" (β = 2,74; P = 0,05) associou-se positivamente ao desfecho. Conclusão. Quanto menor o desenvolvimento humano e maior a vulnerabilidade social, maior é a mortalidade por DTNs, o que deve direcionar as ações de prevenção e controle das DTNs.


ABSTRACT Objective. To analyze the spatial-temporal distribution and factors associated with mortality from neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in Brazil from 2000 to 2019. Method. We performed an ecological study to analyze NTD-related deaths recorded in the Ministry of Health Mortality Information System (SIM). For the temporal analysis, the joinpoint method was used. Spatial dependence was analyzed using global Moran and local Getis-Ord Gi* indices. Four non-spatial and spatial regression models were used to identify factors associated with mortality. Results. The mean mortality rate from NTDs in Brazil during the study period was 3.32 deaths per 100 000 inhabitants, with the highest rate (8.68 deaths per 100 000 inhabitants) recorded in the Midwest. The most prevalent causes of death were Chagas disease (n = 94 781; 74.9%) and schistosomiasis (n = 10 271; 8.1%). There was a 1.24% reduction (95%CI = -1.6; -0.9; P < 0.001) in NTD-related mortality in Brazil per year. A high/high spatial distribution pattern and hotspots were observed in municipalities in the states of Goiás, Minas Gerais, Bahia, Tocantins, and Piauí. The indicators "population in households with density > 2 people per bedroom" (β = -0.07; P = 0.00) and "municipal human development index" (β = -3.36; P = 0.08) were negatively associated with the outcome, while the "index of social vulnerability" (β = 2.74; P = 0.05) was positively associated with the outcome. Conclusion. Lower human development and higher social vulnerability are associated with higher mortality from NTDs, which should guide NTD prevention and control efforts.


RESUMEN Objetivo. Analizar la distribución espacial y temporal de la mortalidad por enfermedades tropicales desatendidas en Brasil en el período 2000-2019 y los factores asociados a ella. Método. Estudio ecológico centrado en el análisis de las muertes por enfermedades tropicales desatendidas registradas en el Sistema de Información sobre Mortalidad. Para el análisis temporal se utilizó el método de regresión de puntos de inflexión (joinpoint). La dependencia espacial se analizó mediante los índices de Moran global y local y Gi* de Getis-Ord. Se utilizaron cuatro modelos de regresión espacial y no espacial para detectar los factores relacionados con la mortalidad. Resultados. La tasa media de mortalidad por enfermedades tropicales desatendidas en Brasil fue de 3,32 muertes por 100 000 habitantes en el periodo del estudio, y la tasa más alta observada (8,68 muertes por 100 000 habitantes) fue la del Centro Oeste. Las causas de muerte más prevalentes fueron la enfermedad de Chagas (n = 94.781; 74,9%) y la esquistosomiasis (n = 10.271; 8,1%). Se registró una disminución de 1,24% (IC del 95% = -1,6; -0,9; p < 0,001) anual de la mortalidad por enfermedades tropicales desatendidas en el país. Se observó un patrón de distribución espacial alto/alto, con puntos calientes en municipios de los estados de Bahía, Goiás, Minas Gerais, Piauí y Tocantins. Los indicadores "población en hogares con densidad > 2 habitantes por dormitorio" (β = -0,07; P = 0,00) e "índice de desarrollo humano municipal" (β = -3,36; P = 0,08) mostraron una asociación negativa con el resultado, mientras que el indicador "índice de vulnerabilidad social" (β = 2,74; P = 0,05) arrojó una asociación positiva. Conclusiones. Cuanto menor es el grado de desarrollo humano y mayor la vulnerabilidad social, mayor es la mortalidad por enfermedades tropicales desatendidas, lo que debe orientar las medidas correspondientes de prevención y control.

10.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 374-378, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-997249

ABSTRACT

Objective To construct a schistosomiasis transmission risk assessment system in Wuhan City and preliminary evaluate its application effect, so as to promote the rational allocation of schistosomiasis control resources and accelerate the progress towards schistosomiasis elimination. Methods The schistosomiasis risk assessment indicators were collected through referring schistosomiasis surveillance data of Wuhan City from 2014 to 2020, literature review and expert interviews. Indicators within each criterion and sub-criterion were screened using the Delphi method, and a hierarchical structure model was created based on analytic hierarchy process. Quantitative assignment of each indicator was conducted according to relative importance, and the weight and combination weight of each criterion were calculated in each analytic hierarchy framework to create a schistosomiasis transmission risk assessment system, which was used for the schistosomiasis transmission risk assessment in 12 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites in Wuhan City. Results A three-level schistosomiasis transmission risk assessment system was preliminarily constructed, which included a target layer, 5 criterion layers and 21 sub-criterion layers. Of all indicators in the criterion layer, transmission route had the highest weight (0.433), followed by source of Schistosoma japonicum infection (0.294); and among all indicators in the sub-criterion layer, S. japonicum infection in Oncomelania hupensis and sentinel mice had the highest combination weight (0.125), followed by prevalence of S. japonicum infection in humans (0.091) and bovines (0.053), snail control by chemical treatment (0.049), positive rate of inquiry examinations (0.048), allocation of schistosomiasis control professionals (0.045), and areas of submerged snail-infested settings (0.041). Of the 12 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites in Wuhan City, there were 5 sites with weights of > 0.8, 4 sites with weights of 0.6 to 0.8, and 3 sites with weights of < 0.6 in 2020. Conclusion A schistosomiasis transmission risk assessment system has been constructed based on analytic hierarchy process in Wuhan City, which may provide a evidence-based basis for health resource allocation and decision-making for schistosomiasis control.

11.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 349-357, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-997246

ABSTRACT

Objective To identify the spatial distribution pattern of Oncomelania hupensis spread in Hubei Province, so as to provide insights into precision O. hupensis snail control in the province. Methods Data pertaining to emerging and reemerging snails were collected from Hubei Province from 2020 to 2022 to build a spatial database of O. hupensis snail spread. The spatial clustering of O. hupensis snail spread was identified using global and local spatial autocorrelation analyses, and the hot spots of snail spread were identified using kernel density estimation. In addition, the correlation between environments with snail spread and the distance from the Yangtze River was evaluated using nearest-neighbor analysis and Spearman correlation analysis. Results O. hupensis snail spread mainly occurred along the Yangtze River and Jianghan Plain in Hubei Province from 2020 to 2022, with a total spread area of 4 320.63 hm2, including 1 230.77 hm2 emerging snail habitats and 3 089.87 hm2 reemerging snail habitats. Global spatial autocorrelation analysis showed spatial autocorrelation in the O. hupensis snail spread in Hubei Province in 2020 and 2021, appearing a spatial clustering pattern (Moran’s I = 0.003 593 and 0.060 973, both P values < 0.05), and the mean density of spread snails showed spatial aggregation in Hubei Province in 2020 (Moran’s I = 0.512 856, P < 0.05). Local spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that the high-high clustering areas of spread snails were mainly distributed in 50 settings of 10 counties (districts) in Hubei Province from 2020 to 2022, and the high-high clustering areas of the mean density of spread snails were predominantly found in 219 snail habitats in four counties of Jiangling, Honghu, Yangxin and Gong’an. Kernel density estimation showed that there were high-, secondary high- and medium-density hot spots in snail spread areas in Hubei Province from 2020 to 2022, which were distributed in Jingzhou District, Wuxue District, Honghu County and Huangzhou District, respectively. There were high- and medium-density hot spots in the mean density of spread snails, which were located in Jiangling County, Honghu County and Yangxin County, respectively. In addition, the snail spread areas negatively correlated with the distance from the Yangtze River (r = −0.108 9, P < 0.05). Conclusions There was spatial clustering of O. hupensis snail spread in Hubei Province from 2020 to 2022. The monitoring and control of O. hupensis snails require to be reinforced in the clustering areas, notably in inner embankments to prevent reemerging schistosomiasis.

12.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 340-348, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-997245

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the prevalence of comorbid depression and anxiety and to evaluate the effect of psychological interventions among schistosomiasis patients in China, so as to provide insights into improvements of psychological health among schistosomiasis patients. Methods Publications pertaining to comorbid depression and anxiety and psychological interventions among Chinese schistosomiasis patients were retrieved in electronic databases, including CNKI, Wanfang Data, PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase. The prevalence of comorbidity, psychological interventions, and scores for the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) before and after psychological interventions among Chinese schistosomiasis patients were extracted. The prevalence of comorbid depression and anxiety was investigated among Chinese schistosomiasis patients using a meta-analysis, and the effect of psychological interventions for depression and anxiety was evaluated. Results A total of 231 publications were retrieved, and 14 publications that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the final analysis, including 2 English publications and 12 Chinese publications. Meta-analysis showed that the prevalence rates of comorbid depression and anxiety were 61% [95% confidential interval (CI): (48%, 72%)] and 64% [95% CI: (42%, 81%)] among Chinese schistosomiasis patients. Both the SDS [1.45 points, 95% CI: (1.30, 1.60) points] and SAS scores [2.21 points, 95% CI: (2.05, 2.38) points] reduced among Chinese schistosomiasis patients after psychological interventions than before psychological interventions, and the SDS [−0.47 points, 95% CI: (−6.90, −0.25) points] and SAS scores [−1.30 points, 95% CI: (−1.52, −1.09) points] reduced among Chinese schistosomiasis patients in the case group than in the control group. Conclusions The comorbid anxiety and depression are common among Chinese schistosomiasis patients, and conventional psychological interventions facilitate the improvements of anxiety and depression among schistosomiasis patients.

13.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 309-310, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-994030

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis cystitis is a urogenital system disease caused by Schistosoma aegypt. Common clinical manifestations are frequent urination, urgency, dysuria, and terminal hematuria, but new infections can be asymptomatic. Detection of parasite eggs by urine microscopy is considered to be the gold standard for diagnosis, but the result may be a false negative in the inactive period. The main epidemic of this disease is located in Africa and the Middle East area. However, in china, there are few reports of confirmed cases. This article reports a case of imported schistosomiasis cystitis. The patient is a Sudanese, male, who has been studying in China for more than 2 years, mainly with persistent painless hematuria for more than 6 months. Cystoscopy was proposed to diagnose a bladder mass, and schistosomiasis cystitis was confirmed by pathological diagnosis after surgery.

14.
Chinese Journal of Primary Medicine and Pharmacy ; (12): 53-57, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-991706

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the expression and significance of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and programmed death 1 (PD-1) in colorectal cancer complicated by schistosomiasis.Methods:A total of 134 patients with colorectal cancer who received treatment in Xuancheng People's Hospital during 2014-2021 were included in this study. These patients consisted of 74 patients with colorectal cancer combined with schistosomiasis (patient group) and 60 patients with only colorectal cancer (control group). The expression of PD-L1 and PD-1 in colorectal cancer tissue was detected by an immunohistochemical method. The differences in PD-L1 and PD-1 expression were compared between the two groups. The relationships between PD-L1 and PD-1 expression and clinical pathological characteristics were determined.Results:The positive expression rates of PD-L1 and PD-1 in cancer cells and interstitial lymphocytes were 55.4% and 60.8% respectively in the patient group and they were 35.0% and 40.0% respectively in the control group. The positive expression rates of PD-L1 and PD-1 were significantly higher in the patient group than the control group ( χ2 = 5.55, 5.74, both P < 0.05). The expressions of PD-L1 and PD-1 in the patient group were correlated with lymph node metastasis and high tumor-node-metastasis stage ( P < 0.05). Conclusion:PD-L1 and PD-1 are highly expressed in colorectal cancer complicated by schistosomiasis and are related to their invasive behavior. PD-1/PD-L1 singaling pathway may be involved in the molecular mechanism underlying the occurrence and development of colorectal cancer complicated by schistosomiasis. Blocking PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway may be a new strategy for immunotherapy of colorectal cancer complicated by schistosomiasis.

15.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 178-184, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-991601

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of emerging snail-infested sites in different environmental types in Yunnan Province.Methods:The data of snail-infested sites in Yunnan Province from 1950 to 2014 (from Yunnan Institute for Endemic Diseases Control and Prevention), were collected and sorted out, a spatial and temporal database on the distribution of emerging snail-infested sites were established, and the changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of emerging snail-infested sites in different environments types (ditches, tangerines, paddy fields, dry land, beaches and other environments) were studied by using spatial autocorrelation analysis and scanning statistics analysis.Results:From 1950 to 2014, the annual number of emerging snail-infested sites in Yunnan Province reached a peak (1 730) in 1955 and then showed a fluctuating downward trend. From 1993 to 2014, the number of emerging snail-infested sites remained below 100, and increased to 160 and 131, respectively, in 2004 and 2013. The longest mean duration of 43.85 years was recorded for the beaches environment for emerging snail-infested sites, followed by the paddy fields environment with a mean duration of 37.01 years, and the shortest mean duration of 20.44 years for the tangerines environment. Spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that there was a positive spatial correlation between the duration of emerging snail-infested sites of different environmental types (global Moran's I ranged from 0.43 to 0.64, P < 0.05). Scanning statistics analysis showed that emerging snail-infested sites of different environmental types had spatial and temporal aggregation ( P < 0.001), with 3- 6 clusters of statistically significant aggregation detected respectively. Conclusion:The emerging snail-infested sites in different environments types in Yunnan Province have spatial and temporal aggregation, and it is necessary to strengthen monitoring and prevention and control of the aggregation areas of different environment types to prevent further spread of the snail.

16.
Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 619-625, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-988894

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo analyze the epidemic trends and current status in the prevalence of schistosomiasis in Jiangxi Province from 2002 to 2021, and to provide evidence for formulating and optimizing schistosomiasis control strategies in the province. MethodsEpidemiological data of schistosomiasis in Jiangxi Province from 2002 to 2021 were collected. The Joinpoint regression model was used to investigate the epidemic trends of schistosomiasis, and the annual average percent change (AAPC) was used to assess the changing trend of schistosomiasis infection in humans and bovines. SPSS 25.0 software was used to analyze the target achievement status, infection rate of schistosomiasis in humans and the areas with snails in 2021 to evaluate the differences among various districts and epidemic regions. ResultsBy 2021, 24 counties (61.50%) in the province had achieved the elimination goal, with hilly and marsh counties reaching 82.60% and 31.30%, respectively. The seropositive rate of schistosomiasis in human was 3.51% across the province. However, the seropositive rate in marshland areas (4.77%) was significantly higher than that in hilly areas (1.23 %) (χ2=3 827.51, P<0.001). The total area with snails in the province was 84 938.32 hm2, including 82 196.86 hm2 in marshland areas and 2 741.46 hm2 in hilly areas. From 2002 to 2021, the infection rate of schistosomiasis in the humans and bovines exhibited a declining trend, with AAPC values of -48.70 and -39.70, respectively. The decline rate in the hilly areas was higher than that in marshland areas. However, the area with snail showed an upward trend (AAPC=0.50), with a growth rate of 5.80% in hilly areas, which was greater than that in marshland areas (0.40%). ConclusionFrom 2002 to 2021, the infection rate of schistosomiasis in humans and bovines in Jiangxi Province continued to decline, while the areas with snails increased. The prevention focus should still be on the marshland endemic areas, and attention should also be given to the risk of schistosomiasis in hilly endemic areas. Therefore, it is necessary to continue implementing a comprehensive prevention and control strategy that emphasizes controlling the sources of infection and adopts tailored measures based on local conditions and precise policies.

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China Tropical Medicine ; (12): 1023-2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016692

ABSTRACT

@#Abstract: Objective To construct a mouse model of Schistosoma japonicum liver disease induced by direct injection of Schistosoma japonicum eggs through the portal vein and evaluate its effectiveness, in order to provide a new animal model for schistosomiasis liver disease research. Methods Fifteen 8-week-old C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into control group and egg injection group, with 5 in the control group and 10 in the egg injection group. On day -14, 5 000 live eggs were injected into the abdominal cavity of mice, and on day 0, the mice were anesthetized and the abdominal cavity was opened. 5 000 live eggs were injected through the portal vein, and the control group was injected with equal volume of phosphate buffer (PBS). 5 mice in the egg group were killed on day 10 and 30, respectively. The control group mice were killed on day 10, and their serum and liver tissue were collected. Hematoxylin eosin staining (HE) and Masson staining were performed, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and liver hydroxyproline (HYP) content were detected using a microplate spectrophotometer. Liver fibrosis-related genes, Th1 and Th2 type immune response-related genes were analyzed by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (qPCR). Liver injury, egg granuloma and fibrosis, and adaptive immune response were detected to evaluate the effect of portal vein injection of eggs while inducing mouse model of schistosomiasis liver disease. Results The results showed that significant egg granulomas appeared in the liver of mice after injection of eggs into the portal vein for 10 and 30 days. There was no statistically significant difference in the area of egg granulomas between the 10-day group and the 30-day group (t=0.975, P=0.332). Masson staining and liver hydroxyproline content detection showed significant fibrosis in the liver. The qPCR results showed that, compared with the control group, the expression levels of fibrosis marker genes, such as α⁃Sma (alpha smooth muscle actin), Col1a1 (collagen type Ⅰ alpha 1), and Tgfb1 (transforming growth factor beta 1), were significantly increased (t=6.380, 7.533, 5.314; P=0.002, 0.001, 0.007), and then decreased on the 30th day, with no statistical difference compared to the control group (t=0.940, 1.529, 1.746; P=0.778, 0.543, 0.457). At the same time, the expression levels of Th1 type immune response-related genes, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnf), interferon gamma (Ifng), and Th2 type immune response-related genes, such as interleukin-5 (Il5), interleukin-13 (Il13), significantly increased 10 days after eggs injection (t=6.163, 4.589, 5.651, 5.367; P=0.003, 0.018, 0.020, 0.009). In addition, there was no significant change in the levels of AST and ALT in the serum of each group of mice (t=0.982, 3.450; P=0.771, 0.074. t=1.164, 0.564; P=0.697, 0.917). Conclusions A mouse model of schistosomiasis liver disease induced by portal vein injection of worm eggs was constructed. The study provides a new modeling method for studying the mechanism of liver fibrosis in schistosomiasis..

18.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 641-645, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011424

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis control is not only a disease control programme, but also a great social practice activity in China. During the evolution of national schistosomiasis control programmes, the special schistosomiasis control culture has been cultivated and developed, which contains the spiritual connotation of government-led, people-oriented, respect for science and integration of all efforts. The publication of Chairman Mao Zedong’s two poems entitled “Farewell to the God of Plague” and the post-script in 1958 was a sign for the formation and development of Chinese schistosomiasis control culture, which always lead the orientation of development and practice of schistosomiasis control culture building. The schistosomiasis control culture provides powerful spiritual motivation and supports to schistosomiasis control programmes in China, and improving the building of schistosomiasis control culture is of great significance to strengthen our belief in achieving the goal of schistosomiasis elimination, mobilize all social resources, accelerate the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis and facilitate the high-quality development of healthcare services. Chinese schistosomiasis control spirit is the refinement from the cultural connotation of the long-term schistosomiasis control programmes in China, and is the most essential and concentrated embodiment of the schistosomiasis control culture. This article describes the great significance of two poems entitled “Farewell to the God of Plague”, summarizes the connotation and role of schistosomiasis control spirit, and introduces the practice, development and innovation of schistosomiasis control culture building in Jiangxi Province.

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Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 638-640, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011423

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the implementation of Survey of oncomelanid snails (WS/T 563—2017) in schistosomiasis-endemic foci, two schistosomiasis-endemic counties were selected from two provinces of Sichuan and Anhui. Professional staff working in province-, city-, county- and township-level disease control and prevention institutions, parasitic disease control institutions or medical institutions were recruited, and the understanding, use and implementation of Survey of oncomelanid snails (WS/T 563—2017) were investigated using questionnaires and interviews. The awareness, use, proportion of propagation and implementation and correct rate of answering questions pertaining to Survey of oncomelanid snails (WS/T 563—2017) were analyzed. A total of 270 questionnaires were allocated, and 269 were recovered, including 254 valid questionnaires. The overall awareness of Survey of oncomelanid snails (WS/T 563—2017) was 84.64% (215/254), and propagation and implementation of Survey of oncomelanid snails (WS/T 563—2017) was not performed in 23.28% (17/73) of the survey institutions following implementation of Survey of oncomelanid snails (WS/T 563—2017), with meeting training and allocation of propagation materials as the main type of propagation and implementation. Among 254 respondents, 77.16% (196/254) were familiar with the standard, 66.14% (168/254) understood the conditions for use of the standard during snail surveys, and 96.85% (246/254) had the approach for identifying snails. In addition, there were 41.73% (106/254), 50.78% (129/254) and 7.48% (19/254) of respondents that considered the operability of Survey of oncomelanid snails (WS/T 563—2017) was very good, good and general, respectively. The findings demonstrate that the issue and implementation of Survey of oncomelanid snails (WS/T 563—2017) has filled the gap for the standardization of snail control techniques, and which plays an importang guiding role in the national schistosomiasis control program.

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Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 621-625, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011420

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of newly reported advanced schistosomiasis cases in Sichuan Province, so as to provide the evidence for analyzing the causes and formulating targeted control measures of newly reported advanced schistosomiasis cases. Methods Individual case investigation forms for advanced schistosomiasis cases were collected from the Sichuan Provincial Epidemic Annual Report System from 2011 to 2022, and patients’ demographics, previous medical history and liver parenchymal grading were retrieved. All advanced schistosomiasis cases’ medical records were reviewed, and the subtypes of schistosomiasis-endemic villages where the cases’ household registration were, floating population, survival and death and time of death were collected. Results A total of 321 newly reported advanced schistosomiasis cases were found in Sichuan Province from 2011 to 2022, with a male to female ratio of 0.99 to 1. There were 274 cases at ages of over 50 years (85.4%), with the highest proportion seen at ages of 60 to 69 years (87 cases, 27.1%), and splenomegaly was the most common type (180 cases, 56.1%), with no dwarfism type detected. The highest number of cases was reported in 2011 (78 cases), followed by in 2022 (74 cases), and the highest number of cases were reported in Meishan City (199 cases, 62.0%), Dongpo District (131 cases, 40.8%), and hilly subtype areas (136 cases, 42.4%). As of the end of 2022, there were 111 deaths due to advanced schistosomiasis, with the highest number of deaths seen in 2018 (25 deaths), and the highest mortality was seen among patients with the ascites type (41.2%). There were 47 (37.3%), 40 (59.5%) and 4 (23.5%) cases with grade III liver parenchyma among patients with splenomegaly, ascites, and colonic proliferation types, respectively, and there was a significant difference in the grading of III liver parenchyma among three types of patients (H = 12.092, P < 0.05), with more severe liver parenchyma injuries seen among patients with the ascites type than among those with splenomegaly and colonic proliferation type (Z = 24.262 and 44.738, both Padjusted values < 0.05). Conclusions There have been newly reported advanced schistosomiasis cases in Sichuan Province during recent years, and patients with the ascites type should be given a high priority among advanced schistosomiasis cases in Sichuan Province. Intensified clue surveys are needed for early identification and treatment of advanced schistosomiasis cases, so as to increase the survival rate and improve the quality of life.

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