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1.
Indian Pediatr ; 2023 Aug; 60(8): 675-678
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225456

ABSTRACT

The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) task force on neonatal seizures has recently published draft guidelines and consensusbased recommendations on the treatment of neonatal seizures. This update provides a summary of the recommendations and the changes in management compared to the previous WHO ILAE guidelines, published in 2011, with emphasis on practical decision making requirements for a pediatrician.

2.
Indian Pediatr ; 2023 Aug; 60(8): 630-636
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225446

ABSTRACT

Background:Benzodiazepines are the first-line anti-seizure medication (ASM) for generalized convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE), but they fail to end seizures in a third of cases. Combining benzodiazepines with another ASM that acts by a different pathway could be a potential strategy for rapid control of GCSE. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of adding levetiracetam to midazolam in the initial treatment of pediatric GCSE. Design: Double-blind randomized controlled trial. Setting: Pediatric emergency room at Sohag University Hospital between June, 2021 and August, 2022. Participants: Children aged between 1 month and 16 years with GCSE lasting more than 5 min. Interventions: Intravenous levetiracetam (60 mg/kg over 5 min) and midazolam (Lev-Mid group) or placebo and midazolam (PlaMid group) as first-line anticonvulsive therapy. Outcome measures: Primary: cessation of clinical seizures at 20- min study time point. Secondary: cessation of clinical seizures at 40-min study time point, need for a second midazolam dose, seizure control at 24-hr, need for intubation, and adverse effects. Results: Cessation of clinical seizures at 20-min occurred in 55 children (76%) in Lev-Mid group compared with 50 (69%) in the PlaMid group [RR (95% CI) 1.1 (0.9-1.34); P=0.35]. No significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the need for a second midazolam dose [44.4% vs 55.6%; RR (95% CI) 0.8 (0.58- 1.11); P=0.18] as well as cessation of clinical seizures at 40-min [96% vs 92%; RR (95% CI)1.05 (0.96-1.14); P=0.49] and seizure control at 24-hr [85% vs 76%; RR (95% CI) 1.12 (0.94-1.3); P=0.21]. Intubation was required for three patients in the Lev-Mid group and six patients in the Pla-Mid group [RR (95%CI) 0.5 (0.13- 1.92); P=0.49]. No other adverse effects or mortality were observed during the 24-hour study timeframe. Conclusion: Combined levetiracetam and midazolam for initial management of pediatric GCSE presents no significant advantage over midazolam alone in cessation of clinical seizures at 20-min.

3.
Indian Pediatr ; 2023 Mar; 60(3): 277-279
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225404

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess proportion and predictors of lesion calcification in children aged 2-12 years with neurocysticercosis at six months follow up. Method: Children aged between 2 and 12 years with Neurocysticercosis diagnosed on MRI brain were initially included and followed up for 6 months. Repeat CECT brain at 6 months was done to find if the lesion persisted/calcified/ resolved. Results: 16 out of 30 patients (53.3%) had calcification at six months follow up. Perilesional edema at the initial stage of the presentation was significantly associated with calcification at 6 months (P=0.042). Conclusion: Perilesional edema at the time of presentation was significantly associated with calcification in children with neurocysticercosis, six months after diagnosis.

4.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-217909

ABSTRACT

Background: Epilepsy is an abnormal excessive electric neuronal activity and always represents by recurrent seizures. There is positive feedback cycle between epileptogenesis and brain inflammation. It has been proved that an inflammatory enzyme, cyclooxygenase (COX) (especially isoform-2, a constitutive enzyme), expressed in some important parts of the central nervous system and is responsible to induced inflammation locally and having seizurogenic property. Aim and Objective: The goal of this study was to see if celecoxib (a selective COX-2 inhibitor) could reduce the maximal electroshock seizure (MES)-induced seizures in mice. Materials and Methods: Celecoxib injected intraperitoneally in two different doses 5 mg/kgb/w and 10 mg/kg b/w, in albino Swiss mice and in two different phases. MES was elicited and length of different phases was noted. Length of tonic hindlimb extension was considered as indicator of anti-epileptic activity. Results: Celecoxib, when given intraperitoneally, exert significant reduction in the duration of THLE. This action of celecoxib strongly suggests the involvement of inflammation in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Conclusion: The findings are suggestive of the therapeutic significance of celecoxib, as a future antiepileptic agent for seizure management.

5.
Acta ortop. mex ; 37(1): 54-58, ene.-feb. 2023. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1556731

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: las crisis convulsivas pueden desencadenar fracturas y luxaciones. Las lesiones dependen de la severidad, duración y el tipo de crisis. Presentamos un caso clínico de un varón que presentó una fractura luxación central bilateral de cadera tras episodio de crisis convulsiva. Un caso pocas veces descrito en la literatura con un manejo complejo y poco habitual. Caso clínico: paciente de 77 años con antecedentes de deterioro cognitivo moderado que sufrió una luxación bilateral central de cadera en contexto de una crisis convulsiva generalizada. Clínicamente, a su llegada a urgencias, el paciente presentaba un acortamiento de la extremidad inferior derecha en comparación con la contralateral, rotación externa y bloqueo articular a la realización del log roll test en ambas extremidades. Se realizó estudio de imagen y optimización clínica previo a cirugía. Se realizó en dos tiempos: primero la cadera izquierda al octavo día de ingreso y la cadera derecha al decimoquinto. En ambas cirugías se realizó el mismo procedimiento mediante implantación de anillo antiprotrusivo y prótesis con cotilo de doble movilidad con vástago femoral no cementado. En el postoperatorio inmediato, el paciente no presentó ninguna complicación asociada a la cirugía. En el seguimiento a los 12 meses, el paciente realiza carga completa con un Harris hip score (HHS) de 77 cadera derecha y 79 en la izquierda; 12 puntos en la escala WOMAC. No ha presentado complicaciones postoperatorias hasta el momento. Conclusiones: estas lesiones son poco comunes en nuestra práctica diaria, donde disponemos de múltiples opciones para abordarlas. En nuestro paciente, el empleo de la artroplastía y de anillos antiprotrusivos nos ofrecen ventajas respecto a las técnicas de síntesis de la fractura, como una movilización precoz y evitar desarrollo prematuro de una artrosis postraumática, con resultados buenos, funcionales y pocas complicaciones postoperatorias.


Abstract: Introduction: seizures can trigger fractures and dislocations. Injuries depend on the severity, duration and type of seizure. We present a case report of a male patient who presented with a bilateral central dislocation fracture of the hip following an episode of seizure. A case rarely described in the literature with complex and unusual management. Case report: a 77-year-old man with a history of moderate cognitive impairment suffered a bilateral central dislocation of the hip in the context of a generalized epileptic seizure. Clinically on arrival at the emergency department, the patient presented shortening of the right lower extremity compared to the contralateral, external rotation and joint locking on log roll test in both extremities. An imaging study and clinical optimization were performed prior to surgery. It was performed in two stages. First the left hip on the 8th day of admission, and the right hip on the 15th. In both surgeries the same procedure was performed, with implantation of an antiprotrusive ring and a double mobility cup prosthesis with an uncemented femoral stem. In the immediate postoperative period, the patient did not present any complications associated with the surgery. At 24-month follow-up, the patient performed full weight bearing with a Harris hip score (HHS) of 77 on the right hip and 79 on the left; 12 points on the WOMAC scale. No postoperative complications have occurred so far. Conclusions: these injuries are uncommon in our daily practice, where multiple options are available to address them. In our patient, the use of arthroplasty and antiprotrusive rings offers advantages over fracture synthesis techniques, such as early mobilization with moderate functional results and few postoperative complications.

6.
Rev. invest. clín ; 75(1): 1-12, Jan.-Feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1450098

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Epilepsy is a multifactorial pathology that has allowed the development of various drugs aiming to combat it. This effort was formally initiated in the 1940s when phenytoin began to be used. It eventually turned out to be a drug with great anticonvulsant efficacy. At present, several potentially good new generation anti-seizure medications (ASMs) have been developed. Most of them present more tolerability and less toxic effects. However, they continue to have adverse effects at different levels. In addition, some seizures are difficult to treat with ASMs, representing 30% of the total cases of people who suffer from epilepsy. This review aims to explore the genetic and molecular mechanisms of ASMs neurotoxicity, proposing the study of damage caused by epileptic seizures, in addition to the deterioration generated by anti-seizure drug administration within the central nervous system. It is beyond question that there is a need to develop drugs that lower the lower the risk of secondary and toxic effects of ASMs. Simultaneously, we must find strategies that produce fewer harmful interactions and more health benefits when taking anti-seizure drugs.

7.
Indian Pediatr ; 2023 Jan; 60(1): 45-48
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225436

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To evaluate the AIIMS Modified INCLEN tool for the diagnosis of epilepsy. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 250 children aged 1 month to 18 years presenting with complaints of abnormal body movements to either the pediatric or neurology outpatient departments in our institution between October 1, 2018 and June 30, 2020. The All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) modified International Clinical Epidemiology Network (INCLEN) diagnostic tool for epilepsy (AIIMS modified INDT-EPI) was administered and a diagnosis was made, which was further verified by a pediatrician or a neurologist. Specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated. Results: The study tool had a sensitivity of 87.6% and specificity of 84.0%. The PPV and NPV of the study tool were 86.8% and 84.9%, respectively. Conclusion: The study tool has good psychometric properties for physician assessment with regard to diagnosis of epilepsy.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992170

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE Epilepsy is considered a cir-cuit-level dysfunction associated with imbalanced excita-tion-inhibition,it is therapeutically necessary to identify key brain regions and related circuits in epilepsy.The subic-ulum is an essential participant in epileptic seizures,but the circuit mechanism underlying its role remains largely elusive.METHODS Here we deconstruct the diversity of subicular circuits in mouse models of epilepsy.Fiber pho-tometry was used to detect intrinsic activities of subicular PV,SST-positive interneurons and CaMK Ⅱ α-positive pyramidal neurons.Optogenetics and chemogenetics were used to selectively active or inactive subicular neu-rons or their projecting terminals.We also used in vivo and in vitro electrophysiology to record membrane charac-teristics of single neuron in distinct sub-regions of the subiculum.Finally,single pulse test was used to detect synaptic transmission strength between the subiculum and its downstream target.RESULTS First,we found that two majority of subicular interneurons,which inner-vate local pyramidal neurons to constrain their excitability,PV and SST-positive neurons showcase distinct calcium dynamics during hippocampal seizures.This could be attributed to distinct neural inputs from para-hippocampal regions of these two neuronal types.During epileptogen-esis,PV and SST neurons undergo different circuit reor-ganization patterns,that is,remarkable increase of exter-nal input to subicular PV neurons are seen after seizures,while SST cells receive decimated neural input.As their downstream targets,excitatory subicular pyramidal neu-rons are also intrinsically activated during hippocampal seizures.Moreover,we found that the subiculum hetero-geneously controls the generalization of hippocampal sei-zures by projecting to different downstream regions.No-tably,anterior thalamus projecting subicular neurons bidi-rectionally mediate seizures,while entorhinal cortex-pro-jecting subicular neurons act oppositely in seizure modu-lation.These two subpopulations are structurally and functionally dissociable.An intrinsically enhanced hyper-polarization-activated current and robust bursting intensity in anterior thalamus-projecting neurons facilitate synaptic transmission,thus contributing to the generalization of hippocampal seizures.CONCLUSION These results demonstrate that subicular neurons and circuits have diverse roles in epilepsy,suggesting the necessity to pre-cisely target specific subicular circuits for effective treat-ment of epilepsy.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992168

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE Cognitive deficit is a com-mon comorbidity in temporal lobe epilepsy(TLE)and that is not well controlled by current therapeutics.Currently,how epileptic seizure affects cognitive performance remains largely unclear.The subiculum is the major out-put of the hippocampus,which projects to entorhinal cor-tex and other more distinct brain regions.Physiologically,the subiculum codes spatial working memory and naviga-tion information including place,speed,and trajectory.Importantly,prior studies have noted the importance of the subiculum in the beginning,spreading,and generaliz-ing process of hippocampal seizure.How seizure-activated neurons in subiculum participate in cognitive impairment remains largely elusive.METHODS In this study,we sought to label the subicular seizure-activated c-fos+ neu-rons with a special promoter with enhanced synaptic activity-responsive element E-SARE in the subiculum,combined with chemogenetics and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs(DREADDs),Ca2+ fiber photometry approaches,and behavioral tasks,to reveal the role of these neurons in cognitive impairment in epilepsy.RESULTS We found that chemogenetic inhibi-tion of subicular seizure-tagged c-fos+ neurons(mainly CaMK Ⅱ α+ glutamatergic neurons)alleviates seizure generalization and improves cognitive performance in the hippocampal CA3 kindling TLE model.While inhibition of seizure-labeled c-fos+ GABAergic interneuron shows no effect on seizure and cognition.As a comparison,che-mogenetic inhibition of the whole subicular CaMK Ⅱ α+ neuron impairs cognitive function in na?ve mice in basal condition.Notably,inhibition of subicular seizure-tagged c-fos+ neurons enhances the recruitment of cognition-responsive c-fos+ neurons via increasing neural excitability during cognition tasks.CONCLUSION Our results dem-onstrate that subicular seizure-activated c-fos+ neurons contribute to cognitive impairment in TLE,suggesting sei-zure-tagged c-fos+ neurons as the potential therapeutic target to alleviate cognitive impairment in TLE.

10.
Chinese Journal of Neonatology ; (6): 210-214, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990744

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the neurodevelopmental prognosis and risk factors for adverse outcomes of neonatal seizure.Methods:From December 2019 to November 2020, infants with neonatal seizure diagnosed in our hospital were enrolled in this retrospective study. Based on survival or not, mental development index (MDI), psychomotor development index (PDI) and seizure episodes at the age of 12 months, the infants were assigned into adverse outcome group and normal outcome group. The risk factors for adverse outcomes were statistically analyzed.Results:A total of 75 infants were enrolled,including 39 cases in adverse outcome group and 36 in normal outcome group. 69 cases showed abnormal amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram(aEEG), including 38 mildly abnormal cases,23 moderately abnormal cases and 8 severely abnormal cases, The incidences of adverse outcomes and mortality rates were significantly different ( P<0.05) among infants with different severity levels of aEEG abnormalities and the severity levels of aEEG abnormalities were positively correlated with adverse outcomes ( r=0.367, 0.471, P<0.05).Univariate analysis showed that adverse outcome group had significantly higher incidences of chorioamnionitis, seizure onset age ≤3 d, 5 min Apgar score ≤3, cranial ultrasound abnormalities, brain MR abnormalities and aEEG abnormalities than normal outcome group ( P<0.05).Logistic regression analysis showed that seizure onset age ≤3 d ( OR=3.988, 95% CI 1.376-11.674), abnormal brain MR ( OR=3.296, 95% CI 2.383-17.377) and bilirubin encephalopathy ( OR=3.792,95% CI 2.110-13.216) were independent risk factors for adverse outcomes of neonatal seizure. Conclusions:For neonatal seizure, the infants with more severe abnormal aEEG will have higher incidences of adverse outcomes and mortality. Seizure onset age ≤3 d, brain MR abnormalities and bilirubin encephalopathy were independent risk factors for adverse outcomes of neonatal seizure.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990489

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the risk factors of recurrence of febrile seizures within 24 hours, so as to provide clinical evidence for early identification of children with risk factors and taking interventions.Methods:A total of 384 children with febrile seizures admitted to the Department of Pediatrics at Hebei General Hospital from June 2019 to June 2021 were selected as the study subjects, and were divided into single seizure group and recurrent seizures group.The clinical data of two groups and the risk factors of recurrent seizures were analyzed retrospectively.Results:A total of 384 children, aging from six months to five years, were diagnosed with febrile seizures.There were 296 cases in the single seizure group and 88 cases in the recurrent seizures group.First seizure, the age of the first sezures, temperature, duration of seizure ≥15 minutes, positive family history and C-reactive protein levels showed statistically significant differences between two groups(all P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that non-first seizure( OR=2.085, 95% CI 1.232-3.529, P=0.006), the age of first seizure( OR=0.970, 95% CI 0.948-0.993, P=0.010), duration of seizure ≥15 minutes( OR=3.587, 95% CI 1.497-8.596, P=0.004) and positive family history( OR=1.892, 95% CI 1.126-3.180, P=0.016) were risk factors of recurrence of febrile seizures within 24 hours.The ROC curve analysis showed that the combination of four risk factors had a higher predictive value, and the area under curve was 0.974. Conclusion:Non-first seizure, the age of first seizure, cluration of seizure ≥15 minutes and positive family history are the risk factors of recurrence of febrile seizures within 24 hours.Children with four risk factors are more likely to have recurrent seizure, and could be used as an indicator for individualized prediction.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990101

ABSTRACT

Objective:To illustrate the onset of epileptic seizures in children with brain injury admitted in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), and to explore the risk factors and the correlation between epileptic seizures and the prognosis.Methods:Clinical data of pediatric patients with brain injury who were admitted to PICU of Peking University First Hospital from January 2013 to December 2019, and monitored by video electroencephalography (VEEG) were retrospectively collected, including general demographic information, etiological data, clinical seizures prior to VEEG performing, in-hospital mortality, brain function score, VEEG manifestations, etc.Seizures detected by VEEG were the primary outcome, and prognosis when discharged from PICU was the secondary outcome. Logistic regression was used to analyze the factors associated with seizures and poor outcome. Results:A total of 284 children were included, involving 54.9%(156/284) males.The median age of included children was 1.7(0.5, 5.0) years.Stratified by the cause of disease, 45.1%(128/284) had epilepsy, 26.1%(74/128) had genetic metabolic disease, and 14.4%(41/284) had central nervous system infection.A total of 82.0%(233/284) children had abnormal VEEG background activities, and 59.5%(169/284) had interictal epileptic discharges.Seizures were detected in 106 cases, including 39.6%(42/106) of non-convulsive seizures and 24.5%(26/106) of non-convulsive epileptic states.There were 12.0% (34/284) had poor prognosis at discharge, including 24 patients died in-hospital, and Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category scores were increased in 10 survivors.Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that seizures existed before VEEG monitoring and interictal epileptiform discharge were the independent risk factors for seizure.Besides, mental retardation, sepsis related encephalopathy, consciousness abnormality during VEEG, abnormal VEEG background activity, and epileptic status were significantly correlated with the poor prognosis of children with brain injury in PICU. Conclusions:The incidence of electrographic seizure is higher in children with brain injury in PICU, and VEEG monitoring is beneficial to children with brain injury that achieves an early identification of seizures and prediction of prognosis.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1014732

ABSTRACT

Epilepsy is a long-term, chronic, recurrent, multi-factorial, multi-symptomatic nervous system disease, and was caused by abnormal discharge of brain neurons. Etiology can cause irreversible brain dysfunction and even death. There are about 6.5 million children with epilepsy in China, with incidence rate twice that of adult, presenting serious threaten to children's growth and development. Vitamin D has been well-known for crucial importance to development of nervous, skeletal, and immune system. Studies have found that pediatric epilepsy as well as other neurological diseases were closely related with vitamin D deficiency. First, a large number of studies have shown that vitamin D in children with epilepsy is affected by epilepsy itself; second, the use of anti-seizure medicines can alter metabolism of vitamin D by inducing cytochrome oxidases; third, the inducement was concerned to varieties, combination and duration of anti-seizure medicines; fourth, it was expected that supplement of vitamin D during antiepileptic treatment would guarantee an improvement of treating given that anti-seizure medicines may lead to deficiency of vitamin D. Large numbers of researches have reported on the correlation ship between pediatric epilepsy and vitamin D. However, there is still a lack of systematic review. This article aims to retrospect the research progress of relationship between pediatric epilepsy and vitamin D, and provide valuable feedbacks on further treatment of pediatric epilepsy.

14.
Tropical Biomedicine ; : 439-443, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011358

ABSTRACT

@#The study of children who experienced with febrile seizures(FS) as a result of COVID-19 infection to gain insight into the clinical characteristics and prognosis of neurological damage, with the aim of improving prevention, diagnosis, and the treatment of neurological complications. This study investigated the clinical features of 53 children with FS who were admitted to Sanya Women and Children’s Hospital from December 1, 2022, to January 31, 2023. The results indicated that the duration of convulsion in the case and control group was 7.90±8.91 and 2.67±1.23 (minutes) respectively. The analysis reveals that convulsions occurred within 24 hours in 39 cases (95.12%) of the case group, and in 8 cases (66.7%) of the control group. The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Additionally, the case group presented lower counts of WBC and NEU compared to the control group (p<0.05). The findings indicate that convulsions manifest at earlier stages of COVID-19 in children and the last longer than in the control group. It is therefore crucial for healthcare workers to remain attentive to patients with COVID-19 who report fever within 24 hours, and act promptly to implement preventive measures, particularly in cases of prolonged fever. It is essential to integrate the clinical manifestation, particularly convulsions, and the continuous numerical changes of inflammatory factors to assess COVID-19 linked with febrile seizures. In addition, larger-scale multi-center and systematic research are necessary to aid clinicians in monitoring neuropathological signals and biological targets, enabling more equitable diagnosis and treatment plans.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981999

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the clinical features of children with febrile seizures after Omicron variant infection.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of children with febrile seizures after Omicron variant infection who were admitted to the Department of Neurology, Children's Hospital Affiliated to the Capital Institute of Pediatrics, from December 1 to 31, 2022 (during the epidemic of Omicron variant; Omicron group), and the children with febrile seizures (without Omicron variant infection) who were admitted from December 1 to 31, in 2021 were included as the non-Omicron group. Clinical features were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#There were 381 children in the Omicron group (250 boys and 131 girls), with a mean age of (3.2±2.4) years. There were 112 children in the non-Omicron group (72 boys and 40 girls), with a mean age of (3.5±1.8) years. The number of children in the Omicron group was 3.4 times that in the non-Omicron group. The proportion of children in two age groups, aged 1 to <2 years and 6-10.83 years, in the Omicron group was higher than that in the non-Omicron group, while the proportion of children in two age groups, aged 4 to <5 years and 5 to <6 years, was lower in the Omicron group than that in the non-Omicron group (P<0.05).The Omicron group had a significantly higher proportion of children with cluster seizures and status convulsion than the non-Omicron group (P<0.05). Among the children with recurrence of febrile seizures, the proportion of children aged 6-10.83 years in the Omicron group was higher than that in the non-Omicron group, while the proportion of children aged 3 years, 4 years, and 5 years in the Omicron group was lower than that in the non-Omicron group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Children with febrile seizures after Omicron variant infection tend to have a wider age range, with an increase in the proportion of children with cluster seizures and status convulsion during the course of fever.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Child , Infant , Child, Preschool , Seizures, Febrile/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Seizures , Fever , Epidemics , Epilepsy, Generalized
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981975

ABSTRACT

The male neonate in this case study was admitted to the hospital at 15 hours of age due to respiratory distress for 15 hours and poor response for 3 hours after resuscitation from asphyxia. The neonate was highly unresponsive, with central respiratory failure and seizures. Serum ammonia was elevated (>1 000 μmol/L). Blood tandem mass spectrometry revealed a significant decrease in citrulline. Rapid familial whole genome sequencing revealed OTC gene mutations inherited from the mother. Continuous hemodialysis filtration and other treatments were given. Neurological assessment was performed by cranial magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalogram. The neonate was diagnosed with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency combined with brain injury. He died at 6 days of age after withdrawing care. This article focuses on the differential diagnosis of neonatal hyperammonemia and introduces the multidisciplinary management of inborn error of metabolism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Citrulline , Electroencephalography , Hyperammonemia , Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase Deficiency Disease/therapy , Seizures
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971490

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To propose a semi-supervised epileptic seizure prediction model (ST-WGAN-GP-Bi-LSTM) to enhance the prediction performance by improving time-frequency analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, enhancing the stability of the unsupervised feature learning model and improving the design of back-end classifier.@*METHODS@#Stockwell transform (ST) of the epileptic EEG signals was performed to locate the time-frequency information by adaptive adjustment of the resolution and retaining the absolute phase to obtain the time-frequency inputs. When there was no overlap between the generated data distribution and the real EEG data distribution, to avoid failure of feature learning due to a constant JS divergence, Wasserstein GAN was used as a feature learning model, and the cost function based on EM distance and gradient penalty strategy was adopted to constrain the unsupervised training process to allow the generation of a high-order feature extractor. A temporal prediction model was finally constructed based on a bi-directional long short term memory network (Bi-LSTM), and the classification performance was improved by obtaining the temporal correlation between high-order time-frequency features. The CHB-MIT scalp EEG dataset was used to validate the proposed patient-specific seizure prediction method.@*RESULTS@#The AUC, sensitivity, and specificity of the proposed method reached 90.40%, 83.62%, and 86.69%, respectively. Compared with the existing semi-supervised methods, the propose method improved the original performance by 17.77%, 15.41%, and 53.66%. The performance of this method was comparable to that of a supervised prediction model based on CNN.@*CONCLUSION@#The utilization of ST, WGAN-GP, and Bi-LSTM effectively improves the prediction performance of the semi-supervised deep learning model, which can be used for optimization of unsupervised feature extraction in epileptic seizure prediction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Memory, Short-Term , Seizures/diagnosis , Electroencephalography
18.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515157

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Si bien la primera causa de crisis epilépticas en la población adulta mayor es el accidente cerebrovascular, un importante diagnóstico diferencial corresponde al limb shaking syndrome, una manifestación clínica particular de un accidente isquémico transitorio. Caso clínico: Se describe entonces el caso de un hombre chileno de 62 años de edad que sufre una crisis focal motora sin alteración de conciencia con evidencia imagenológica de injuria isquémica de unos 10 días de antigüedad y de estenosis carotídea significativa, la cual es manejada quirúrgicamente. Discusión: Existen diferentes elementos que pueden distinguir una crisis epiléptica de un limb shaking sryndrome. La fisiopatología de la primera corresponde un fenómeno irritativo post isquémico con una clara manifestación electroencefalográfica, mientras que la segunda es producida por hipoperfusión relativa gatillada por ortostatismo en el contexto de una enfermedad carotídea oclusiva. El cuadro clínico del paciente se consideró más compatible con una crisis epiléptica que con un limb shaking syndrome.


Introduction: Although the leading cause of seizures in the older adult population is cerebrovascular accident, limb shaking syndrome is an important differential diagnosis, being a particular clinical manifestation of a transient ischemic attack. Clinical case: We thus describe a clinical case of a 62-year-old Chilean man who suffers a simple focal motor epileptic seizure, with imaging evidence of ischemic injury about 10 days old and significant carotid stenosis which is managed surgically. Discussion: There are different elements that can distinguish an epileptic seizure from a limb shaking syndrome. The pathophysiology of the first corresponds to a post-ischemic irritative phenomenon with a clear electroencephalographic manifestation, while the second is produced by relative hypoperfusion triggered by orthostatism in the context of carotid occlusive disease. The patient's clinical picture was considered more compatible with an epileptic seizure than with a limb shaking syndrome syndrome.

19.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21606, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447566

ABSTRACT

Abstract Amitriptyline (AMT) was developed for the treatment of chronic and neuropathic pain. There is also evidence it may be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. In this regard, the effect of on the experimental model of seizures and memory impairment caused by seizures in rats is investigated in the present study. Seizures in Wistar rats (200-250 g) were induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 60 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)). The anticonvulsant effect of AMT (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) was evaluated in the seizure model. The effect on memory was assessed using passive avoidance (PA) learning and memory test. After behavioral tests, the animals underwent deep anesthesia and were put down painlessly. Animal serum was isolated for oxidant/antioxidant assays (malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)). Intraperitoneal injection of AMT decreased the mean number of myoclonic jerks and generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTCS) duration and increased the mean latency of myoclonic jerk and GTCS compared to the PTZ group. Moreover, in the PA test, AMT caused a significant increase in retention latency (RL) and total time spent in the light compartment (TLC) compared to the PTZ group. Biochemical tests showed that AMT was able to significantly increase GPx serum levels and significantly reduce MDA serum levels compared to the PTZ group. Overall, this study suggests the potential neuroprotective effects of the AMT drug in a model of memory impairment caused by seizures via the mechanism of inhibition of the oxidative stress pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Seizures/chemically induced , Memory Consolidation/classification , Amitriptyline/adverse effects , Pentylenetetrazole/agonists
20.
Indian Pediatr ; 2022 Dec; 59(12): 916-919
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225275

ABSTRACT

Background: There is a paucity of literature to support 14-days albendazole therapy for neurocysticercosis (NCC). Objective: To compare the efficacy of 14-day and 28-day albendazole therapy in the management of children with newly diagnosed active NCC. Study design: Open-labelled randomized controlled trial Participants: Children aged 1-14 years with newly diagnosed active neurocysticercosis. Intervention: Albendazole (15 mg/kg/day) for either 14 days or 28 days. Outcome: The primary outcome measure was proportion of children with radiological resolution of active lesion at 6-month follow up. Secondary outcome measures were proportion of children with seizure recurrence, duration to seizure recurrence and calcification on follow up imaging. Results: 65 children with newly diagnosed NCC were randomized to receive albendazole therapy for 14 days (n=32) or 28 days (n=33). The proportion of children with complete resolution was comparable between the two groups [6 (18.8%) vs. 9 (27.3%); OR (95%CI):0.61 (0.19 to 1.98); P=0.56]. Similarly, proportion of children with seizure recurrence [5(15.6%) vs 2(6.1%); OR (95%CI): 2.87(0.51-16.0); P=0.26] and proportion of children with calcification on follow-up imaging [26(81.2%) vs 23(69.7%); OR (95%CI): 1.88 (0.59-5.99); P=0.39] were also comparable. There were no major side-effects noted during the study. Conclusion: 14-day treatment with albendazole therapy is as effective as 28-day treatment in achieving radiological resolution at six-month follow up. However, high rate of calcification in both the groups indicates need for further evaluation with an adequately powered study and longer follow up

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