Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 156
Filter
1.
Rev. biol. trop ; 71(1)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449517

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La presencia y estructura de la vegetación en áreas urbanas tiene un impacto en la composición de las comunidades de aves. Las áreas verdes con una mayor proporción de vegetación introducida tienden a presentar una homogeneización de avifauna, mientras que las áreas verdes con alta proporción de vegetación nativa presentan mayor diversidad de aves. En varios trabajos realizados en áreas urbanas de México, estos factores no son tomados en cuenta. Por lo tanto, se desconocen las respuestas de las especies en términos de riqueza y diversidad. Objetivo: Analizar la composición de especies de aves en las áreas verdes de Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas y evaluar la respuesta de las comunidades de aves en tres áreas verdes con diferente composición de vegetación. Así como analizar la relación entre los gremios tróficos de aves con los elementos de la vegetación en las áreas urbanas. Métodos: El estudio se llevó a cabo en tres sitios de muestreo de Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, México, con base en dos criterios: área similar de muestreo (ha) y diferencias en las características de la vegetación. Los monitoreos se realizaron de enero a diciembre de 2020, con tres visitas mensuales en cada sitio para un total de 108 visitas, utilizando el método visual directo. Resultados: Identificamos 98 especies (11 órdenes, 28 familias). Las especies más abundantes fueron Quiscalus mexicanus y Molothrus aeneus. Hubo diferencias en la riqueza de especies para cada sitio. Las insectívoras y granívoras fueron las dominantes. Se determinó una asociación entre los gremios y los sitios de estudio, donde la mayoría están relacionados con la vegetación mixta, comparado con la vegetación homogénea o introducida. Conclusiones: Las áreas urbanas estudiadas mantuvieron un número notable de aves, y varias de ellas presentaron alguna categoría de riesgo o endemismo. Esto demuestra la importancia de estas áreas verdes como refugio de aves y resalta la necesidad de conservar y proteger dichas áreas dentro de Ciudad Victoria y ciudades similares.


Introduction: The presence and structure of vegetation in urban areas have an impact on the composition of bird communities. Green areas with a higher ratio of introduced vegetation tend to have a greater homogenization of avifauna, whereas green areas with a high ratio of native vegetation have a greater diversity of birds. In several studies carried out in urban areas of Mexico, the factors of vegetation are not considered. Therefore, the responses of the species to vegetation types in terms of richness and diversity are unknown. Objective: To analyze the composition of bird species in the green areas of Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, and evaluate the response of bird communities in areas with differences in vegetation composition. As well as to analyze the relationship between the trophic guilds in birds and vegetation in urban areas. Methods: Three sampling sites were established in Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, Mexico, based on two criteria: similar sampling area (ha) and differences in vegetation characteristics. Monitoring took place between January and December 2020, with three monthly visits in each site for a total of 108 visits, using the direct visual method. Results: We identified 98 species (11 orders, 28 families). The most abundant species were Quiscalus mexicanus and Molothrus aeneus. Differences in species richness were found for each site. The insectivorous and granivorous were the dominant guilds. An association between the guilds and the study sites was determined, where most were linked to mixed native vegetation, compared to homogeneous or introduced vegetation. Conclusions: The urban areas studied maintained a notable number of birds, and several of them presented some category of risk or endemism. This demonstrates the importance of these green areas composed of native vegetation as a refuge for birds and highlights the need to conserve and protect these areas within Ciudad Victoria and similar cities.

2.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-222019

ABSTRACT

Background: Due to rapid urbanization, there is an increase in population in slums often lacking access to basic health services. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the utilization of reproductive and child health services by recently delivered women and their children residing in catchment areas of urban PHCs, to evaluate their level of satisfaction and to determine the factors associated with utilization of these services by recently delivered women. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in the catchment areas of urban primary health centre of Lucknow. Methods and Material: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 320 women having children less than 24 months in the slums covered under selected U-PHCs, sampled through a multi-stage random sampling technique using a semi-structured questionnaire. Statistical analysis used: SPSS-26 and MedCalc software were used for data analysis. Results: Utilization of RCH services by recently delivered women from UPHC was 39%. About 24% of recently delivered women availed ANC services from UPHC and 56.7% utilized family planning services and 95.8% immunization services for children. Child care services for diarrhea and ARI were availed by 9.9 and 3.1% of women, respectively. Satisfaction regarding maternal care and immunization services was seen in 84 and 95.8% of women. Poor satisfaction regarding child care was seen in 56.5% of women. Conclusions: The utilization of RCH services was found to be poor in the study population. Most recently delivered women were satisfied with all services except child care.

3.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-220773

ABSTRACT

Urbanization is a world-wide process and it is a cause and effect of heightened economic progress in a region. It plays an enormous role in social transformation and economic mobility all over the world. In fact, the process and level of urbanization has been transforming the developing countries from 'countries of villages' to 'countries of towns and cities'. With 31.16 percent urbanites lived in 2011, India is at a low level of urbanization compared with the developed nations. There exists large inter-regional disparities in different parts of the nation as far as level of urbanization is concerned. The present paper is an attempt to study the trends, degrees and tempo of urbanization and urban morphology in Karnataka from 1901 to 2011. It is the 7th largest state in India with 38.67 percent of urbanites living in 347 towns and cities as of 2011, which is 7.51 points above the national average in terms of urbanization and plays a signicant role in the state's as well as country's economy and progress of IT and BT sector. The paper is an effort to analyses the regional disparity in the process and level of urbanization among the districts of the state from 1991 to 2011. Finally, the study also enlightens the socio-economic consequences of this inter-regional disparity in urbanization in Karnataka. Present study is mainly based on the secondary sources of data and is collected from Indian Census Handbooks of Karnataka and other related reports. After collecting data, these were analysed in a suitable manner by using appropriate statistical and cartographic techniques. Results show that the state exhibits a uctuating trend in level of urbanization with a high regional variation and a high disparity in the concentration of urbanities. Disparities exist at the levels of urbanization in state shown that, Bangalore is the most urbanized district with 90.94 percent followed by Dharwad (56.82 percent) district and on the other end of this scale Kodagu with 14.61 percent, was the least urbanized district in the state. 78.24 percent of urbanities lived in only 19 percent of urban centres and the remaining 81 percent of towns contained only 21.76 percent of the state's urbanities. Thus, urbanization in Karnataka is a by-product of the demographic explosion, poverty encouraged rural-urban migration and reclassication of towns and it also reects uneven economic progresses across the state and needs special attention.

4.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-218878

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present paper is to focus the Sustainable Urban Development or the Smart Cities in relation to Haryana in present Scenario. Sustainability can be defined as the practice of reserving resources for future generation without any harm to the nature and other components. In the recent years, Haryana has seen a natural progression in its development story. As the big villages turning into towns, and towns transforming into cities. But it's the time for the state to transform its cities into smart and sustainable cities for the smart urbanization. Though urbanization brings a lot of challenges that can act as a barrier to growth of urbanization or the smart cities. The people move to urban centers in such of jobs and employments and hopefully the better life. Urbanization is change of residence which is geographically expressed as mobility or migration resulted by a way of life called urbanism. It is the proven fact, that the trend has a straight correlation with growth.

5.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 69(2): 240-245, Feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1422625

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the degree of urbanization influences the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Brazilian indigenous people. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted between 2016 and 2017 in northeastern Brazil and includes individuals aged between 30 and 70 years from two specific indigenous groups who volunteered to participate in the study: the Fulni-ô people (lowest degree of urbanization) and the Truká group (greater degree of urbanization). Cultural and geographical parameters were used to characterize and measure the magnitude of urbanization. We excluded individuals with known cardiovascular disease or renal failure who required hemodialysis. Chronic kidney disease was defined as a single measurement of an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine equation. RESULTS: A total of 184 indigenous people from the Fulni-ô group and 96 from the Truká group with a median age of 46 years (interquartile range: 15.2) were included. We found a chronic kidney disease rate of 4.3% in the total indigenous population, generally affecting an older population: 41.7% over 60 years old (p<0.001). The Truká people had a chronic kidney disease prevalence of 6.2%, with no differences in kidney dysfunction across age groups. The Fulni-ô participants had a chronic kidney disease prevalence of 3.3%, with a higher proportion of kidney dysfunction in older participants (of the six Fulni-ô indigenous people with chronic kidney disease, five were older). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that a higher degree of urbanization seems to negatively influence the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Brazilian indigenous people.

6.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-220676

ABSTRACT

Strati?cation on the basis of caste is found all over India. Caste system as a form of strati?cation has a stronghold in urban slum areas also. City-ward migration for Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe populations is synonymous with social development, as the city life offers socio-economic opportunities, better standards of living, educational and health facilities as compared to rural areas. The proportion of Scheduled Castes was higher in the slum areas (28.10%) compared to the population of Scheduled tribe in the country (21.19%). The state of Maharashtra has the largest number of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes living in urban slums. Andhra Pradesh had highest share of Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe slum population in urban SC/ST population compared with other states

7.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 45(3): 249-257, May-June 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447589

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine the association between urbanization and psychological well-being (PWB) in China. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2015 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) and included 3,071 men and 3,385 women aged 50 years or older who lived in 288 communities across 12 provinces and municipalities. The urbanization index, which summarizes 12 urbanization dimensions at community level, was categorized into tertiles representing low, medium, and high levels of urbanization. PWB was assessed by scoring three self-reported questions. Gender-stratified multilevel analyses were used to estimate the association between urbanization and PWB. Results: After controlling for individual-level factors, the urbanization index was associated positively with PWB. More specifically, an increase of one SD in the score of community population density, economic activity, housing, education, sanitation, or diversity was associated significantly with PWB in both genders. In addition, increases in the score of community communications, social services, transportation, or modern markets were associated significantly with PWB in women, but not in men. Conclusion: Urbanization has, on average, had an independent and positive effect on PWB in middle-aged and older Chinese populations, with many components of urbanization being separately and positively associated with PWB, especially in women.

8.
Cad. saúde colet., (Rio J.) ; 31(2): e31020405, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447809

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background The relationship between dental appearance and emotional/social well-being in underprivileged areas undergoing rapid urbanization is unknown. Objective To assess if the emotional and social well-being of teenagers living in urban areas might be more affected by unfavorable dental appearance determined by oral conditions. Method A population-based cross-sectional exploratory study with 12-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren was carried out in two poor, underserviced districts of Sao Paulo City, Brazil. Outcome was severity of oral health-related quality of life (QHRQoL) due to the emotional and social well-being and exposures were oral conditions and residence district (rural or urban). Results The impact on severity of QHRQoL due to emotional well-being and due to social well-being, respectively, were 14% and 16% higher for those presenting at least one untreated decayed tooth; 36% and 54% higher for those with unfavorable dental appearance and 25% and 39% higher for those from the urban district. No association between malocclusion and district was observed. Conclusion Despite higher prevalence of untreated dental caries in the rural district, teenagers from the urban district felt that their OHRQoL, adjusted by oral conditions investigated, was more negatively affected. This suggests that urban environmental influences can lead to stressful social pressures stemming from dental appearance, leading to diminished emotional and social well-being.


Resumo Introdução A relação entre aparência dentária e bem-estar emocional/social em áreas carentes com urbanização acelerada é desconhecida. Objetivo Avaliar se o bem-estar emocional e social de adolescentes residentes em área urbana pode ser mais impactado pela aparência dentária desfavorável controlada pelas condições bucais. Método Um estudo exploratório transversal de base populacional envolvendo escolares brasileiros de 12 anos foi realizado em dois bairros carentes foi realizado, na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. O desfecho foi a gravidade da qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal (QVRSB) devido ao bem-estar emocional e social, e as exposições foram condições bucais e distrito de residência (rural e urbano). Resultados O impacto sobre a gravidade da QVRSB em decorrência do bem-estar emocional e do bem-estar social, respectivamente, foi 14% e 16% maior para aqueles que apresentavam pelo menos um dente cariado não tratado; 36% e 54% maior para aqueles com aparência dentária desfavorável e 25% e 39% maior para aqueles moradores em distrito urbano. Nenhuma associação entre má oclusão e distrito foi observada. Conclusão Apesar da maior prevalência de cárie dentária não tratada no distrito rural, os adolescentes do distrito urbano sentiram-se mais afetados negativamente em sua qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal ajustada pelas condições bucais, sugerindo que as possíveis influências do ambiente urbano podem trazer experiências sociais estressantes devido à aparência dentária impactando no bem-estar emocional e social.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adolescent Health , Psychological Well-Being
9.
Chinese Journal of Health Management ; (6): 111-117, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993647

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the utilization of health management services and its influencing factors among new urban population.Methods:It is a cross-sectional study. From July 2020 to March 2021, a stratified random sampling method was used to extract 1978 new urban population in Jining city, and an anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted using a self-made questionnaire ′Residents Health Questionnaire′. The survey included general demographic characteristics, personal behavior lifestyle and medical care status. The χ2 test and binary logistic regression were used to analyze the factors influencing the utilization of health management services by new urban population. Results:The overall utilization of health management services in the new urban population was 47.22%. There were significant differences in utilization of health management services among new urban population with different gender, age, education level, occupation and monthly income. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that female ( OR=1.354, 95% CI: 1.094-1.676), people aged over 60 years ( OR=1.873, 95% CI: 1.413-2.483), people with a mean monthly income over 3 000 yuan ( OR=1.498, 95% CI: 1.123-1.997), people engaged in light manual labor ( OR=1.596, 95% CI: 1.003-2.539), people who exercise regularly( OR=2.400, 95% CI: 2.028-2.841) and people having social basic medical insurance ( OR=2.633, 95% CI: 2.042-3.394) had better utilization of health management projects. People who sat more than 3 hours a day ( OR=0.630, 95% CI: 0.532-0.745) had lower utilization of health management care. Conclusion:The utilization of health management projects in the new urban population is low. Gender, age, monthly income, physical exercise, sedentary time, daily labor intensity and social basic medical insurance status are the main influencing factors.

10.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 42(4): 633-649, oct.-dic. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420312

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La enfermedad de Chagas y la leishmaniasis tradicionalmente se han considerado zoonosis endémicas de áreas rurales del país. Sin embargo, la aparición de casos de estas enfermedades en áreas urbanas sugiere nuevos ciclos de circulación de estos parásitos. Por esta razón, se ha propuesto a los perros como centinelas de estos agentes zoonóticos, dado su rol como huéspedes accidentales o reservorios. Objetivo. Evaluar la circulación silenciosa de Leishmania spp. y Trypanosoma cruzi en perros de zonas urbanas de la ciudad de Sincelejo, Sucre. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron 100 muestras de sangre de perros para amplificar la región ITS1 de Leishmania spp. Las muestras positivas se utilizaron para amplificar la región conservada del minicírculo del ADN del cinetoplasto de Leishmania infantum y para el análisis de polimorfismos de longitud de fragmentos de restricción con la endonucleasa HaelII. Por otra parte, se amplificó un fragmento del ADN satelital de T. cruzi. Además, se evaluó la presencia de infecciones por Ehrlichia canis y Anaplasma platys, como potencialmente modificadoras de las manifestaciones clínicas. Resultados. De los 100 perros estudiados, se detectó: Leishmania spp. en 32, T. cruzi en 12, ambos parásitos en 7 y L. infantum en 18. Se encontraron infecciones por anaplasmatáceos en 18, y coinfecciones por bacterias y parásitos en 8 de los perros. En general, 47 de los animales estaban infectados por, al menos, un agente etiológico. Conclusión. Se demuestra la circulación de L. infantum y T. cruzi en zonas urbanas de Sincelejo, así como coinfecciones de estos parásitos junto con parásitos de la familia Anaplasmataceae. El presente estudio demuestra la conveniencia del uso de perros en la vigilancia epidemiológica de estos agentes zoonóticos.


Introduction: Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi are considered endemic zoonotic agents in rural areas of the country; however, there is a high risk of urbanization due to anthropogenic processes. For this reason, dogs have been proposed as sentinels of these zoonoses given their role as patients, hosts and/or reservoirs. Objective: To assess the silent circulation of Leishmania spp. and T. cruzi parasites in canines from urban areas of Sincelejo, Sucre. Materials and methods: One hundred canine blood samples were used to amplify the ITS1 region of Leishmania spp. Positive samples were used to amplify the conserved region of the kinetoplast DNA minicircle of L. infantum and for restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with HaelII endonuclease. In addition, a satellite DNA of T. cruzi was amplified. Also, the presence of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys was evaluated as infections that can influence clinical symptoms and health of animals. Results: Leishmania spp. was detected in 32% (32/100) and T. cruzi in 12% (12/100) of the animals, and 7% (7/100) of the samples were positive for both parasites. Also, L. infantum and infections with Anaplasmataceae family parasites were both detected in 18 % (18/100) of the samples. In the same way, co-infections with bacteria and parasites were found in 8 % (8/100) of the animals. Overall, 47 % (47/100) of the animals were infected with at least one agent. Conclusion: The circulation of L. infantum and T. cruzi, as well as co-infections of pathogens of the Anaplasmataceae family, is demonstrated in urban areas of Sincelejo. The present study demonstrates the convenience of canines as epidemiological surveillance sentinels of these zoonotic agents.


Subject(s)
Trypanosoma cruzi , Zoonoses , Leishmania infantum , Urbanization , Colombia
11.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-218724

ABSTRACT

In order to promote agricultural growth and urbanization of rural areas, ethnicity poses many dysfunctions in land governance concerning the rules, processes and structures mediating decisions on access, use and control of land, as well as the technique of managing conflicting land decisions and interests. The objective of this paper is to analyze the effects of urbanization and ethnicity on agricultural growth in Benin. Using VAR modeling on data covering the period 1995-2019, the results show that agricultural population negatively affects agricultural growth and ethnicity positively and significantly affects agricultural growth. Thus, it would be very interesting to take into account the evolution of agricultural population and ethnicity in the design and implementation of reforms in the agricultural sector in Benin.

12.
São Paulo med. j ; 140(5): 668-675, Sept.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1410211

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The Respiratory Syndromes Surveillance System was created by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 2000 to monitor influenza in this country. With the emergence of the new coronavirus pandemic, it became incorporated into the surveillance network for influenza and other respiratory viruses. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in the state of Acre through its hierarchical urban network. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional, descriptive and ecological study, using a spatiotemporal approach and using secondary data. This study was conducted in the state of Acre, northern Brazil. METHODS: This study used secondary data, and epidemiological weeks and municipalities were taken to be the units of analysis. Incidence rates and kernel intensities were calculated for four study periods. Spatiotemporal analysis was performed using scan statistics to identify clusters of SARS cases and considering the population of each municipality. RESULTS: In general, it could be observed that there were higher kernel rates and intensities in municipalities located in the north and south of this state (i.e. its most populous municipalities). CONCLUSION: Priority areas for interventions to control transmission of COVID-19 were highlighted, with the aim of reducing the risks of transmission to more distant areas in the urban hierarchy of the state of Acre.

13.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-221208

ABSTRACT

Urbanization is a global phenomenon; it is nearly a universally accepted truth that economic progress and the amount of urbanization are directly linked to one another. Purba Medinipur district includes 25 urban centres with a total population of 592714 people, accounting for 9.2 percent of the district's total population. To investigate the trends and patterns in urbanization levels in the Purba Medinipur district. The entire investigation was carried out with the assistance of a secondary data source. In the Arc-GIS platform, the cartographic approach is used, and maps are created. According to the findings, Haldia municipality is the district's main urban centre, with an 18.40 percent population. The overall male literacy rate in Purba Medinipur is 92.32 percent, while the female literacy rate is 81.32 percent, with a discrepancy of roughly 11 percent; 92.90 percent of literate males are found in urban regions, while the ratio drops to 83.95 percent in urban females. Thus, proper gender inequality in terms of literacy rate between urban and rural Purba Medinipur has been discovered.

14.
Eng. sanit. ambient ; 27(1): 141-157, jan.-fev. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364825

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O crescimento desordenado das cidades e o excesso de impermeabilização são problemáticas dos grandes centros urbanos, tendo como consequência principal a ocorrência de inundações e alagamentos. Nesse contexto, a modelagem hidrodinâmica pode ser uma importante ferramenta para a determinação de áreas inundáveis, permitindo estimar as cotas de inundação para diferentes cenários de tempos de retorno (TR) e chuvas de projetos, permitindo, assim, representar mais fielmente a realidade e minimizar erros decorrentes de projetos hidráulicos. Trabalhando em conjunto com o Sistema de Informações Geográficas (SIG), em que a geometria do canal é extraída por meio do Modelo Digital do Terreno (MDT) de alta precisão gerado por levantamento com técnica LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) e software de modelagem hidrodinâmica (Hydrologic Engineering Center — River Analysis System — HEC-RAS), foi possível avaliar diferentes cenários de inundações no trecho canalizado em concreto, no córrego Botafogo, em Goiânia, Goiás. Com os resultados da modelagem hidrodinâmica foi possível avaliar o comportamento da propagação das vazões geradas, constatando-se que para precipitações com TR de 50 anos ou mais, os limites da canalização não suportam os volumes gerados e transportados, provocando inundações em seis trechos críticos. Os dados obtidos pelo HEC-RAS puderam ser validados a partir de registros fotográficos divulgados pela imprensa local e levantamento topográfico dos locais inundados, de modo que a integração entre o SIG e a modelagem hidrodinâmica se mostrou eficiente para o estudo de áreas inundáveis.


ABSTRACT The disordered growth of cities and the excessive waterproofing are problematic of the large urban centers, having as a main consequence the occurrence of floods and overflows. Within this context, hydrodynamic modeling can be an important tool for the determination of floodable areas, allowing the estimation of flood quotas for different scenarios of return periods (TR) and project rainfall, thus allowing to more accurately represent reality and minimize errors arising from hydraulic designs. Working with Geographic Information System (GIS), where the channel geometry is extracted using the high precision Digital Terrain Model (DTM) generated by LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) survey and hydrodynamic modeling software (HEC-RAS), it was possible to evaluate different flood scenarios in the channeled concrete section, in the Botafogo Stream in Goiânia, Goiás. With the results of hydrodynamic modeling, it was possible to evaluate the propagation behavior of the generated flows, finding that for precipitation with TR 50 years or older, the plumbing limits do not support the generated and transported volumes, causing flooding in six critical stretches. The data obtained by HEC-RAS could be validated from photographic records released by the press and topographic survey of flooded sites, so that the integration between GIS and hydrodynamic modeling proved to be efficient for the study of floodable areas.

15.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 31(1): e012421, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1357155

ABSTRACT

Abstract We present a case of Sarcoptes and canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in a white-nosed coati (Nasua narica) that was trapped in the dry tropical forest of Cerro Blanco reserve, located in the coastal region of Ecuador. Sarcoptic mange is a highly contagious and zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution that causes epidemics. Mange is produced by Sarcoptes mites that causes severe epidermal damage. Secondary infections and physiological constrictions without treatment can lead to death of the host. In addition, cooccurrence of canine distemper virus was detected via iiRT-PCR from serum samples. Physical analyses showed that 90% of the skin was affected by severe alopecia due to the sarcoptic mange infection. The presence of mites and histopathological analyses confirmed the diagnosis of infection. This coati was taken to a veterinary clinic and was fed every day, but it died after four days. This is the first report of sarcoptic mange and the first report of CDV in white-nosed coatis in South America. Further studies are needed in this region, to seek out other suspected cases, given the high capacity for disease transmission. Preventive actions to avoid epidemic and zoonotic episodes are needed.


Resumo Apresentamos um caso de Sarcoptes e infecção pelo vírus da cinomose canina (CDV) em um quati-do-nariz-branco (Nasua narica) que ficou preso na floresta tropical seca da reserva de Cerro Blanco, localizada na região costeira do Equador. A sarna sarcóptica é uma doença altamente contagiosa e zoonótica de distribuição mundial que causa epidemias. A sarna é produzida por ácaro do gênero Sarcoptes que causa graves danos epidérmicos. Infecções secundárias e constrições fisiológicas sem tratamento podem levar à morte do organismo. Além disso, a coocorrência do vírus da cinomose canina foi detectada, via iiRT-PCR, a partir de amostras de soro. As análises físicas mostraram que 90% da pele estava afetada por alopecia severa devido à infecção pelo ácaro da sarna sarcóptica. A presença de ácaros e análises histopatológicas confirmaram o diagnóstico de infecção. Esse quati foi levado a uma clínica veterinária e foi alimentado todos os dias, mas morreu após quatro dias. Esse é o primeiro relato de sarna sarcóptica e o primeiro relato de CDV em quatis-de-nariz-branco na América do Sul. São necessários mais estudos nessa região, para buscar outros casos suspeitos, dada a alta capacidade de transmissão da doença. Ações preventivas para evitar episódios epidêmicos e zoonóticos, são necessárias.


Subject(s)
Animals , Scabies/veterinary , Procyonidae , Distemper Virus, Canine , Skin , Ecuador/epidemiology
16.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 261-266, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936144

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the relationship between urbanization and residents ' health behaviors in China, and to clarify the impact of urbanization on health behaviors.@*METHODS@#Based on China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), we established a panel data fixed effect model tracked in 2011, 2013 and 2015 to analyze the effect of urbanization level on smoking cessation, drinking, sleep quality and physical exercise behavior. The ratio of population density, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and output value of secondary and tertiary industries to GDP were used to represent the levels of urbanization.@*RESULTS@#From 2011 to 2015, China ' s urbanization levels showed an increasing trend, which showed that the ratio of population density, GDP per capita and output value of secondary and tertiary industries in GDP increased year by year. Smoking cessation increased with the increase of GDP per capita and the proportion of the output value of secondary and tertiary industries. Compared with the low-level, the drinking rate in the regions with per capita GDP of more than 45 000 yuan increased by 2.49%, and the drinking rate in the regions with secondary and tertiary industries for 80%-85% decreased by 2.48%. However, there was no significant difference with population density. The sleep quality decreased with the increase of per capita GDP. In regions where per capita GDP was more than 93%, the sleep quality decreased by 3.71% compared with the low-level which was not significantly different from the ratio of population density and the output value of secondary and tertiary industries. For low contrast, the exercise rate in regions with the population density of 400-600 people/km2 and over 800 people/km2 was reduced by 5.2% and 7.7% respectively. The exercise rate in regions with per capita GDP of 25 000-35 000 yuan and over 45 000 yuan was reduced by 3.26% and 3.73% respectively. The exercise rate in regions with secondary and tertiary industries accounting for more than 93% of GDP was 10.68% lower than that of the low-level regions.@*CONCLUSION@#Different dimensions of urbanization have different impacts on different health behaviors. The smoking cessation rate increases with the increase of urbanization level, which is related to the proportion of per capita GDP and the output value of secondary and tertiary industries. The exercise rate, related to the three dimensions, decreases with the increase of urbanization. Sleep quality is more closely related to per capita GDP, and the probability of good sleep quality decreases with the increase of urbanization level. However, there is no obvious trend between drinking rate and urbanization level, which needs further study.


Subject(s)
Humans , China/epidemiology , Empirical Research , Health Behavior , Longitudinal Studies , Retirement , Urbanization
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55: e0479, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376347

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: In Latin America, Chagas disease is endemic, with a high prevalence in rural indigenous communities and an increasing prevalence in urban areas owing to migration from rural areas with active vector transmission. This study aimed to assess differences in the prevalence of Chagas disease in urban and rural moqoit communities, one of the main ethnic indigenous groups in the south of Gran Chaco. Methods: A seroprevalence study was conducted in six moqoit populations in the Santa Fe province, Argentina. The variables studied were serology results for Chagas disease, residents of urban or rural areas, age, and sex. Results: The results showed that 9.26% of the 702 volunteers evaluated and 18.32% of the 131women of childbearing potential were seropositive. According to the calculated prevalence ratio, the prevalence of Chagas disease in urban communities was6.41 (95% confidence inverval: 3.73-11.02) times higher than that in rural communities: 21.59% in urban communities vs. 3.37%in rural communities. Conclusions: The seroprevalence found in the moqoit community was higher than the estimated level for the general population of the same region, with a greater impact in urban areas than in rural areas. The urbanization of groups of people with poor socio-sanitary conditions in the second half of the 20th century could have caused this higher seroprevalence of Chagas disease.

18.
Rev. bras. estud. popul ; 39: e0205, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387858

ABSTRACT

No início de 2020, assentamentos urbanos em todo o mundo experimentaram a rápida expansão da síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SARS-CoV-2). As cidades foram os focos de contaminação nos países que apresentaram notificações significativas de Covid-19. Neste estudo, investigamos primeiramente a disseminação do novo coronavírus entre cidades espraiadas e compactas, examinando aspectos como densidade urbana, localização de pessoas e empregos e padrões de deslocamento. Nessa análise, a literatura anterior e os dados recentes de três grandes cidades distintas (Nova York, Los Angeles e São Paulo) apoiam a discussão. Com base na revisão da literatura, demonstra-se que a morfologia urbana, a infraestrutura e os projetos de mobilidade e atividades econômicas são aspectos relevantes do desenvolvimento urbano que podem afetar as interações entre os cidadãos e a disseminação da Covid-19. Além disso, observa-se que a escala regional e a análise da rede urbana também são importantes nos estudos que investigam o crescimento da Covid-19. Por fim, a revisão da literatura mostra que a vulnerabilidade socioespacial urbana é relevante em tempos de pandemia, diante das associações entre a disseminação da Covid-19 e aspectos socioespaciais nas cidades, como pobreza e desigualdade.


A principios de 2020, los asentamientos urbanos de todo el mundo experimentaron la rápida expansión del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo (SARS-CoV-2). Las ciudades fueron los puntos críticos de contaminación por el virus dentro de los países que presentaron notificaciones significativas de COVID-19. En este estudio, primero investigamos la diseminación de COVID-19 en grandes ciudades compactas y extensas, y examinamos aspectos como la densidad urbana, la ubicación de personas y trabajos, y los patrones de desplazamiento. En este análisis, la literatura previa y los datos recientes de tres distintas grandes ciudades (Nueva York, Los Ángeles y San Pablo) apoyan nuestra discusión. Aquí, confirmamos que la morfología urbana, la infraestructura, los proyectos de movilidad y las actividades económicas son aspectos relevantes del desarrollo urbano que pueden afectar las interacciones entre los ciudadanos y la difusión de la COVID-19. Además, demostramos que la escala regional y el análisis de redes urbanas también son importantes en los estudios que investigan el crecimiento de COVID-19. Finalmente, investigamos la vulnerabilidad socioespacial urbana en tiempos de pandemia, destacando las asociaciones entre la diseminación de la COVID-19 y aspectos socio-dentro de las ciudades, como la pobreza y la desigualdad.


In early 2020, urban settlements worldwide have experienced the rapid expansion of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2). Cities were the hotspots of virus contamination within countries presenting significant COVID-19 notifications. In this study, we first investigate the COVID-19 dissemination between compact and sprawling big cities, examining aspects such as urban density, location of people and jobs and commuting patterns. Previous literature and recent data from three distinct big cities (New York, Los Angeles and Sao Paulo) support our discussion. Our literature review demonstrates that urban morphology, infrastructure, mobility projects and economic activities are relevant aspects of urban development that might affect interactions among citizens and COVID-19 dissemination. In addition, we show that regional scale and urban network analysis are also relevant in studies investigating COVID-19 growth. Finally, our literature review shows that urban socio-spatial vulnerability is also relevant in times of pandemic, highlighting the associations between COVID-19 dissemination and socio aspects within cities, such as poverty and inequality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Urban Population , Urbanization , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Social Change , Population Density , Social Segregation , Social Vulnerability
19.
Poblac. salud mesoam ; 18(2)jun. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1386919

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The chikungunya virus has already been identified in more than 60 countries in Asia, Africa, Europe and the Americas, and chronicity after the disease impacts the lives of those affected by the virus, as well as society, the economy and public health. The objective was to characterize, through epidemiological survey, the profile of chikungunya infection in a mid-sized municipality in Mato Grosso according to sociodemographic and sanitary factors. Methods: The serum-epidemiological survey was conducted with 596 adults aged ≥ 18 years selected by cluster sampling process, with application of questionnaires and biological material collection. Positive cases of chikungunya fever were those with positive results in the anti-chikungunya virus enzyme immunoassay (ELISA). The statistical analyses used descriptive and inferential techniques with confidence intervals of 95% and a significance level of 5%. Results: The overall prevalence of chikungunya fever found in the community was 8.4%. The profile of infection by chikungunya fever is composed of women (p<0.204), aged between 18 and 39 years (p<0.780), more than 08 years of study (p<0.079), non-white reported race/color p<0.871) and employed in the past 12 months (p<0.927). Not residing with affective companion was statistically significant for infection by chikungunya virus (CHIKV) (p<0.028). Conclusion: The study found that women are the most affected by the infection, as well as being single represented a risk factor, and risk behaviors, such as presence of larvae and breeding of mosquitos at home, reflect a low level of awareness of the disease.


Resumen Introducción: el virus chikunugnya ya se ha identificado en más de 60 países de Asia, África, Europa y América, y la cronicidad después de la enfermedad afecta la vida de los afectados por el virus, así como la sociedad, la economía y la salud pública. El objetivo fue caracterizar, mediante encuestas epidemiológicas, el perfil de la infección por chikungunya en un municipio de tamaño medio en Mato Grosso de acuerdo con factores sociodemográficos y sanitarios. Métodos: La encuesta epidemiológica en suero se realizó con 596 adultos de ≥ 18 años seleccionados mediante un proceso de muestreo por conglomerados, con aplicación de cuestionarios y recolección de material biológico. Los casos positivos de fiebre chikungunya fueron aquellos con resultados positivos en el inmunoensayo enzimático del virus anti-chikungunya (ELISA). Los análisis estadísticos utilizaron técnicas descriptivas e inferenciales con intervalos de confianza del 95% y un nivel de significación del 5%. Resultados: La prevalencia general de fiebre chikungunya encontrada en la comunidad fue de 8.4%. El perfil de infección por fiebre chikungunya está compuesto por mujeres (p <0.204), con edades comprendidas entre 18 y 39 años (p <0.780), más de 08 años de estudio (p <0.079), raza/color no blanco (p <0.871) y empleado en los últimos 12 meses (p <0.927). No residir con compañero afectivo fue estadísticamente significativo para la infección por el virus chikungunya (CHIKV) (p <0.028). Conclusión: El estudio encontró que las mujeres son las más afectadas por la infección, además de ser solteras representaban un factor de riesgo, y los comportamientos de riesgo, como la presencia de larvas y la cría de mosquitos en el hogar, reflejan un bajo nivel de conciencia de la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chikungunya Fever , Brazil , Epidemiologic Factors , Socioeconomic Survey
20.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(2): 210-223, Mar.-Apr. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248754

ABSTRACT

Abstract Urbanization, pollution and the modification of natural landscapes are characteristics of modern society, where the change in human relations with the environment and the impact on biodiversity are environmental determinants that affect the health-disease relationship. The skin is an organ that has a strong interface with the environment and, therefore, the prevalence patterns of dermatoses may reflect these environmental changes. In this article, aspects related to deforestation, fires, urbanization, large-scale agriculture, extensive livestock farming, pollution and climatic changes are discussed regarding their influence on the epidemiology of skin diseases. It is important that dermatologists be aware of their social responsibility in order to promote sustainable practices in their community, in addition to identifying the impacts of environmental imbalances on different dermatoses, which is essential for the prevention and treatment of these diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dermatology , Conservation of Natural Resources , Agriculture , Environmental Pollution
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL