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1.
Medwave ; 24(1): e2700, 29-02-2024.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532745

ABSTRACT

Introducción Los factores de riesgo psicosociales como determinantes de la salud en el trabajo pueden afectar tanto al bienestar físico como al bienestar psíquico del trabajador. En los sistemas de formación que incluyen contenidos cognitivo-preventivos, funcionan mejor cuando la construcción del conocimiento está basada en el neuroaprendizaje. El objetivo del estudio fue comparar el grado de procesamiento de contenidos con inserción de frases disuasivas (grupo A) versus inserción de frases persuasivas (grupo B), como efecto de una capacitación con aproximación al neuroaprendizaje de la salud psicosocial en el trabajo de un grupo de profesionales con seguro sanitario de la Amazonía peruana. Métodos Diseño experimental con pre/posprueba, que incluyó dos grupos experimentales más un grupo de control: n = 48 sujetos en total, 16 por cada grupo, con edades entre 22 y 36 años. La capacitación se desarrolló entre diciembre de 2018 y enero de 2019 con una duración de 18 horas, espaciadas en seis semanas. Para la recogida de datos se utilizó un registro previamente validado por cinco expertos. Resultados La distribución de datos en los grupos fue adecuada tanto en preprueba como en posprueba, excepto en posprueba del grupo B (p = 0,002). En el grupo control los resultados del procesamiento de contenidos, tanto preprueba como en posprueba, se mantuvieron similares (p = 0,667). El procesamiento de contenidos sobre salud psicosocial en el trabajo en posprueba fue significativamente diferente entre los grupos de intervención y el grupo control (p = 0,001), distinguiéndose el procesamiento de contenidos con inserción de frases disuasivas. Conclusiones Los resultados indican que la capacitación con aproximación al neuroaprendizaje, puede mejorar el procesamiento de contenidos con inserción de frases disuasivas para el cumplimiento de normativas orientadas a promover la salud psicosocial en el trabajo.


Introduction Psychosocial risk factors as determinants of health at work can affect both the physical and psychological well-being of the worker. Training systems that include cognitive-preventive content work best when knowledge construction is based on neurolearning. The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of content processing with the insertion of deterrent (group A) versus persuasive sentences (group B) as an effect of a training with a neurolearning approach to psychosocial health in the work of a group of professionals with health insurance in the Peruvian Amazon. Methods Experimental design with pre-/post-test, including two experimental groups plus a control group, n = 48 subjects in total and 16 per group, aged 22-36 years. The training took place between December 2018 and January 2019 with a duration of 18 hours spaced over six weeks. A register previously validated by five experts was used for data collection. Results The distribution of data in the groups was adequate in both pre-test and post-test, except in post-test in group "B" (p = 0.002). In the control group, the results of content processing in both pre-test and post-test remained similar (p = 0.667). The processing of psychosocial occupational health content in the post-test was significantly different between the intervention and control groups (p = 0.001), distinguishing the processing of content with the insertion of deterrent phrases. Conclusions The results indicate that training with a neurolearning approach can improve the processing of content with the insertion of deterrent phrases for compliance with regulations aimed at promoting psychosocial health at work.

2.
Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice ; (12): 21-28, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013280

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of multi-target transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and single-target tDCS on the performance of working memory-postural control dual-task in healthy adults, and to compare the regulatory effect of the two stimulation protocols. MethodsFrom November, 2020 to February, 2021, 19 healthy adults in Shanghai University of Sport were recruited and randomly accepted multi-target tDCS, single-target tDCS and sham stimulation with at least one week interval between any two stimulation protocols. The target areas of multi-target tDCS included left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC) and bilateral primary motor cortex (M1), and single-tDCS only applied to L-DLPFC. Before and after stimulation, participants completed walking and standing balance tests under single task and dual-task conditions with the second task being a N-back task. The dual-task postural control performance, dual-task cost (DTC) and working memory performance were observed before and after stimulation. ResultsSignificant differences were observed among three stimulation protocols in the changes of stride variability (F = 3.792, P = 0.029), DTC of stride variability (F = 3.412, P = 0.040) and velocity of center of pressure (Vcop) (F = 3.815, P = 0.029). The stride variability (P = 0.047) and Vcop (P = 0.015) were significantly lower and the decrease in DTC of stride variability tended to be significant (P = 0.073) following multi-target tDCS, as compared to sham stimulation. Single-target tDCS significantly decreased the changes of stride variability (P = 0.011), DTC of stride variability (P = 0.014) and Vcop (P = 0.025), as compared to sham stimulation. Compared with single target tDCS, multi-target tDCS reduced the changes of the dual-task cost of the area of center of pressure (P = 0.035). Moreover, no significant difference was observed among the three stimulation protocols in the changes of each measure in the working memory test (P > 0.05). ConclusionBoth multi-target tDCS and single-target tDCS can improve the performance of working memory-postural control dual-task in healthy adults, and compared with single-target tDCS, multi-target tDCS has some advantages in regulating postural control.

3.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 147-156, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010679

ABSTRACT

The prefrontal cortex and hippocampus may support sequential working memory beyond episodic memory and spatial navigation. This stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) study investigated how the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) interacts with the hippocampus in the online processing of sequential information. Twenty patients with epilepsy (eight women, age 27.6 ± 8.2 years) completed a line ordering task with SEEG recordings over the DLPFC and the hippocampus. Participants showed longer thinking times and more recall errors when asked to arrange random lines clockwise (random trials) than to maintain ordered lines (ordered trials) before recalling the orientation of a particular line. First, the ordering-related increase in thinking time and recall error was associated with a transient theta power increase in the hippocampus and a sustained theta power increase in the DLPFC (3-10 Hz). In particular, the hippocampal theta power increase correlated with the memory precision of line orientation. Second, theta phase coherences between the DLPFC and hippocampus were enhanced for ordering, especially for more precisely memorized lines. Third, the theta band DLPFC → hippocampus influence was selectively enhanced for ordering, especially for more precisely memorized lines. This study suggests that theta oscillations may support DLPFC-hippocampal interactions in the online processing of sequential information.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Male , Epilepsy , Hippocampus , Memory, Short-Term , Mental Recall , Prefrontal Cortex , Theta Rhythm
4.
Av. psicol. latinoam ; 41(2): [1-14], may-ago. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1510502

ABSTRACT

El TDAH es el trastorno del neurodesarrollo más diagnosticado en escolares. La evidencia indica que las funciones ejecutivas, como es el caso de la velocidad de procesamiento y la memoria de trabajo, están afectadas en estudiantes con TDAH, aunque no existe un acuerdo definitivo sobre su presencia sistemática en este trastorno. Esta investigación pretende determinar si la velocidad de procesamiento y la memoria de trabajo corresponden a variables cognitivas en el TDAH. Participaron 138 estudiantes de 10 a 17 años. Se determinó TDAH con la escala VADTRS; se evaluó velocidad de procesamiento con una tarea de rapidez grafomotora y memoria de trabajo con una tarea de dígitos. Se utilizó un diseño transversal, univariante e intersujeto para el análisis de los datos. El VADTRS detectó un grupo con TDAH (N = 97) y otro sin TDAH (N = 41). A ambos grupos se aplicaron tareas de velocidad de procesamiento y memoria de trabajo; los análisis permitieron detectar diferencias significativas en estas variables entre los grupos con y sin TDAH. El grupo con TDAH fue dividido según su presentación; no se detectaron diferencias significativas en velocidad de procesamiento; la memoria de trabajo mostró un rendimiento significativa- mente menor en las presentaciones de TDAH inatenta y combinada. La velocidad de procesamiento y la memoria de trabajo parecen distinguir entre sujetos con y sin TDAH, la velocidad de procesamiento no parece distinguir entre presentaciones y la memoria de trabajo aparece alterada en aquellas presentaciones en que el componente atencional es definitorio


ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed neurodevelopmental disorder in schoolchildren. Evidence indicates that executive functions, such as processing speed and working memory, are affected in students with ADHD, although there is no definitive agreement on their sys- tematic presence in this disorder. This research aims to determine whether processing speed and working memory correspond to cognitive variables in ADHD. A total of 138 students aged 10 to 17 years participated. ADHD was determined with the VADTRS scale; processing speed was assessed with a graphomotor speed task and working memory with a digit task. A cross-sectional, univariate, intersubject design was used for data analy- sis. The VADTRS detected one group with ADHD (N = 97) and one without ADHD (N = 41). Processing speed and working memory tasks were applied to both groups; analyses detected significant differences in these variables between the ADHD and non- ADHD groups. The ADHD group was divided according to presentation; no significant differences were detected in processing speed; working memory showed significantly lower performance in the inattentive and combined ADHD presentations. Processing speed and working memory appear to distinguish between subjects with and without ADHD, processing speed does not appear to distinguish between presentations, and working memory appears impaired in those presentations in which the attentional component is defining.


O TDAH é o distúrbio de desenvolvimento neurológico mais frequentemente diagnosticado em crianças em idade escolar. As provas indicam que as funções executivas, tais como a velocidade de processamento e a memória de trabalho, são afectadas nos estudantes com TDAH, embora não haja um acordo definitivo sobre a sua presença sistemática nesta doença. Esta investiga- ção visa determinar se a velocidade de processamento e a memória de trabalho correspondem a variáveis cognitivas na TDAH. Um total de 138 estudantes com idades compreendidas entre os 10 e os 17 anos participaram. A TDAH foi determinada com a escala VADTRS; a velocidade de processamento foi avaliada com uma tarefa de velocidade grafomotora e a memória de trabalho com uma tarefa de dígitos. Foi utilizado um desenho transversal, univariado e intersubjecto para análise de dados. O VADTRS detectou um grupo com ADHD (N = 97) e um grupo sem ADHD (N = 41). Ambos os grupos foram administrados com velocidade de processamento e tarefas de memória de trabalho; as análises detectaram diferenças significativas nestas variáveis entre os grupos com ADHD e sem ADHD. O grupo TDAH foi dividido de acordo com a apresentação; não foram detectadas diferenças significativas na velocidade de processamento; a memória de trabalho mostrou um desempenho significativamente inferior nas apresentações de TDAH desatenta e combinada. A velocidade de processamento e a memória de trabalho parecem distinguir entre assuntos com e sem TDAH; a velocidade de processamento não parece distinguir entre apresentações e memória de trabalho parece prejudicada nas apresentações em que a componente atencional está a definir


Subject(s)
Humans
5.
Av. psicol. latinoam ; 41(1): [1-14], ene.-abr. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512784

ABSTRACT

El objetivo del presente trabajo consistió en estudiar el rol de la atención selectiva, el componente retentivo y ejecutivo de información de la memoria de trabajo, y la aptitud verbal en la producción de inferencias explicativas en la comprensión de textos expositivos. Con este propósito, 171 estudiantes universitarios completaron pruebas de memoria de trabajo, atención selectiva, aptitud verbal y cuestionarios de inferencias explicativas luego de leer textos expositivos. Los resultados de las ecuaciones estructurales muestran que la producción de inferencias se explica de manera directa por la aptitud verbal y el componente ejecutivo de la memoria de trabajo. El análisis también detectó una relación de interacción de mediación entre las capacidades de producir inferencias explicativas, de atención selectiva y de almacenamiento de información verbal en memoria de trabajo. Estos componentes mostraron un efecto indirecto sobre la capacidad de inferir vía el componente ejecutivo de la memoria de trabajo. Lo anterior sugiere que la capacidad de inferir explicaciones en la comprensión está fuertemente relacionada con la aptitud verbal y la capacidad de procesar información en la memoria de trabajo, mientras que el componente retentivo y de atención selectiva muestran un impacto mediado por la memoria de trabajo.


This research aimed to study the role of selective attention, the retention and executive components of working memory, and verbal aptitude in producing explanatory inferences in the comprehension of expository texts. For this purpose, 171 undergraduates completed tests of working memory, selective attention, verbal aptitude, and explanatory inference questionnaires after reading expository texts. The results of the structural equation modeling indicated that the production of explanatory inferences is determined directly by verbal aptitude and the executive component of verbal working memory. The analysis also detected a mediation interaction effect between the abilities to produce explanatory inferences, selective attention span, and the ability to store verbal information in working memory. These components indirectly affected the ability to infer via the executive component of working memory. This suggest that the ability to make explanatory inferences in the comprehension of expository texts is strongly related to verbal aptitude and the capacity to process information in working memory, while the ability to manage selective attention and retain verbal information in shortterm memory have an impact on the ability to generate inferences mediated by working memory


O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o papel da atenção seletiva, do componente retentivo e executivo da memória de trabalho e da aptidão verbal na produção de inferências explicativas na compreensão de textos expositivos. Para tanto, 171 estudantes universitários responderam a testes de memória de trabalho, atenção seletiva, aptidão verbal e questionários de inferência explicativa após a leitura de textos expositivos. Os resultados das equações estruturais mostram que a produção de inferências é diretamente explicada pela aptidão verbal e pelo componente executivo da memória de trabalho. A análise também detectou uma relação de interação mediadora entre a capacidade de produzir inferências explicativas, o tempo de atenção seletiva e a capacidade de armazenar informações verbais na memória de trabalho. Esses componentes mostraram um efeito indireto na capacidade de inferir por meio do componente executivo da memória de trabalho. Isso sugere que a capacidade de inferir explicações na compreensão está fortemente relacionada à aptidão verbal e à capacidade de processar informações na memória de trabalho, enquanto o componente de atenção seletiva e seletiva apresenta impacto, mas mediado pela memória de trabalho.


Subject(s)
Humans
6.
Psicol. reflex. crit ; 36: 6, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431155

ABSTRACT

Abstract We carried out an exploratory study of the association between exposure to violence, intelligence, and executive functions in Brazilian preadolescents. The study included 56 participants (31 males) aged 8 to 14 years old (mean = 11.3, SD = 1.0). We administered neuropsychological tests to evaluate executive functions and the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ) to evaluate exposure to violence. We used the following neuropsychological instruments: Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI), Stroop Color-Word Interference task, digits subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, and an N-back task. We generated a composite score from neuropsychological test scores and investigated the association of that score, and individual test scores, with exposure to violence and socioeconomic status (SES). Results suggest, first, that exposure to violence is associated with a 0.5-point lower intelligence quotient score for every reported victimization event in the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire. Results also show that the digits backward subtest scores showed a significant negative correlation with exposure to violence (JVQ; rho = -0.29, p < 0.05); both analyses were adjusted for the level of schooling of parents or guardians, which was also found to be significantly associated with lower intelligence quotient scores. We discuss results in the light of the existing literature on the effects of exposure to violence on adolescent development, and the amounting evidence that suggests an association of exposure to violence, and of victimization, with tests that evaluate constructs of executive functions. The study struggled with low compliance from participants, and we underscore the challenges of carrying out empirical studies aimed at better understanding the development of underrepresented youths, such as those from Central and Latin America.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Executive Function , Exposure to Violence/psychology , Intelligence , Social Class , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Neuropsychology
7.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e244422, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431118

ABSTRACT

Funções executivas (FE) referem-se ao conjunto de habilidades que, de forma integrada, coordenam o comportamento e a cognição. Assim, o comprometimento no desenvolvimento das FE está ligado a vários desfechos negativos ao longo da vida. Portanto, a avaliação dessas habilidades na infância é essencial para identificar e prevenir prejuízos na vida adulta. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar evidências de validade do Teste Informatizado para Avaliação das Funções Executivas (Tafe) pelo critério de idade e pelo padrão de correlação entre medidas do TAFE e outras medidas de FE. Para isso, foi utilizada uma amostra de 51 crianças, entre 4 e 10 anos de idade, matriculadas em uma escola privada na cidade de Goiânia (GO), da pré-escola ao 4º ano do ensino fundamental. Como instrumentos, foram utilizados, além do Tafe, as tarefas de Bloco de Corsi, Teste de Trilhas A e B, Teste de Trilhas Pré-Escolares, Teste de Stroop Pré-Escolares e Subteste Dígitos da Escala Wechsler de Inteligência. Foram conduzidas análises estatísticas Kruskal Wallis para verificar a evidência de validade por relação com idade e análises de correlação não paramétrica de Spearman para avaliar as evidências de validade convergente. O instrumento investigado mostrou-se efetivo para discriminar entre as diferentes faixas etárias, assim, sensível ao desenvolvimento das FE. Os resultados obtidos no Tafe correlacionaram-se aos obtidos em outros testes que também avaliaram FE, mostrando claros padrões de convergência. Logo, as análises dos resultados fornecem evidências de validade ao Tafe, derivadas a partir de diferentes estratégias de investigação.(AU)


Executive functions (EF) refer to the set of skills that, in an integrated way, coordinate behavior and cognition. Thus, the commitment in developing EF is linked to several negative outcomes throughout life. Therefore, the assessment of these abilities in childhood is essential to identify and prevent possible harm in adult life. This study aimed to investigate evidences of validity of the Computerized Test for Evaluation of Executive Functions (TAFE) by the age criterion and by the pattern of correlation between TAFE measures and other EF measures. To this end, a sample of 51 children, between 4 and 10 years old, enrolled in a private school in the municipality of Goiânia (GO), from preschool to the 4th year of elementary school, was used. As instruments, in addition to TAFE, the tasks of Corsi Block, Trails Test A and B, Preschool Trails Test, Preschool Stroop Test and the Digits Subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale were used. Kruskal Wallis statistical analyzes were conducted to verify the evidence of validity by age criteria and Spearman's nonparametric correlation analysis to assess evidence of convergent validation. The instrument investigated was effective to discriminate between different age groups, thus being sensitive to the development of EF. The results obtained in TAFE were correlated with those obtained in other tests that also assess FE, showing patterns of convergence. Therefore, the analysis of the results provides validation evidence to TAFE, derived from different investigation methods.(AU)


Las funciones ejecutivas (FE) se refieren al conjunto de habilidades que coordinan la conducta y la cognición. Así, el deterioro en el desarrollo de FE está relacionado con varios resultados negativos durante la vida. Por tanto, la valoración de estas habilidades en la infancia es fundamental para identificar y prevenir posibles daños en la vida adulta. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar la evidencia de validez de la Prueba Computarizada para Evaluación de Funciones Ejecutivas (Tafe) por el criterio de edad y convergencia entre las medidas Tafe y otras medidas de FE. Para ello, se utilizó una muestra de 51 niños, de entre 4 y 10 años de edad, matriculados en un colegio privado de Goiânia (Goiás, Brasil) desde la preescolar hasta 4.º de primaria. Como instrumentos, además del Tafe, se utilizaron las tareas de Bloque de Corsi, el Test de los senderos A y B, el Test de los Senderos Preescolares, el Test de Stroop Preescolar y la Subprueba de Dígitos de la Escala Wechsler de Inteligencia. Se realizaron análisis estadísticos de Kruskal Wallis para verificar la validez por criterios de edad y análisis de correlación no-paramétrica de Spearman para evaluar la evidencia de validez convergente. Tafe demostró ser efectivo para discriminar entre diferentes grupos de edad, así es sensible al desarrollo de FE. Los resultados en Tafe se correlacionaron con los obtenidos en otras pruebas de FE, lo que muestra claros patrones de convergencia. Por tanto, el análisis aporta evidencias de validez para Tafe, derivadas de diferentes estrategias de investigación.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Cognition , Pliability , Inhibition, Psychological , Memory, Short-Term , Perception , Aptitude Tests , Play and Playthings , Play Therapy , Primary Health Care , Problem Solving , Psychological Phenomena , Psychological Tests , Psychology , Mental Recall , Recreation , Retention, Psychology , Attention , Schools , Auditory Perception , Social Adjustment , Social Support , Speech Perception , Stress, Psychological , Task Performance and Analysis , Technology , Therapeutics , Thinking , Wechsler Scales , Behavior , Behavioral Sciences , Neurosciences , Adaptation, Psychological , Child , Child Care , Child, Preschool , Environmental Monitoring , Organizations , Child Health , Cognitive Dissonance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Consciousness , Intuition , Neurobehavioral Manifestations , Behavioral Disciplines and Activities , Self Efficacy , Creativity , Recognition, Psychology , Personal Autonomy , Access to Information , Comprehension , Growth and Development , Discrimination, Psychological , Education , Emotions , Planning , Cerebrum , Resilience, Psychological , Executive Function , Stroop Test , Mindfulness , Spatial Memory , Self-Control , Metacognition , Wechsler Memory Scale , Memory and Learning Tests , Self-Management , Mentalization , Frustration , Systematic Review , Emotional Regulation , Multidimensional Scaling Analysis , Self-Testing , Functional Status , Social Interaction , Cognitive Training , Processing Speed , Psychological Growth , Higher Nervous Activity , Human Activities , Imagination , Language Development , Language Development Disorders , Learning , Mental Processes , Motor Activity , Neuropsychological Tests , Neuropsychology
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 56: e12945, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520469

ABSTRACT

Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) probing the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been shown to have little effect on working memory. The variability of NIBS responses might be explained by inter-subject brain anatomical variability. We investigated whether baseline cortical brain thickness of regions of interest was associated with working memory performance after NIBS by performing a secondary analysis of previously published research. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data were analyzed from healthy subjects who received transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS), and placebo. Twenty-two participants were randomly assigned to receive all the interventions in a random order. The working memory task was conducted after the end of each NIBS session. Regions of interest were the bilateral DLPFC, medial prefrontal cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex. Overall, 66 NIBS sessions were performed. Findings revealed a negative significant association between cortical thickness of the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and reaction time for both tDCS (left: P=0.045, right: P=0.037) and iTBS (left: P=0.007, right: P=0.007) compared to placebo. A significant positive association was found for iTBS and posterior cingulate cortex (P=0.03). No association was found for accuracy. Our findings provide the first evidence that individual cortical thickness of healthy subjects might be associated with working memory performance following different NIBS interventions. Therefore, cortical thickness could explain - to some extent - the heterogeneous effects of NIBS probing the DLPFC.

9.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 27(4): 662-666, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528723

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Adolescents with cochlear implants may have difficulty developing language and memory abilities. Objective The primary objectives of this study are (1) to evaluate the language skills and verbal working memory performance of early and late diagnosed-intervened cochlear implanted adolescents and (2) to investigate the relationship between the verbal working memory and phonemic analysis skills in adolescents with cochlear implant. Methods This study included 72 participants with cochlear implant aged between 10 and 18 years. The participants were divided into two groups; those who had first hearing aid at the age of 6 months at the latest and had a first cochlear implant in at least one ear at the latest at 24 months were included in the early group, all the others were in the late group. The phonemic analysis test, a subtest of the test of language development: Primary, 4th edition (TOLD: P-4) - Turkish version, was used to assess language-based abilities, and the meaningless word repetition (MWR) test was utilized to assess verbal working memory. Results The adolescents with cochlear implants who received early diagnosis and intervention performed statistically significantly better in phonemic analysis scores and verbal working memory tests (p < 0.001). A statistically significant relationship was found between phonemic analysis and verbal working memory skills (Pearson, r = 0.567 and r = 0.659, p < 0.001). Conclusions Rehabilitation of phonological skills can contribute to the development of verbal working memory in adolescents with cochlear implants. There is a need for further studies on this issue with more detailed tests.

10.
Psicol. reflex. crit ; 36: 4, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431151

ABSTRACT

Abstract Studies have provided evidence that morphological awareness contributes to word reading in opaque languages such as English. However, this relationship is not yet established for Brazilian Portuguese, a much less opaque language. The present study performed a longitudinal investigation of the relationship between morphological awareness and word reading in 162 children from 2nd to 5th grades of elementary school. The children were evaluated in the final quarter of the respective school year (time 1) and 1 year later (time 2). Hierarchical regression analyses controlling for intelligence, phonological awareness, and phonological working memory were conducted. The hierarchical regression analyses were followed up by cross-lagged panel correlations, and both results converged to word reading measured in the 2nd and 3rd grades contributing to morphological awareness 1 year later. In addition, morphological awareness measured in the 4th grade contributed to word reading 1 year later. The greater transparency of Brazilian Portuguese may make morphological awareness less important for word reading in the early grades; however, in older children, morphological awareness is important for word reading performance.

11.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1142-1151, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008944

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by cognitive impairment, with the predominant clinical diagnosis of spatial working memory (SWM) deficiency, which seriously affects the physical and mental health of patients. However, the current pharmacological therapies have unsatisfactory cure rates and other problems, so non-pharmacological physical therapies have gradually received widespread attention. Recently, a novel treatment using 40 Hz light flicker stimulation (40 Hz-LFS) to rescue the cognitive function of model animals with AD has made initial progress, but the neurophysiological mechanism remains unclear. Therefore, this paper will explore the potential neural mechanisms underlying the modulation of SWM by 40 Hz-LFS based on cross-frequency coupling (CFC). Ten adult Wistar rats were first subjected to acute LFS at frequencies of 20, 40, and 60 Hz. The entrainment effect of LFS with different frequency on neural oscillations in the hippocampus (HPC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was analyzed. The results showed that acute 40 Hz-LFS was able to develop strong entrainment and significantly modulate the oscillation power of the low-frequency gamma (lγ) rhythms. The rats were then randomly divided into experimental and control groups of 5 rats each for a long-term 40 Hz-LFS (7 d). Their SWM function was assessed by a T-maze task, and the CFC changes in the HPC-mPFC circuit were analyzed by phase-amplitude coupling (PAC). The results showed that the behavioral performance of the experimental group was improved and the PAC of θ-lγ rhythm was enhanced, and the difference was statistically significant. The results of this paper suggested that the long-term 40 Hz-LFS effectively improved SWM function in rats, which may be attributed to its enhanced communication of different rhythmic oscillations in the relevant neural circuits. It is expected that the study in this paper will build a foundation for further research on the mechanism of 40 Hz-LFS to improve cognitive function and promote its clinical application in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Rats , Animals , Memory, Short-Term/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Hippocampus , Prefrontal Cortex
12.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1135-1141, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008943

ABSTRACT

With the widespread use of electrical equipment, cognitive functions such as working memory (WM) could be severely affected when people are exposed to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields (EMF) for long term. However, the effects of EMF exposure on WM and its neural mechanism remain unclear. In the present paper, 15 rats were randomly assigned to three groups, and exposed to an EMF environment at 50 Hz and 2 mT for a different duration: 0 days (control group), 24 days (experimental group I), and 48 days (experimental group II). Then, their WM function was assessed by the T-maze task. Besides, their local field potential (LFP) in the media prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was recorded by the in vivo multichannel electrophysiological recording system to study the power spectral density (PSD) of θ and γ oscillations and the phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) intensity of θ-γ oscillations during the T-maze task. The results showed that the PSD of θ and γ oscillations decreased in experimental groups I and II, and the PAC intensity between θ and high-frequency γ (hγ) decreased significantly compared to the control group. The number of days needed to meet the task criterion was more in experimental groups I and II than that of control group. The results indicate that long-term exposure to EMF could impair WM function. The possible reason may be the impaired communication between different rhythmic oscillations caused by a decrease in θ-hγ PAC intensity. This paper demonstrates the negative effects of EMF on WM and reveals the potential neural mechanisms from the changes of PAC intensity, which provides important support for further investigation of the biological effects of EMF and its mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rats , Animals , Memory, Short-Term/physiology , Electromagnetic Fields/adverse effects , Prefrontal Cortex , Cognition
13.
Chinese Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology ; (6): 517-518, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992198

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE Parkinson's disease(PD)is a progressive neurodegenerative disease clinically char-acterized by dyskinesia,tremor,rigidity,abnormal gait,whereas 90%of patients with PD suffer from defects of the sense of smell before the appearance of the motor dysfunctions.However,the mechanism of olfactory disor-der is still not clear.METHODS We utilized olfaction based delayed paired association task in head-fixed mice.We focused on functional role of neural circuit using opto-genetic techniques.In addition,we viewed the synaptic transmission by slice physiological recording and count-ed the cell number of targeted circuits.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION In our experiments,olfactory working memory impairments were found in the PD mice,and the working memory impairment appeared before motor dys-functions.Furthermore,we also investigated the functional role of neural circuit for olfactory working memory in PD mice.Meanwhile,the excitatory post synaptic currents were decreased as a result of presynaptic release proba-bility suppression in PD mice.However cell loss wasn't found in working memory related circuit recently.These will provide a new idea of clinic diagnosis for PD.

14.
International Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 281-287, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-989352

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the synchronized feature patterns of local field potentials in the hippocampus (HPC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) during working memory based on time-varying spectral coherence so as to support the study of information processing mechanisms in working memory.Methods:The local field potentials (LFPs) signals of the ventral hippocampus (vHPC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) were collected from six SD rats during the performance of a spatial working memory task in the Y-maze, and the time-frequency distributions of vHPC and mPFC LFPs were calculated by applying the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) to determine the characteristic frequency bands of the working memory and then to investigate the synchronized patterns of vHPC and mPFC LFPs based on the coherent of the time-varying frequency spectrum. Finally, support vector machines were applied to explore the feasibility of applying spectral coherence values to predict working memory.Results:When rats performed working memory tasks correctly, the energy of the theta band (4 - 12 Hz) of the HPC and PFC increased (all P < 0.01), and the spectral coherence value of the theta band of the HPC-PFC increased ( P < 0.05). Support vector machine training and prediction using the average peak spectral coherence and the difference between the peak and the onset when correctly and incorrectly executing the working memory as features resulted in 89% accuracy, 90% precision, 88% recall, and 88% F1 scores, all of which were statistically significant differences compared to the results of the randomly disrupted labeled data rearranging (all P < 0.05). Conclusions:Synchronized synergy in the HPC-PFC theta band is one of the potential mechanisms for correctly performing information processing in working memory.

15.
Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences ; : 113-124, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-988706

ABSTRACT

@#Introduction: Binaural beats (BB) provisions alpha and gamma have been suggested to modulate working memory (WM), while white noise (WN) acted as a control condition. Methods: The current study overlays WN on alpha and gamma tones to study its modulating role on WM performance. A block-design n-back task paradigm used to determine the effect of load on embedded BB on WM performance using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Six young adults (3 males and 3 females) with mean age of 23.5 ± 0.84 within the Kota Bharu vicinity participated in the study. A repeated-measures ANOVA (p<0.05) on response accuracy indicate medium effect size on condition (η2 =0.420), and large effect sizes on groups (η2 = 0.388) and load (η2 = 0.487). The potential practical difference is more evident on low- (0-back) and high-load (3-back). GWN provision marginally excels, implying its entrainment may benefit WM processing. A repeated-measures ANOVA (p<0.05) on reaction time (RT) implied a large effect size on all variables (condition: η2 =0.065, groups: η2 =0.227 and load: η2 =0.169). It was observed that BB exposure elicits a slow processing speed which worsens RT. The neural correlates suggest activated regions in GWN and AWN are associated with attentional mechanisms and WM processes. Conclusion: Preliminary findings indicate both embedded BB has a potential to improve WM performance with the cost of slower processing speed. GWN provision modulates attentional mechanisms benefiting WM performance and AWN may enhance performance in extreme ends of WM load.

16.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 631-644, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971579

ABSTRACT

The conventional approach to investigating functional connectivity in the block-designed study usually concatenates task blocks or employs residuals of task activation. While providing many insights into brain functions, the block design adds more manipulation in functional network analysis that may reduce the purity of the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal. Recent studies utilized one single long run for task trials of the same condition, the so-called continuous design, to investigate functional connectivity based on task functional magnetic resonance imaging. Continuous brain activities associated with the single-task condition can be directly utilized for task-related functional connectivity assessment, which has been examined for working memory, sensory, motor, and semantic task experiments in previous research. But it remains unclear how the block and continuous design influence the assessment of task-related functional connectivity networks. This study aimed to disentangle the separable effects of block/continuous design and working memory load on task-related functional connectivity networks, by using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Across 50 young healthy adults, behavioral results of accuracy and reaction time showed a significant main effect of design as well as interaction between design and load. Imaging results revealed that the cingulo-opercular, fronto-parietal, and default model networks were associated with not only task activation, but significant main effects of design and load as well as their interaction on intra- and inter-network functional connectivity and global network topology. Moreover, a significant behavior-brain association was identified for the continuous design. This work has extended the evidence that continuous design can be used to study task-related functional connectivity and subtle brain-behavioral relationships.

17.
Suma psicol ; 29(2)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1536889

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La relación entre funciones ejecutivas y habilidades matemáticas ha sido ampliamente estudiada. Sin embargo, no existe consenso respecto de la contribución específica de la memoria de trabajo y la planificación en el desarrollo de competencias matemáticas tempranas. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la capacidad predictiva de estos dos dominios ejecutivos sobre las competencias matemáticas de preescolares. Método: Se implementó un diseño no experimental ex post facto, con una muestra de 104 niños/as chilenos/as. La evaluación de sus funciones ejecutivas se realizó con la tarea "inversión de números" de la Batería IV Woodcock-Muñoz para evaluar la memoria de trabajo verbal, la subprueba "Torpo, el topo torpe" del Test de Evaluación Neuropsicológica Infantil (TENI) para evaluar la memoria de trabajo visoespacial y el Test de Laberintos de Porteus para evaluar la planificación. Con el fin de evaluar las habilidades matemáticas se utilizó el Test de Evaluación Matemática Temprana Utrecht (TEMT-U), versión chilena. Se realizaron análisis descriptivos, correlaciones y modelos de regresión múltiple. Resultados: La memoria de trabajo verbal seguida por la memoria de trabajo visoespacial y la planificación fueron los mejores predictores de las competencias matemáticas de los/as niños/as. Conclusiones: Estos resultados sugieren que estas funciones ejecutivas desempeñan un papel clave en el aprendizaje de las matemáticas y aportan información específica a las/os educadoras/es para que puedan planificar sus estrategias de enseñanza en función de las demandas cognitivas que requiere cada habilidad matemática, lo que puede ser una vía potencial para promover mejores logros de aprendizaje en esta importante disciplina.


Introduction: The relationship between executive functions and mathematical skills has been extensively studied. However, there is no consensus regarding the specific contribution of working memory and planning in the development of early mathematical skills. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive capacity of these two executive domains on preschoolers' mathematical skills. Method: A non-experimental ex post facto design was implemented with a sample of 104 Chilean children. The evaluation of their executive functions was performed with the "number inversion" task of the Woodcock-Muñoz IV Battery to assess verbal working memory, the "Clumsy Mole the Clumsy Mole" subtest of the TENI Child Neuropsychological Evaluation Test to assess visuospatial working memory, and the Porteus Maze Test to assess planning. To assess mathematical skills, the Test de Evaluación Matemática Temprana Utretch TEMT-U, Chilean version, was used. Descriptive analyses, correlations and multiple regression models were performed. Results: Verbal working memory followed by visuospatial working memory and planning were the best predictors of children's mathematical skills. Conclusions: These results suggest that these executive functions play a key role in mathematics learning and provide specific information to educators so that they can plan their teaching strategies according to the cognitive demands required by each mathematical skill, which may be a potential way to promote better learning achievements in this important discipline.

18.
Psico USF ; 27(4): 649-659, Oct.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1422345

ABSTRACT

The goal of this study was to investigate if the selection of external information for storage in visual working memory requires control by the central executive when the categorization of targets is guided by instructions. The design was experimental 3 (concurrent task) x 2 (instruction). Forty-eight university students saw eight colored shapes, four of them surrounded by square outlines. Memory was assessed using a recognition task. Targets varied with instructions: targets were presented within squares in the first block and outside squares in the second block. There were three concurrent tasks: no task, articulatory suppression, and backward counting. Performance was measured by hits, false alarms, corrected recognition, and sensitivity (A'), compared using within-subject ANOVAs. Results showed a main effect only for concurrent task, with lower performance in the backward counting condition for all measures. These results suggest that the central executive does not control the perceptual filter, corroborating earlier results. (AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar se a seleção de informações externas para manutenção na memória de trabalho visual requer controle do executivo central, quando a categorização de alvos depende de instrução. O delineamento foi experimental três (tarefa concorrente) x duas (instrução). Participaram 48 universitários. Os participantes viam oito formas coloridas, quatro delas dentro de quadrados. A memória foi avaliada por reconhecimento. Os alvos dependiam de instrução: no primeiro bloco estavam dentro de quadrados e no segundo, fora de quadrados. Havia três tarefas concorrentes: sem tarefa, supressão articulatória e contagem inversa. O desempenho foi avaliado por acertos, alarmes falsos, taxa de reconhecimento correto e índice de sensibilidade A', comparados por meio de ANOVAs intrassujeitos. Os resultados mostraram apenas efeito principal da tarefa concorrente, com menor desempenho na condição contagem inversa em todas as medidas. Esse resultado sugere que o executivo central não controla o filtro perceptual, corroborando resultados anteriores. (AU)


El objetivo fue investigar si la selección de información externa para el mantenimiento de la memoria de trabajo visual requiere un control del ejecutivo central, cuando la categorización de los estímulos depende de instrucciones. El diseño fue experimental 3 (tarea concurrente) x 2 (instrucción). Los 48 estudiantes universitarios participantes vieron ocho formas de colores, cuatro de ellas dentro de cuadrados. La memoria se evaluó por reconocimiento. Los estímulos dependían de la instrucción: en el primer bloque estaban dentro de los cuadrados, y en el segundo, fuera de ellos. Hubo tres tareas recurrentes: ninguna tarea, supresión articulatoria y conteo inverso. El rendimiento se evaluó mediante aciertos, falsas alarmas, tasa de reconocimiento correcto e índice de sensibilidad A', mediante ANOVAs intrasujeto Los resultados mostraron solo el efecto principal de la tarea concurrente, con menor rendimiento en la condición de conteo inverso en todas las medidas. Los resultados sugieren que el ejecutivo central no controla el filtro perceptual, corroborando resultados anteriores. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Attention , Executive Function , Memory, Short-Term , Students/psychology , Universities , Visual Perception , Surveys and Questionnaires , Analysis of Variance , Sociodemographic Factors
19.
Subj. procesos cogn ; 26(1): 73-99, ago. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1392525

ABSTRACT

Muchos niños con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) presentan dificultad en la comprensión de narraciones orales. Investigaciones relacionadas reportan peores desempeños en inferencias emocionales respecto a otros tipos de inferencias. En este estudio participaron 15 niños con TEA entre 8 y 12 años, agrupados según nivel intelectual. Se evaluó la memoria de trabajo, la atención sostenida y el vocabulario; y medidas de comprensión como, la generación de inferencias y el recuerdo de información literal. Los resultados evidenciaron mejores desempeños en preguntas a inferencias emocionales y explicativas en los lectores con TEA sin déficit cognitivo en comparación a sus pares con déficit cognitivo. Además, no se encontraron diferencias significativas en desempeños a preguntas de información literal. Finalmente, el grupo con déficit cognitivo mostró mejor rendimiento en preguntas de inferencias explicativas respecto a otro tipo de inferencias, estos desempeños podrían vincularse con el tipo de material, narraciones orales acompañadas de ilustraciones AU


A lot of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) present difficulty in oral narrative comprehension. Related research reports worst performance in emotional inferences than other inferences type. This study involved 15 children with ASD between 8 and 12 years, grouped according to the intellectual level. Working memory, vocabulary and sustained attention were assessed. Also, comprehension measures such as generating inferences and recalling literal information. The results evidenced better performance in emotional and explanatory inference questions in readers with ASD and without cognitive deficit than their peers with cognitive deficit. In addition, no significant differences were found in performance on literal information questions. Finally, the group with cognitive deficit showed better performance in questions of explanatory inferences compared to other types of inferences, these performances could be linked to the type of material, oral narrations accompanied by illustrations AU


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Comprehension , Autism Spectrum Disorder/complications , Language Disorders , Hispanic or Latino , Social Skills
20.
Aval. psicol ; 21(2): 227-235, abr.-jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1447467

ABSTRACT

The Neuropsychological Test for the Assessment of Visuospatial Binding (TNABV) was developed to measure the Working Memory binding for object-location features. This study aimed to provide validity evidence related to the content and internal structure of the TNABV. To investigate the evidence based on internal structure, the sample was composed of 1173 people. Participants were between 18 and 95 years of age. In order to investigate the content-related validity evidence, a judgment was performed through the analysis of seven experts. The data analysis was carried out through exploratory factor analysis, the Internal Consistency Content Validity Index (CVI). The result suggested a one-dimensional model with an explained variation of 41.78% and Cronbach's alpha of .82. The total CVI showed an agreement of .98. The findings indicated that the psychometric properties evaluated in the TNABV are adequate.(AU)


O Teste Neuropsicológico para Avaliação do Binding Visuoespacial (TNABV) foi desenvolvido para avaliar o binding da memória operacional para os recursos de objeto-localização. Este estudo investigou as evidências de validade relacionadas ao conteúdo e estrutura interna do TNABV. Para realizar as evidências baseadas na estrutura interna, a amostra foi composta por 1173 pessoas. Os participantes tinham entre 18 e 95 anos. Para investigar a validade das evidências baseadas no conteúdo, foi realizado um julgamento pela análise de sete especialistas. A análise dos dados foi realizada por meio de análise fatorial exploratória, Índice de Confiabilidade e Validade de Conteúdo (IVC). O resultado sugeriu um modelo unidimensional com uma variação explicada de 41,78% e o alfa de Cronbach de 0,82. O IVC total mostrou uma concordância de 0,98. Os achados indicaram que as propriedades psicométricas avaliadas no TNABV são adequadas.(AU)


El Test Neuropsicológico para la Evaluación de Binding Visuoespacial (TNABV) se desarrolló para evaluar el binding de la memoria operativa para los recursos de objeto-localización. Este estudio investigó las evidencias de validez relacionadas con el contenido y la estructura interna del TNABV. Para explorar las evidencias basadas en la estructura interna, la muestra se compuso por 1173 personas. Los participantes tenían entre 18 y 95 años. Para investigar la validez de las evidencias basadas en el contenido se realizó un juicio mediante la revisión de siete expertos. El análisis de los datos se ejecutó utilizando el análisis factorial exploratorio, el Índice de Confiabilidad y la Validez de Contenido (CVI). El resultado sugirió un modelo unidimensional con una variación explicada del 41,78% y un alfa de Cronbach de 0.82. El CVI total mostró una concordancia de 0,98. Los hallazgos indicaron que las propiedades psicométricas evaluadas en el TNABV son adecuadas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Memory, Short-Term , Neuropsychological Tests , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Factor Analysis, Statistical
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