Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 704
Filter
1.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 39(2): 326-331, 20240220. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532721

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La hidatidosis o equinococosis es una zoonosis parasitaria que se adquiere al ingerir huevos de cestodos del género Echinococcus. El diagnóstico clínico raramente se hace en sitios no endémicos. La mayoría de los pacientes se encuentran asintomáticos y los hallazgos incidentales en los estudios de imágenes o en procedimientos quirúrgicos permiten la sospecha diagnóstica. Caso clínico. Paciente masculino de 70 años, residente en área rural del municipio de Puerto Libertador, departamento de Córdoba, Colombia, quien consultó por masa abdominal en epigastrio y mesogastrio, parcialmente móvil e indolora. Resultados. En cirugía se identificaron lesiones quísticas mesentérica y hepática. Después de la cirugía y mediante estudios de inmunohistoquímica, se confirmó el diagnóstico de quiste hidatídico. El paciente tuvo una evolución satisfactoria. Conclusión. La hidatidosis quística mesentérica y hepática sintomática es una enfermedad rara en sitios no endémicos, donde la cirugía constituye un pilar fundamental en el diagnóstico y tratamiento, sumado al manejo médico farmacológico.


Introduction. Hydatidosis or echinococcosis is a parasitic zoonosis that is acquired by ingesting eggs of cestodes of the genus Echinococcus. Clinical diagnosis is rarely made in non-endemic sites. Most patients are asymptomatic and incidental findings on imaging studies or surgical procedures allow for diagnostic suspicion. Clinical case. A 70-year-old male patient, resident in a rural area of the municipality of Puerto Libertador, department of Córdoba, Colombia, who consulted for an abdominal mass in the epigastrium and mesogastrium, partially mobile and painless. Results. In surgery, mesenteric and hepatic cystic lesions were identified. After surgery and through immunohistochemistry studies, the diagnosis of hydatid cyst was confirmed. The patient had a satisfactory evolution. Conclusion. Symptomatic mesenteric and hepatic cystic hydatidosis is a rare disease in non-endemic sites, where surgery constitutes a fundamental pillar in the diagnosis and treatment in addition to pharmacological medical management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Zoonoses , Echinococcosis, Hepatic , Echinococcosis , Laparotomy , Mesentery
2.
Rev. biol. trop ; 71(1)dic. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449504

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Tropical forests provide important ecosystem services, including disease control. However, few studies have focused on how deforestation affects species more suitable to be zoonotic vectors. Objective: To evaluate how deforestation affects the abundance and species richness of rodents and their associated ectoparasites in a tropical ecosystem. Methods: We captured rodents in 6 landscape units, 1 km² each, with 0.7; 5; 40; 46; 78 and 95 % tree cover, in Marques de Comillas, Chiapas, Southern Mexico. In each unit we set 90 Sherman traps that were active 24 hours for 7 days during two sampling seasons (October 2019, and September 2020). We manually extracted ectoparasites from all captured rodents. Results: We captured 70 rodents of five species: Sigmodon toltecus, Heteromys desmarestianus, Ototylomys phyllotis, Peromyscus mexicanus, and Oryzomys couesi. Rodent abundance increased with forest loss (R²= 0.706, P= 0.022). The greatest richness of rodent species occurred in sites with intermediate forest cover (40 and 78 %). The most abundant species were: S. toltecus (N= 45) followed by O. couesi (N= 9), these species dominated in sites with less forest cover. We recorded a total of 23 ectoparasite species, three of them known to be zoonotic vectors: Amblyomma sp., Ornithonyssus bacoti, and Androlaelaps fahrenholzi. Conclusions: The ongoing loss of forests promotes the proliferation of zoonotic disease vectors in this tropical ecosystem, which can potentially increase the frequency of affectation among the local population.


Introducción: Un servicio particularmente importante que brindan los bosques tropicales es el control de enfermedades. Sin embargo, pocos estudios se han enfocado en analizar cómo este servicio es afectado por la deforestación. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto de la deforestación en la abundancia y riqueza de especies de roedores y de sus ectoparásitos en Marqués de Comillas, en el sureste de México. Métodos: Capturamos roedores en 6 unidades del paisaje (UP), cada una de 1 km², con distintos porcentajes de cobertura vegetal (0.7, 5, 40, 46, 78 y 95 %). En cada UP colocamos 90 trampas Sherman, que permanecieron activas las 24 horas por 7 días durante dos muestreos en octubre 2019 y septiembre 2020. Todos los roedores capturados fueron revisados para detectar ectoparásitos en su pelaje que fueron recolectados para su posterior identificación en el laboratorio. Resultados: Capturamos 70 roedores de cinco especies: Sigmodon toltecus, Heteromys desmarestianus, Ototylomys phyllotis, Peromyscus mexicanus y Oryzomys couesi. La abundancia de roedores aumentó con la pérdida de bosque (R² = 0.706, P = 0.022). La mayor riqueza de especies de roedores se presentó en sitios con cobertura forestal intermedia (40 y 78 %). Las especies más abundantes fueron: S. toltecus (N = 45) seguido de O. couesi (N = 9), estas especies dominaron en los sitios con menor cobertura forestal. Registramos un total de 23 ectoparásitos diferentes, identificamos 15 a nivel de especie y ocho a nivel de género. Los sitios con menor cobertura forestal presentaron la menor riqueza de especies de ectoparásitos. Detectamos tres especies de ectoparásitos (Amblyomma sp., Ornithonyssus bacoti y Androlaelaps fahrenholzi) que se sabe que son vectores de enfermedades zoonóticas. Conclusión: Encontramos que la deforestación está promoviendo un aumento en la proliferación de vectores de enfermedades zoonóticas lo que, a su vez, tiene el potencial de incrementar las afectaciones de la población local.

3.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 136(3): 23-30, sept. 2023. ilus, mapas
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1553358

ABSTRACT

La triquinosis es una zoonosis que afecta a los animales y al hombre, y es ocasionada por la ingestión de la larva Trichinella spiralis que habita en el músculo de los animales hospedadores y, tras ser ingerida por el hombre, pasa a la pared intestinal de éste donde se multiplica y sus embriones emigran a los músculos. De 1990 a 1999 se reportaron 5.217 casos y en otro posterior de 2014 a 2018 fueron 5.211 casos. Con un promedio anual de 579 casos y de 1302 casos. Como resultado del cambio climático, la triquinosis se traslada de climas fríos a templados, lo que la torna una enfermedad emergente. El cuadro clínico puede presentarse en forma benigna o aguda, y su evolución abarca un período de un año; en ocasiones provoca la muerte por complicaciones. El hombre es responsable de la crianza, la alimentación y el control sanitario del cerdo y de sus productos para consumo. Consideramos a esta zoonosis, un indicador del desarrollo de los pueblos. Con educación, cambios de conducta y cumplimiento de las normas sanitarias, se actuará en beneficio de la salud y el bienestar de la población. (AU)


Trichinosis is a zoonosis that affects animals and humans. It is caused by the ingestion of a larva called Trichinella spiralis which lives in the muscle of host animals. After being ingested by humans, the larva passes to the intestinal wall where it multiplies, and its embryos migrate to the muscles. From 1990 to 1999, 5.217 cases were reported, and in a later period from 2014 to 2018, there were 5.211 cases. With an annual average of 579 cases and 1.302 cases, respectively. As a result of climate change, trichinosis moves from cold to temperate climates making it an emerging disease. The clinical presentation can range from benign to acute, with an evolution period of 1 year; and sometimes it causes death due to complications. Humans are responsible for raising, feeding, and ensuring sanitary control of pigs and their products for consumption. We consider this zoonosis an indicator of the development of communities. Through education, behavioral changes, and compliance with sanitary regulations, actions can be taken to promote the health and welfare of the population. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Trichinellosis/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Argentina , Swine , Climate Change , Zoonoses , Food Inspection
4.
Salud mil ; 42(2): e401, 20230929. ilus, mapas
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1531704

ABSTRACT

La equinococosis quística es una zoonosis de origen parasitario con distribución cosmopolita. En nuestro país continúa siendo una enfermedad endémica, afectando principalmente pequeños centros poblados y áreas rurales pobres relacionadas a la producción ovina. Los planes de control requieren de un abordaje holístico, con la participación de diferentes instituciones, profesionales y en especial de la comunidad. La cooperación regional busca monitorizar el avance de la enfermedad y centrar las medidas de acción sobre cuatro ejes, definidos según los puntos de intervención más comunes para la quiebra del ciclo de transmisión y la consecuente reducción en incidencia y prevalencia de la enfermedad. La presente revisión utilizó literatura obtenida en diferentes bases de datos, bibliotecas virtuales y sitios web regionales y locales con el objetivo describir las principales estrategias de control, vigilancia y prevención aplicadas actualmente en nuestro país.


Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonosis of parasitic origin with cosmopolitan distribution. In our country it continues to be an endemic disease, affecting mainly small population centers and poor rural areas related to sheep production. Control plans require a holistic approach, with the participation of different institutions, professionals and especially the community. Regional cooperation seeks to monitor the progress of the disease and focus action measures on four axes, defined according to the most common points of intervention to break the transmission cycle and consequently reduce the incidence and prevalence of the disease. This review used literature obtained from different databases, virtual libraries and regional and local websites with the aim of describing the main control, surveillance and prevention strategies currently applied in our country.


A equinococose cística é uma zoonose de origem parasitária com distribuição cosmopolita. Em nosso país, continua a ser uma doença endêmica, afetando principalmente pequenos centros populacionais e áreas rurais pobres relacionadas à produção de ovinos. Os planos de controle exigem uma abordagem holística, com a participação de diferentes instituições, profissionais e, principalmente, da comunidade. A cooperação regional busca monitorar o progresso da doença e concentrar as medidas de ação em quatro eixos, definidos de acordo com os pontos de intervenção mais comuns para interromper o ciclo de transmissão e, consequentemente, reduzir a incidência e a prevalência da doença. Esta revisão utilizou a literatura obtida em diferentes bases de dados, bibliotecas virtuais e sites regionais e locais com o objetivo de descrever as principais estratégias de controle, vigilância e prevenção aplicadas atualmente em nosso país.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Health Surveillance , Echinococcosis/prevention & control , Zoonosis Surveillance , Uruguay/epidemiology , Echinococcosis/diagnosis
5.
Educ. med. super ; 37(3)sept. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1528556

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La viruela símica es una enfermedad zoonótica que también se trasmite de persona a persona por contacto estrecho. En el brote actual hasta el 31 de agosto de 2022 se reportaban 50 496 casos diagnosticados en 101 países, por lo que se consideró una situación preocupante por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Objetivo: Exponer información actualizada sobre la viruela símica en el contexto sanitario actual. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda de literatura científica en las bases de datos ScienceDirect, PubMed/Medline, SciELO y Google Académico, mediante los descriptores o palabras relacionadas con la enfermedad, para encontrar revisiones, comunicados, informes, distintos artículos de revistas, entre otros documentos especializados de producción científica. Se seleccionó un total de 30 citas, actualizadas en su totalidad. Desarrollo: Desde su identificación en humanos se han reportado brotes de viruela símica en varios países; el más preocupante, ha sido el de reciente declaración en 2022, debido a la presencia de casos en países no endémicos, con un alcance geográfico extenso. Las manifestaciones clínicas pueden cursar con síntomas leves, como erupciones en la cara y el resto del cuerpo, fiebre, cefalea, mialgias y fatiga, por lo que no constituye una enfermedad potencialmente mortal; sin embargo, de presentarse comorbilidades la evolución podría ser tórpida. Conclusiones: La presencia de casos de viruela símica en humanos se ha mantenido desde su aparición, sin encontrar un tratamiento específico y vacunas autorizadas para su administración, lo que podría generar un aumento de contagios y fallecidos(AU)


Introduction: Mpox is a zoonotic disease also transmitted from person to person by close contact. The current outbreak, up to August 31, 2022, reported 50 496 diagnosed cases from 101 countries; therefore; it was considered a situation of concern by the World Health Organization. Objective: To present updated information on Mpox in the current health context. Methods: A scientific literature search was carried out in the databases ScienceDirect, PubMed/Medline, SciELO and Google Scholar, using descriptors or words related to the disease, in order to find reviews, communications, reports, different journal articles, among other specialized documents of scientific production. A total of 30 entirely updated citations were selected. Development: Since Mpox was identified in humans, outbreaks of the disease have been reported in several countries; the most worrisome has been reported recently in 2022, due to the presence of cases in nonendemic countries, with an extensive geographical scope. The clinical manifestations may occur with mild symptoms, such as rash on the face or the rest of the body, fever, headache, myalgia and fatigue; therefore, it is not a potentially mortal disease. However, in case of comorbidity, the evolution could be torpid. Conclusions: Mpox cases in humans has been present since its appearance, without any specific treatment or vaccines authorized to be administered, which could generate an increase in contagions and deaths(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Mpox (monkeypox)/diagnosis , Mpox (monkeypox)/history , Mpox (monkeypox)/mortality , Mpox (monkeypox)/prevention & control , Mpox (monkeypox)/transmission , Virus Release , Orthopoxvirus
6.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 83(4): 569-578, ago. 2023. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514515

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción : Es una enfermedad zoonótica cuyo agente etiológico es el virus de la viruela símica. Desde el 1 de enero de 2022, se han notificado casos de viruela símica a la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) en 110 Estados Miembros en las 6 regiones de la OMS. Métodos : El presente trabajo es un estudio observa cional descriptivo de cohorte retrospectivo en primera instancia, y prospectivo al final, donde se describen las características epidemiológicas, la presentación clínica, y las complicaciones recabadas mediante llamado telefó nico al día 28 en 75 pacientes con diagnóstico de viruela símica confirmado por RT-PCR (correspondientes al 7% de los casos notificados en Argentina). Fue desarrollado entre el 12 de julio de 2022 y el 6 de octubre de 2022. Resultados : La población afectada fue en su totalidad hombres cisgénero, 70 (93.3%) identificados como hom bres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH). Cincuenta y uno (68%) estaban coinfectados con HIV, 50 (98%) esta ban recibiendo TARV. Todos los pacientes presentaron manifestaciones mucocutáneas. El exantema se mani festó con variedad de lesiones: papulares, vesiculares y pustulosas. En 26 (44.1%) los síntomas sistémicos se presentaron previos a la aparición del exantema, siendo el aumento de la temperatura corporal el más frecuente. Treinta y cuatro (45.3%) de los pacientes reportaron algu na complicación, siendo la proctitis la más frecuente se guida por edema de pene. Se observaron secuelas en 40 (53.3%), siendo la más frecuente las cicatrices cutáneas. Conclusión : En esta serie de casos pudimos observar mayormente cuadros leves, siendo las lesiones anogeni tales la presentación clínica más frecuente. La presencia de secuelas, el impacto social y emocional de esta enfer medad hacen necesario un enfoque multidisciplinario.


Abstract Introduction : Monkeypox It is a zoonotic disease. The etiologic agent is the monkeypox virus. Since January 1, 2022, monkeypox cases have been reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) in 110 Member States across 6 WHO regions. Methods : The present work is a descriptive-ob servational-retrospective cohort in the first instance, and prospective at the end, where the epidemiological characteristics, clinical presentation and complications collected by telephone call on day 28, are described 75 patients diagnosed with monkeypox, confirmed by RT-PCR (corresponding to 7% of the cases reported in Argentina). It was developed between July 12, 2022 and October 6, 2022. Results : The affected population was entirely cis gender men, 70 (93.3%) identified as men who have sex with men (MSM). Fifty-one (68%) were co-infected with HIV, 50 (98%) were receiving ART. All patients presented mucocutaneous manifestations. The rash manifested with a variety of lesions: papular, vesicular, and pustular. In 26 (44.1%) the systemic symptoms presented prior to the appearance of the rash, being the increase in body temperature the most frequent. Thirty-four (45.3%) of the patients reported some complication, with proctitis being the most frequent followed by penile edema. Se quelae were observed in 40 (53.3%), the most frequent being skin scars. Conclusion: In this case series we were able to ob serve mostly mild symptoms, with anogenital lesions being the most frequent clinical presentation. The pres ence of sequelae, the social and emotional impact of this disease make a multidisciplinary approach necessary.

7.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 36(2)jun. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550929

ABSTRACT

La toxocariasis es una zoonosis prevalente con un importante impacto socioeconómico, particularmente en las comunidades pobres de todo el mundo. Es causada por formas larvarias de especies de nematodos, parásitos del género Toxocara. El espectro de manifestaciones clínicas en la toxocariasis varía ampliamente, desde casos asintomáticos a infecciones generalizadas. En el caso de la toxocariasis ocular, el deterioro de la agudeza visual es la manifestación más común cuando los síntomas están presentes. Las presentaciones oculares incluyen endoftalmitis crónica, granuloma de polo posterior o granuloma periférico. Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 12 años, con toxocariasis ocular en forma de granuloma de polo posterior con bandas traccionales a vítreo, acompañada de una lesión hiperpigmentada en el área macular en fase cicatrizal. El propósito de esta publicación es describir las múltiples complicaciones oculares que pueden concomitar en el paciente con toxocariasis ocular, que finalmente conllevan a una pérdida visual irreversible.


Toxocariasis is a prevalent zoonosis with a significant socioeconomic impact, particularly in poor communities around the world. It is caused by larval forms of nematode species, parasites of the Toxocara genus. The spectrum of clinical manifestations in toxocariasis varies widely from asymptomatic cases to systemic infections. In the case of ocular toxocariasis, impaired visual acuity is the most common manifestation when symptoms are present. Ocular presentations include chronic endophthalmitis, posterior pole granuloma, or a peripheral granuloma. We present the case of a 12-year-old patient with ocular toxocariasis in the form of a posterior pole granuloma with vitreous tractional bands, which is accompanied by a hyperpigmented lesion in the macular area in the healing phase. The purpose of our publication is to highlight the multiple ocular complications that can occur in patients with ocular toxocariasis, which ultimately lead to irreversible visual loss.

8.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 40(2): 236-241, abr.-jun. 2023. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1509029

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La equinococosis quística es una infección zoonótica producida por la larva de Echinococcus granulosus que es capaz de invadir diversos órganos desde su ubicación en el intestino humano. En los casos de coinfección con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH), existe una diversidad de complicaciones condicionadas por la enfermedad inmunosupresora con pronóstico reservado. El objetivo de este reporte es describir un caso de equinococosis multiquística peritoneal en una paciente en tratamiento antiviral para VIH durante casi diez años, que recibió la combinación de albendazol más cirugía, con evolución favorable. Este reporte sería el primero en el Perú en una persona con inmunosupresión por VIH y equinococosis quística.


ABSTRACT Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonotic infection caused by the larva of Echinococcus granulosus, which is capable of invading several organs starting from the human intestine. There are several complications in cases of co-infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which are conditioned by the immunosuppressive disease and have poor prognosis. This report aims to describe a case of multi-cystic peritoneal echinococcosis in a patient under antiviral treatment for HIV for almost ten years, who received albendazole, underwent surgery and progressed favorably. This would be the first Peruvian report of a person with HIV and cystic echinococcosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Ultrasonography
9.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 40(2): 189-199, abr.-jun. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, INS-PERU | ID: biblio-1509021

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos. Determinar la seropositividad a anticuerpos anti-IgG por infección de Echinococcus granulosus, Fasciola hepatica y cisticerco de Taenia solium y describir las características de los infectados en 13 regiones de la sierra peruana entre 2016 y 2019. Materiales y métodos. Estudio observacional transversal, que analizó 7811 fichas epidemiológicas de la vigilancia basada en laboratorio de las zoonosis parasitarias del periodo 2016-2019. El diagnóstico se realizó mediante la detección de anticuerpos tipo IgG anti E. granulosus, F. hepatica y cisticerco de T. solium utilizando antígenos nativos mediante el ensayo inmunoabsorbente ligado a enzimas (ELISA) e Inmunoblot. La diferencia en la frecuencia de casos de estas zoonosis según características identificadas se realizó mediante la prueba chi-cuadrado de Pearson y prueba exacta de Fisher. Resultados. Se determinó una seropositividad de 7,9% para fascioliasis, 4,9% para equinococosis quística, y 2,3% para cisticerco de T. solium. Estas frecuencias fueron mayores en Cerro de Pasco para equinococosis quística (24,5%), en Ayacucho para cisticerco de T. solium (4,5%) y en Puno para fascioliasis (40,6%). Entre las características sociodemográficas, se encontró una diferencia estadísticamente significativa en la frecuencia de casos para todas las zoonosis según grupo etario, ocupación, y región de residencia. Además, se encontró diferencia con el consumo de verduras en emolientes, y entre las características clínico-epidemiológicas con tener antecedentes familiares de las zoonosis parasitarias. Conclusiones. A partir de las 7811 muestras evaluadas, se encontró que estas zoonosis parasitarias están distribuidas en 13 regiones de la sierra del Perú, ocasionando un problema de salud importante, con frecuencias que varían según diversas características.


ABSTRACT Objectives. To determine seropositivity to anti-IgG antibodies against Echinococcus granulosus, Fasciola hepatica and Taenia solium cysticercus infection and to describe the characteristics of the infected patients in 13 regions of the Peruvian highlands between 2016 and 2019. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional, observational study, in which we analyzed 7811 epidemiological records of laboratory-based surveillance of parasitic zoonoses from 2016 to 2019. Diagnosis was established by detecting IgG type anti-E. granulosus, F. hepatica and T. solium cysticercus antibodies using native antigens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Immunoblot. We evaluated the difference in the frequency of the cases according to identified characteristics using Pearson's chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Results. Seropositivity was 7.9% for fascioliasis, 4.9% for cystic echinococcosis, and 2.3% for T. solium cysticercus. These rates were higher in Cerro de Pasco for cystic echinococcosis (24.5%), in Ayacucho for T. solium cysticercus (4.5%) and in Puno for fascioliasis (40.6%). Regarding the sociodemographic characteristics, we found a statistically significant difference in the frequency of cases for all zoonoses according to age group, occupation, and region of residence. We also found a difference with the consumption of vegetables in emollients, and between clinical-epidemiological characteristics and having a family history of parasitic zoonoses. Conclusions. From the 7811 samples, we found that these parasitic zoonoses are distributed in 13 regions of the Peruvian highlands, and represent a major health problem, with frequencies that change according to different characteristics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Unified Health System
10.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 55(2): 4-4, jun. 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449402

ABSTRACT

Abstract Contagious Ecthyma (CE) is a severe exanthematous dermatitis caused by the Orf virus (ORFV) that mainly affects domestic small ruminants such as sheep and goats. It is a worldwide-distributed occupational zoonosis, particularly infecting those in close contact with animals or animal products such as shepherds, farmers and veterinarians, among others. In the present work, we report the first human CE case confirmed in Argentina. A phylogenetic analysis based on four gene sequences of the isolated strain responsible for the disease showed that this isolate grouped with other ORFV sequences that caused reported CE cases in sheep from the same Argentine province. We also sequenced a sample from a Chilean human case reported in 2017, whose phylogenetic analysis showed that it groups together with other Argentine isolates from locations close to the border with Chile. Keywords: Contagious Ecthyma; Dermatitis; Human Orf; Zoonosis; Molecular characterization.


Resumen El ectima contagioso (EC) es una dermatitis exantemática grave causada por el virus Orf (ORFV), que afecta mayormente a pequeños rumiantes domésticos, como ovinos y caprinos. Es una zoonosis ocupacional con distribución mundial, infecta a humanos en estrecho contacto con animales o sus productos, como granjeros, esquiladores y veterinarios, entre otros. En este trabajo se informa el primer caso humano de EC confirmado en Argentina. Un análisis filogenético basado en cuatro genes de la cepa responsable de este caso mostró que el aislamiento agrupa con otras secuencias de ORFV que causaron casos en ovinos en la misma provincia argentina. También se secuenció una muestra del caso de ectima humano reportado en Chile en 2017 y el análisis filogenético mostró que dicho aislamiento forma un grupo con otros aislamientos argentinos de localidades cercanas a la frontera con Chile. Palabras clave: Ectima contagioso; Dermatitis; Orf en humanos; Zoonosis; Caracterización molecular.

11.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 75(1)abr. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1550874

ABSTRACT

La endocarditis bacteriana secundaria a la infección por Brucella spp., en este caso B. melitensis, como complicación de la brucelosis humana tiene una incidencia baja y, aunque es la presentación clínica con la que se asocia más frecuentemente la mortalidad, no todos los casos son letales, si son tratados oportunamente. Se describe el caso clínico de una endocarditis bacteriana por B. melitensis, diagnosticada en un adulto por el aislamiento del microorganismo en el hemocultivo. Paciente del sexo masculino, de 40 años, con antecedentes de realizar partos en el ganado bovino y consumir leche no pasteurizada. Acudió al médico por presentar durante siete días de evolución de las siguientes manifestaciones clínicas: fiebre, mialgias, artralgias, tos seca y pérdida de peso (15 kg). El hemograma informa: leucopenia, trombocitopenia y anemia; mientras que en un ecocardiograma transesofágico se observó vegetación en la válvula aórtica con una disminución de la función sistólica y en el hemocultivo se aisló B. melitensis. Debido a estos antecedentes, se inició el tratamiento antibacteriano con rifampicina, doxiciclina y gentamicina. El paciente se recuperó y tuvo una evolución clínica satisfactoria. La brucelosis es una enfermedad infrecuente. Debe considerarse en toda persona con fiebre de foco desconocido que resida en zonas endémicas o esté expuesto al cuidado de animales de granja. En esta enfermedad se impone un diagnóstico y tratamiento preciso, por ser una complicación con alta letalidad.


Bacterial endocarditis, secondary to Brucella spp. infection, in this case by B. melitensis, as a complication of human brucellosis has a low incidence. Although it is the clinical presentation most frequently associated with mortality, not all cases are lethal if timely treatment is provided. We describe a clinical case of bacterial endocarditis due to B. melitensis in a 40-year-old male patient with a history of conducting cattle deliveries and consuming unpasteurized milk, diagnosed after isolating the microorganism in blood culture. He presented with the following clinical manifestations after seven days of evolution: fever, myalgias, arthralgias, dry cough and weight loss (15 kg). The hemogram revealed leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia; while a transesophageal echocardiogram showed vegetation on the aortic valve with decreased systolic function, and B. melitensis was isolated in a blood culture. Considering this medical history, antibacterial treatment was initiated with rifampicin, doxycycline and gentamicin. The patient recovered and had satisfactory clinical evolution. Brucellosis is a rare disease. It should be considered in any person with a fever of unknown origin who lives in endemic areas or is exposed to the care of farm animals. Endocarditis is a highly lethal complication of human brucellosis; therefore, it requires a precise diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Gentamicins/therapeutic use , Brucella melitensis/pathogenicity , Endocarditis, Bacterial/complications
12.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 13(1): 36-42, jan.-mar. 2023. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512694

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: leishmaniases are anthropozoonosis considered a major public health problem in tropical regions and endemic in some areas of constant expansion. This study aimed to assess the main epidemiological aspects of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the municipality of Cametá, in the state of Pará, from 2007 to 2017. Methods: this is a descriptive-exploratory analysis, of time series, with data collected in the Department of Epidemiological Surveillance of the Department of Sanitary Surveillance of Cametá. Statistical calculations were performed, and, for the coefficient of incidence of ATL and VL, the standard formula was used to obtain the indicator. Results: a total of 94 and 294 cases of ATL and VL were reported, with the highest incidence rate in 2008. The disease affected all established age groups, with high frequency in children under ten years of age for VL (n=174), and between 20 and 30 years of age, for ATL (n=71). The disease was more prevalent in males (ATL (89.4%) and VL (58.2%)), because men are more related to economic activities. Conclusion: considering the high number of rural cases, it is noteworthy that reporting in urban areas is also worrisome, in addition to the livelihood of local families, because it has made them vulnerable to the disease. Furthermore, there is concern about the possible expansion and change in the pattern of ATL in the municipality. The Municipal Department as well as the epidemiological surveillance must pay attention to promote investments and campaigns to combat and treat this important disease.(AU)


Justificativa e objetivos: as leishmanioses são antropozoonoses consideradas um grande problema para a saúde pública em regiões tropicais e endêmicas em algumas áreas de constante expansão. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os principais aspectos epidemiológicos da leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA) e leishmaniose visceral (LV) no município de Cametá, no estado do Pará, no período de 2007 a 2017. Métodos: trata-se de uma análise descritiva-exploratória, de série temporal, com dados coletados no Departamento de Vigilância Epidemiológica da Secretaria de Vigilância Sanitária de Cametá. Realizaram-se os cálculos estatísticos, e, para o coeficiente de incidência de LTA e LV, utilizou-se a fórmula padrão para a obtenção do indicador. Resultados: foram notificados 94 e 294 casos de LTA e LV, com maior taxa de incidência em 2008. A doença atingiu todas as faixas etárias estabelecidas, com alta frequência nos menores de dez anos para LV (n=174), e, entre 20 e 30 anos de idade, para LTA (n=71). A doença foi mais prevalente no sexo masculino (LTA (89,4%) e LV (58,2%)), em virtude dos homens estarem mais relacionados com as atividades econômicas. Conclusão: em vista do alto número de casos rurais, ressalta-se que a notificação em área urbana também é preocupante, além dos meios de subsistência das famílias locais, pois vem tornando-as vulneráveis para o adoecimento. Ademais, há a preocupação com a possível expansão e mudança no padrão da LTA no município. A Secretaria Municipal, bem como de vigilância epidemiológica, deve atentar-se a promover investimentos e campanhas de combate e tratamento deste importante agravo.(AU)


Justificación y objetivos: las leishmaniasis son antropozoonosis consideradas un importante problema de salud pública en las regiones tropicales y endémicas en algunas zonas de constante expansión. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar los principales aspectos epidemiológicos de la leishmaniasis tegumentaria americana (LTA) y la leishmaniasis visceral (LV) en el municipio de Cametá, en el estado de Pará, de 2007 a 2017. Métodos: se trata de un análisis descriptivo-exploratorio, de serie temporal, con datos recolectados en el Departamento de Vigilancia Epidemiológica de la Secretaría de Vigilancia Sanitaria de Cametá. Se realizaron cálculos estadísticos y, para el coeficiente de incidencia de LCA y LV, se utilizó la fórmula estándar para obtener el indicador. Resultados: se reportaron 94 y 294 casos de LTA y LV, con la mayor tasa de incidencia en 2008. La enfermedad afectó a todos los grupos de edad establecidos, con alta frecuencia en menores de diez años para LV (n=174), y entre 20 y 30 años. años de edad, para LTA (n=71). La enfermedad fue más prevalente en el sexo masculino (LTA (89,4%) y VL (58,2%)), debido a que los hombres están más relacionados con actividades económicas. Conclusión: dado el alto número de casos rurales, cabe señalar que la notificación en las zonas urbanas también es motivo de preocupación, además de los medios de subsistencia de las familias locales, ya que las ha vuelto vulnerables a la enfermedad. Además, existe preocupación por la posible expansión y cambio en el patrón de LTA en el municipio. La Secretaría Municipal, así como la de vigilancia epidemiológica, debe prestar atención a promover inversiones y campañas para combatir y tratar este importante problema.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Zoonoses , Leishmania
13.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 55(1): 111-120, mar. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1441191

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se informa un caso autóctono de rickettsiosis por Rickettsia parkeri, ocurrido en junio del 2018 en la zona selvática del Parque Provincial Urugua-í, Misiones, Argentina, región sin registros previos de esta enfermedad en humanos. Se describen los aspectos epidemiológicos, ecológicos, clínicos y de laboratorio necesarios para el diagnóstico oportuno y el tratamiento adecuado. Se resalta el hecho de considerar a las rickettsiosis como diagnóstico diferencial ante un paciente con síndrome febril agudo exantemático; el antecedente epidemiológico de exposición al vector característico de la región, garrapatas del género Amblyomma, es un elemento fundamental.


Abstract We report an autochthonous case of Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis occurred in June 2018 in a forested area of the Urugua-í Provincial Park, Misiones, Argentina. No previous records of this disease in humans have been previously reported in this region. The epidemiological, ecological, clinical, and laboratory features required for a proper diagnosis and adequate treatment are described here. The fact of considering rickettsiosis as a differential diagnosis in a patient with exanthematic acute febrile syndrome is highlighted, being the epidemiological history of exposure to the vector (ticks of the genus Amblyomma) an essential element.

14.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 11(1): 1-7, Jan. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1524423

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: este estudo se propôs a caracterizar o perfil epidemiológico da esporotricose felina no município de São Paulo (SP) no período de 2011 a 2022. Métodos: estudo descritivo dos casos de esporotricose felina registrados entre 2011 e 2022. Foram utilizados dados secundários, provenientes dos bancos de dados da vigilância do município. Resultados: o perfil predominante dos animais é composto por machos, 71,4% (n=2.644), com idade inferior a 4 anos 70,1% (n=1.137) e com livre acesso à rua 51,0% (n=1.348). Foram registrados 811 óbitos, entre os quais foi informado o sexo para 381, sendo estes 77,4% (n=295) machos e 22,6% (n=86) fêmeas. Conclusão: diante dos achados deste estudo, compreende-se que a situação epidemiológica da doença requer ações conjuntas das vigilâncias epidemiológica e ambiental para serem desenvolvidas medidas de prevenção e controle embasadas em uma perspectiva de saúde única.


Objective: this study aimed to characterize the epidemiological profile of feline sporotrichosis in the city of São Paulo (SP) from 2011 to 2022. Methods: this is a descriptive study of feline sporotrichosis cases reported between 2011 and 2022. The data were obtained from a secondary database of the São Paulo Health Surveillance System. Results: the predominant profile of the animals is composed of males 71.4% (n=2,644), under the age of four years old 70.1% (n=1,137), and with free access to streets 51.0% (n=1,348). Furthermore, of the 811 deaths registered, 381 had the gender identified, 77.4% (n=295) were males, and 22.6% (n=86) were females. Conclusion: given the findings of this study, it is understood that the epidemiological situation of the disease requires joint actions by epidemiological and environmental surveillance in order to develop prevention and control measures based on one health perspective.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Sporotrichosis , Health Profile , Zoonoses
15.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 27(1): 102730, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420727

ABSTRACT

Abstract Alterations of ecosystems have deep effects on the distribution of parasites. Big cities of Argentina present structural features that favor the presence of synanthropic species, acting as source of zoonotic diseases, for example in urban rodents: the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) and the black rat (R. rattus). One of the important zoonotic pathogens related are the RNA virus Hantavirus, with high prevalence rates in South America. The aim of this study was to explore and identify the presence of Hantavirus in urban rodents from Gran La Plata, Argentina. The presence of anti-hantavirus IgG antibodies was determined by the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Six samples turned out positive for Seoul virus (SEOV, p= 14.3%). These are the first records of SEOV in urban rodents in Gran La Plata. It represents the first report in R. rattus in Argentina, and in America. This situation underscores the inequality and historical forgetfulness of a portion of society, calling for urgent action to be taken in this regard.

16.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1422784

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Toxoplasmosis is an infection of vast worldwide distribution whose etiologic agent is Toxoplasma gondii. This disease can cause problems ranging from mild symptoms to serious conditions, such as encephalitis, miscarriage and blindness. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to perform a diagnosis with reproducible techniques in order to obtain a good prognosis. The aim of this review was to analyze the efficiency of toxoplasmosis diagnostic techniques based on sensitivity and specificity results. Five research platforms in English language were used (Eric, Elsevier, Google Scholar, PubMed and SciELO), which contained data on the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. The search and selection were performed for studies published prior to June 2021. The search resulted in the inclusion of 13 articles published from 2005 to 2020. The data revealed the use of different samples in the standardization of techniques such as serum, total blood, colostrum and amniotic fluid. The flow cytometry, lateral flow immunoassay and qPCR techniques showed 100% sensitivity, whereas the ELISA, western blotting, qPCR and RE-LAMP techniques achieved 100% specificity. Significantly, the qPCR and LAMP techniques were more accurate when the likelihood ratio was assessed. The meta-analysis identified that ISAGA and western blotting have low sensitivity values and LIASON, ELFA and ELISA, using a silica bioconjugate, also have low specificity values. It was noted that a wide range of methods have high values of sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, the choice of the method will be based on the conditions and its financial viability.

17.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 32(4): e008523, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1521816

ABSTRACT

Abstract A serologic and epidemiologic study was carried out in order to determinate herd and animal seroprevalence and associated factors for Toxoplasma gondii in commercial pigs from Espírito Santo state, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 416 pigs from 55 producer farms in 27 municipalities. An indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) was performed to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii and identify the associated risk factors using a questionnaire. The T. gondii antibody prevalence rate in commercial swine herds was 15.4% (64/416) using a cutoff of 1:64. The seropositivity for T. gondii was related to the presence of cats, water origin and age of swine in the increase of seroprevalence, and the existence of internal isolation fences and use of composting chambers as protective factors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report anti- T. gondii antibodies in the serum of pigs in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. This finding is important to public health because seropositive pigs can harbor tissue cysts in their meat, thereby representing a zoonotic risk for consumers of raw or undercooked porcine meat or its products.


Resumo Um estudo sorológico e epidemiológico foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar a soroprevalência nas granjas e animais e também em fatores associados para Toxoplasma gondii em suínos comerciais do estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue de 416 suínos de 55 granjas produtoras de 27 municípios. A reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI) foi realizada com o uso de questionário, para estimar a soroprevalência do T. gondii e identificar os fatores de risco associados. A taxa de prevalência de anticorpos contra T. gondii, nos rebanhos comerciais de suínos, foi de 15,4% (64/416) com ponto de corte de 1:64. A soropositividade para T. gondii foi relacionada à presença de gatos, origem da água, a idade dos suínos no aumento da soroprevalência, a existência de cercas de isolamento interno e uso de câmaras de compostagem como fatores de proteção. De acordo com este estudo, ele é o primeiro a relatar anticorpos anti-T. gondii no soro de suínos no estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. Este achado é importante para a saúde pública, pois suínos soropositivos podem abrigar cistos teciduais em suas carnes, representando um risco zoonótico para os consumidores de carne suína crua ou mal cozida ou seus produtos.

18.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-4, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469008

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 is a contagious viral disease, was first emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and became the whole world on alert. The mortality rate in top most countries in Asia with special reference to Pakistan has been focused. Since February 26 to September 2020 the total confirmed cases and mortality rate was measured through Wikipedia and the notable journals. Iran is the only country having highest number of deaths (5.73%) followed by Indonesia (3.77%) while Saudi Arabia shows the lowest number of deaths as 1.39%. In Pakistan the first case was confirmed in 26th February, 2020. The nCov-19 has closely related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) hence SARS COV-2 was named. This virus is responsible for more than 33.9 million deaths in over all the world as of 20th September, 2020. The number of new cases is increasing time to time. Sindh province of Pakistan has reported the highest number of cases till September, 20, 2020 as compared to other parts of the country and has the highest number of death followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Because of the person to person contact the disease is spreading rapidly. The individuals who has already infected with other diseases like cancer or diabetic etc. are vulnerable. The nCOV-19 is the most contagious due to its mode of transmission. There is still no vaccine is available for the treatment of disease caused by nCoV-2019. It is therefore the only option to control this pandemic is to adopt effective preventive measures.


A covid-19 é uma doença viral contagiosa, que surgiu pela primeira vez em Wuhan, China, em dezembro de 2019, e deixou o mundo todo em alerta. A taxa de mortalidade na maioria dos principais países da Ásia, com referência especial ao Paquistão, foi enfocada. De 26 de fevereiro a setembro de 2020, o total de casos confirmados e a taxa de mortalidade foram medidos por meio da Wikipedia e de periódicos notáveis. O Irã é o único país com maior número de mortes (5,73%), seguido pela Indonésia (3,77%), enquanto a Arábia Saudita mostra o menor número de mortes, 1,39%. No Paquistão, o primeiro caso foi confirmado em 26 de fevereiro de 2020. O nCov-19 está intimamente relacionado à síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SARS), daí o nome SARS COV-2. Esse vírus é responsável por mais de 33,9 milhões de mortes em todo o mundo em 20 de setembro de 2020. O número de novos casos está aumentando de tempos em tempos. A província de Sindh, no Paquistão, registrou o maior número de casos até 20 de setembro de 2020, em comparação com outras partes do país, e tem o maior número de mortes, seguida por Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Por causa do contato pessoa a pessoa, a doença está se espalhando rapidamente. Indivíduos que já foram diagnosticados com outras doenças, como câncer ou diabetes, etc. são mais vulneráveis. O nCOV-19 é o mais contagioso devido ao seu modo de transmissão. Ainda não há vacina disponível para o tratamento da doença causada pelo nCoV-2019. Portanto, a única opção para controlar essa pandemia é a adoção de medidas preventivas eficazes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-6, 2023. graf, ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469012

ABSTRACT

The study was undertaken from September 2018 to April 2019 to determine the prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in human beings living in six districts of Karachi. Suspected persons were screened for the disease and positive cases were identified on the basis of skin lesions and blood samples. Samples were observed by mounting their smear. A total of 207 subjects of different ages and sex groups were investigated, however, only 192 (92%) of the suspected cases were found to have the disease 64% of cases were male which were significantly high (p<0.05), than female 36%. The lesion was more frequently detected among the youth ages of 21-30 years (31%) as compared to other groups. In both sexes, legs were found to be more infected (25% male + 20% female) followed by arms (20% male + 0% female) and face (15% male +11% female). The mixed body parts had shown the lowest infections such as (4% in males + 5%) in females. In conclusion, the highest and lowest leishmaniasis infections were observed in District West (23% male + 9% female) followed by District East (15% male + 7% female), District Malir (11% male+ 4% female), District Central (7% male + 5% female), District Korangi (4% male + 7% female) and District South (4% male + 4% female) respectively.


O estudo foi realizado de setembro de 2018 a abril de 2019 para determinar a prevalência de leishmaniose tegumentar em seres humanos que vivem em seis distritos de Karachi. Pessoas suspeitas foram rastreadas para a doença e os casos positivos foram identificados com base em lesões de pele e amostras de sangue. As amostras foram observadas montando seu esfregaço. Um total de 207 indivíduos de diferentes idades e grupos sexuais foi investigado, no entanto apenas 192 (92%) dos casos suspeitos foram encontrados para ter a doença; 64% dos casos eram do sexo masculino, que foram significativamente elevados (p < 0,05), e do sexo feminino 36%. A lesão foi detectada com maior frequência entre os jovens de 21 a 30 anos (31%) em comparação com os outros grupos. Em ambos os sexos, as pernas estavam mais infectadas (25% homens + 20% mulheres), seguidas pelos braços (20% homens + 0% mulheres) e rosto (15% homens + 11% mulheres). As partes mistas do corpo mostraram as infecções mais baixas (4% homens + 5% mulheres). Em conclusão, as infecções de leishmaniose mais altas e mais baixas foram observadas no Distrito Oeste (23% homens + 9% mulheres) seguido pelo Distrito Leste (15% homens + 7% mulheres), Distrito Malir (11% homens + 4% mulheres), Distrito Central (7% homens + 5% mulheres), Distrito Korangi (4% homens + 7% mulheres) e Distrito Sul (4% homens + 4% mulheres), respectivamente.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/blood , Prevalence
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 832023.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469227

ABSTRACT

Abstract The COVID-19 is a contagious viral disease, was first emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and became the whole world on alert. The mortality rate in top most countries in Asia with special reference to Pakistan has been focused. Since February 26 to September 2020 the total confirmed cases and mortality rate was measured through Wikipedia and the notable journals. Iran is the only country having highest number of deaths (5.73%) followed by Indonesia (3.77%) while Saudi Arabia shows the lowest number of deaths as 1.39%. In Pakistan the first case was confirmed in 26th February, 2020. The nCov-19 has closely related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) hence SARS COV-2 was named. This virus is responsible for more than 33.9 million deaths in over all the world as of 20th September, 2020. The number of new cases is increasing time to time. Sindh province of Pakistan has reported the highest number of cases till September, 20, 2020 as compared to other parts of the country and has the highest number of death followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Because of the person to person contact the disease is spreading rapidly. The individuals who has already infected with other diseases like cancer or diabetic etc. are vulnerable. The nCOV-19 is the most contagious due to its mode of transmission. There is still no vaccine is available for the treatment of disease caused by nCoV-2019. It is therefore the only option to control this pandemic is to adopt effective preventive measures.


Resumo A covid-19 é uma doença viral contagiosa, que surgiu pela primeira vez em Wuhan, China, em dezembro de 2019, e deixou o mundo todo em alerta. A taxa de mortalidade na maioria dos principais países da Ásia, com referência especial ao Paquistão, foi enfocada. De 26 de fevereiro a setembro de 2020, o total de casos confirmados e a taxa de mortalidade foram medidos por meio da Wikipedia e de periódicos notáveis. O Irã é o único país com maior número de mortes (5,73%), seguido pela Indonésia (3,77%), enquanto a Arábia Saudita mostra o menor número de mortes, 1,39%. No Paquistão, o primeiro caso foi confirmado em 26 de fevereiro de 2020. O nCov-19 está intimamente relacionado à síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SARS), daí o nome SARS COV-2. Esse vírus é responsável por mais de 33,9 milhões de mortes em todo o mundo em 20 de setembro de 2020. O número de novos casos está aumentando de tempos em tempos. A província de Sindh, no Paquistão, registrou o maior número de casos até 20 de setembro de 2020, em comparação com outras partes do país, e tem o maior número de mortes, seguida por Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Por causa do contato pessoa a pessoa, a doença está se espalhando rapidamente. Indivíduos que já foram diagnosticados com outras doenças, como câncer ou diabetes, etc. são mais vulneráveis. O nCOV-19 é o mais contagioso devido ao seu modo de transmissão. Ainda não há vacina disponível para o tratamento da doença causada pelo nCoV-2019. Portanto, a única opção para controlar essa pandemia é a adoção de medidas preventivas eficazes.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL