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1.
J. bras. econ. saúde (Impr.) ; 16(1): 25-64, Abril/2024.
Article in English | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-1555250

ABSTRACT

Pembrolizumab monotherapy or in combination with chemotherapy is approved as first-line treatment in recurrent/metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (R/M HNSCC) based on improved overall survival (OS) versus EXTREME regimen in the KEYNOTE-048 trial. The clinical outcomes of pembrolizumab were compared with other recommended first-line treatments in R/M HNSCC in this study through a Bayesian network meta-analysis. A systematic literature review was conducted in July 2022, from which six trials that matched the KEYNOTE-048 patient eligibility criteria were included in the network. The OS and progression-free survival (PFS) outcomes were compared in the approved pembrolizumab indication (i.e., total population for pembrolizumab in combination with chemotherapy and combined positive score [CPS] ≥ 1 population for pembrolizumab monotherapy). A significant OS improvement was observed for pembrolizumab in combination with chemotherapy and pembrolizumab monotherapy versus EXTREME regimen (hazard ratio, 95% credible interval: 0.72, 0.60-0.86; 0.73, 0.60-0.88), platinum+5- FU (0.58, 0.43-0.76; 0.58, 0.44-0.78), and platinum+paclitaxel (0.53, 0.35-0.79; 0.53, 0.35-0.81), respectively. A non-significant numeric trend in OS improvement was observed versus the TPEx regimen. PFS was comparable with most first-line treatments and was improved versus platinum+5-FU (0.48, 0.36-0.64; 0.59, 0.45-0.79). Additional analyses in higher CPS subgroups also showed consistent results. Overall, our study results showed an improvement in OS outcomes versus alternative first-line treatments, consistent with the findings of the KEYNOTE-048 trial. These data support using pembrolizumab as a suitable firstline treatment option in R/M HNSCC.


Pembrolizumabe em monoterapia ou em combinação com quimioterapia é aprovado como tratamento de primeira linha em carcinoma de células escamosas recorrente/metastático de cabeça e pescoço (CECCP R/M) com base na melhora da sobrevida global (OS), em comparação com o esquema EXTREME no estudo KEYNOTE-048. Esse estudo comparou os resultados clínicos de pembrolizumabe com outros tratamentos recomendados de primeira linha em CECCP R/M por meio de uma metanálise de rede bayesiana. Uma revisão sistemática da literatura foi conduzida em julho de 2022, a partir da qual seis ensaios clínicos que atendiam aos critérios de elegibilidade de pacientes do KEYNOTE-048 foram incluídos na rede. Os desfechos de OS e sobrevida livre de progressão (PFS) foram comparados na indicação de pembrolizumabe (população total para pembrolizumabe em combinação com quimioterapia e população com escore positivo combinado [CPS] ≥ 1 em monoterapia com pembrolizumabe). Foi observada melhora significativa na OS para pembrolizumabe em combinação com quimioterapia e monoterapia com pembrolizumabe versus o esquema EXTREME (razão de risco, intervalo de confiança de 95%: 0,72, 0,60-0,86; 0,73, 0,60-0,88), platina+5-FU (0,58, 0,43-0,76; 0,58, 0,44-0,78) e platina+paclitaxel (0,53, 0,35-0,79; 0,53, 0,35-0,81), respectivamente. Uma tendência numérica não significativa de melhoria na OS foi observada em relação ao esquema TPEx. A PFS foi comparável com a maioria dos tratamentos de primeira linha e melhor em relação à platina+5-FU (0,48, 0,36-0,64; 0,59, 0,45-0,79). Análises adicionais em subgrupos com CPS mais elevado também mostraram resultados consistentes. No geral, os resultados de nosso estudo mostraram melhora nos desfechos de OS em comparação aos tratamentos de primeira linha alternativos, consistentes com os achados do estudo KEYNOTE-048. Esses dados apoiam o uso de pembrolizumabe como opção de tratamento em primeira linha em pacientes com CECCP R/M.


Subject(s)
Ovarian Neoplasms , Costs and Cost Analysis , Supplemental Health , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors
2.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 39(1): 1-4, jan.mar.2024. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1552872

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O carcinoma basocelular (CBC) de vulva é uma condição rara que corresponde a menos de 0,4% dos casos de CBC e de 2% a 4% das neoplasias de vulva. O CBC de vulva é mais comum entre mulheres brancas, multíparas e na pósmenopausa, especialmente na sétima década de vida. O objetivo é relatar um caso de CBC de vulva no qual discutiram-se os aspectos do diagnóstico e tratamento. Relato de Caso: Mulher de 63 anos de idade, G1P1A0, chega ao consultório em janeiro de 2022 para tratamento de lesão persistente em vulva. Realizou-se biópsia incisional que mostrou tratar-se de provável carcinoma basocelular nodular com invasão da derme. A paciente submeteu-se a uma ressecção do tumor com margens macroscópicas livres e sutura primária. A cirurgia não teve complicações no pré-operatório e no pós-operatório. O histopatológico da peça cirúrgica mostrou tratar-se de carcinoma basocelular nodular com área irregular, plana, branco, medindo 0,7x0,4cm, com as margens laterais distando 7,0 e 5,0mm e profundas, 5,9mm; todas livres. Conclusão: O caso relatado é raro, tendo sido o tratamento de ressecção cirúrgica do CBC de vulva com margens bem-sucedido. Catorze meses após a cirurgia, a paciente encontra-se sem evidências de recidiva local ou regional.


Introduction: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the vulva is a rare condition that accounts for less than 0.4% of BCC cases and 2% to 4% of vulvar neoplasms. BCC of the vulva is more common among white, multiparous and postmenopausal women, especially in the seventh decade of life. The aim is to report a case of BCC of the vulva in which aspects of diagnosis and treatment were discussed. Case report: A 63-year-old woman, G1P1A0, arrives at the office in January 2022 for treatment of a persistent lesion on her vulva. An incisional biopsy was performed and showed that it was likely nodular basal cell carcinoma with invasion of the dermis. The patient underwent tumor resection with free macroscopic margins and primary suture. The surgery had no complications preoperatively or postoperatively. The histopathology of the surgical specimen showed that it was a nodular basal cell carcinoma with an irregular, flat, white area, measuring 0.7x0.4cm, with the lateral margins 7.0 and 5.0mm apart and 5.9mm deep; all free. Conclusion: The reported case is rare, with surgical resection of BCC of the vulva with margins being successful. Fourteen months after surgery, the patient has no evidence of local or regional recurrence.

3.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 39(1): 1-5, jan.mar.2024. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1552873

ABSTRACT

O tumor filoide é uma neoplasia fibroepitelial rara que representa 0,3 a 1% de todas as neoplasias mamárias. De acordo com a classificação histopatológica, 12 a 26% são do tipo borderline e aproximadamente 15% desses tumores recorrem após excisão cirúrgica. O tratamento recomendado para todos os tipos de tumor filoide é a excisão cirúrgica, e no caso de tumores gigantes o tratamento deve ser multidisciplinar. Apresentamos o caso de uma mulher de 46 anos com tumor filoide na mama esquerda que recorreu 4 anos após a excisão cirúrgica. O estudo anatomopatológico qualificou-o como tumor gigante e o estudo histopatológico relatou tumor filoide borderline. Foi submetida a excisão cirúrgica com mastectomia esquerda e reconstrução mamária com retalho de grande dorsal mais enxerto de gordura. A paciente apresentou evolução favorável sem recidiva. Concluindo, o tumor filoide gigante borderline recorrente é raro e seu manejo cirúrgico representa um desafio tanto na excisão quanto na reconstrução mamária.


Phyllodes tumor is a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm that represents 0.3 to 1% of all breast neoplasms. According to histopathologic classification, 12 to 26% are borderline type and approximately 15% of these tumors recur after surgical excision. The recommended treatment for all types of phyllodes tumor is surgical excision, and in the case of giant tumors the treatment should be multidisciplinary. We present the case of a 46-yearold woman with a phyllodes tumor in the left breast that recurred 4 years after surgical excision. The anatomopathological study qualified it as a giant tumor and the histopathological study reported a borderline phyllodes tumor. She underwent surgical excision with left mastectomy and breast reconstruction by means of a latissimus dorsi flap plus fat graft. The patient presented a favorable evolution without recurrence. In conclusion, the recurrent giant borderline phyllodes tumor is rare and its surgical management represents a challenge both in breast excision and reconstruction.

4.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 39(1): 1-5, jan.mar.2024. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1552875

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Em 1977, a partir dos estudos anatômicos de McCraw et al., passou-se a utilizar o músculo peitoral maior como retalho miocutâneo em ilha. O presente artigo descreve um caso de reconstrução de um defeito da parede anterior do hemitórax direito através do retalho miocutâneo peitoral maior em ilha ipsilateral. Relato do Caso: A.E.S., de 66 anos, sexo masculino foi submetido a ressecção ampla de um carcinoma basocelular infiltrativo recidivante de 13,0 x 8,0cm da região paraesternal direita. O retalho miocutâneo foi transposto através de tunelização subcutânea e as cicatrizes posicionadas em forma de mamaplastia em T invertido. Conclusão: A presente tática cirúrgica é de fácil execução para cirurgiões habituados com reconstrução mamária, apresenta tempo cirúrgico curto e resultado estético-funcional satisfatório.


Introduction: In 1977, based on anatomical studies by McCraw et al., the pectoralis major muscle began to be used as an island myocutaneous flap. The present article describes a case of reconstruction of a defect in the anterior wall of the right hemithorax using the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap in an ipsilateral island. Case Report: AES, 66 years old, male, underwent wide resection of a recurrent infiltrative basal cell carcinoma measuring 13.0 x 8.0 cm in the right parasternal region. The myocutaneous flap was transposed through subcutaneous tunneling and the scars were positioned in the shape of an inverted T mammoplasty. Conclusion: This surgical tactic is easy to perform for surgeons accustomed to breast reconstruction, has a short surgical time, and has satisfactory aesthetic-functional results.

5.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 39(2): 339-347, 20240220. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532734

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El cáncer de riñón es la undécima neoplasia maligna más común en los Estados Unidos Mexicanos. El carcinoma de células claras de riñón (CCR) es considerado la estirpe más frecuente y representa el 2-3 % de todos los cánceres a nivel mundial. En el contexto de la enfermedad metastásica, por lo general se identifica un tumor renal primario y las metástasis se localizan en pulmón, hueso, hígado, cerebro y, raramente, en tejidos blandos. Los pacientes con metástasis a tejidos blandos no tienen síntomas en las etapas iniciales y generalmente se identifican sólo cuando las lesiones aumentan de tamaño o durante el estudio de la pieza de resección quirúrgica. Caso clínico. Se presenta el caso de una paciente en la séptima década de la vida, con una metástasis en tejidos blandos de la región sacra, de 10 años de evolución posterior a una nefrectomía secundario a CCR. Resultados. Hallazgos clínicos e imagenológicos de un tumor bien delimitado. Se realizó resección quirúrgica de la lesión, bajo anestesia regional, con extirpación completa. Conclusión. Se recomienda que los pacientes con un sitio metastásico resecable y solitario sean llevados a resección quirúrgica con márgenes libres, como fue el caso de nuestra paciente, por su fácil acceso y ser una lesión única. En el CCR, además de su tratamiento quirúrgico inicial, es indispensable una estrecha vigilancia con examen físico e imágenes transversales, para detectar la presencia de metástasis y con ello evitar tratamientos tardíos.


Introduction. Kidney cancer is the eleventh most common malignancy in the United States of Mexico. Carcinoma renal cell (CRC) is considered the most frequent type and represents 2-3% of all cancers worldwide. In the setting of metastatic disease, a primary renal tumor is usually identified, and metastases are located in the lung, bone, liver, brain, and rarely in soft tissue. Patients with soft tissue metastases do not have symptoms in the initial stages and are generally found only when the lesions increase in size or during the study of the surgical resection piece. Clinical case. In this case, we report a female patient in the seventh decade of life with a soft tissue metastasis located in the sacral region, 10 years after a nephrectomy secondary to CRC. Results. Clinical and radiological findings of a well-defined tumor. Surgical resection of the lesion is performed under regional anesthesia with complete excision. Conclusions. It is recommended that patients with a resectable and solitary metastatic site be candidates for surgical resection with free margins, as was the case with our patient due to its easy access and single lesion. In CRC, in addition to its initial surgical treatment, close surveillance with physical examination and cross-sectional images is essential to monitor the presence of metastases and thus avoid late treatments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Kidney Neoplasms , Neoplasm Seeding , Soft Tissue Neoplasms , Diagnosis, Differential , Neoplasm Metastasis
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 154-161, feb. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528830

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Esophageal cancer is one of the most aggressive gastrointestinal cancers. Invasion and metastasis are the main causes of poor prognosis of esophageal cancer. SPRY2 has been reported to exert promoting effects in human cancers, which controls signal pathways including PI3K/AKT and MAPKs. However, the expression of SPRY2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the detailed role of SPRY2 in the regulation of cell proliferation, invasion and ERK/AKT signaling pathway in ESCC. It was identified that the expression level of SPRY2 in ESCC was remarkably decreased compared with normal tissues, and it was related to clinicopathologic features and prognosis ESCC patients. The upregulation of SPRY2 expression notably inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of Eca-109 cells. In addition, the activity of ERK /AKT signaling was also suppressed by the SPRY2 upregulation in Eca-109 cells. Our study suggests that overexpression of SPRY2 suppress cancer cell proliferation and invasion of by through suppression of the ERK/AKT signaling pathways in ESCC. Therefore, SPRY2 may be a promising prognostic marker and therapeutic target for ESCC.


El cáncer de esófago es uno de los cánceres gastrointestinales más agresivos. La invasión y la metástasis son las principales causas de mal pronóstico del cáncer de esófago. Se ha informado que SPRY2 ejerce efectos promotores en los cánceres humanos, que controla las vías de señales, incluidas PI3K/AKT y MAPK. Sin embargo, la expresión de SPRY2 en el carcinoma de células escamosas de esófago (ESCC) y su mecanismo subyacente aún no están claros. En el presente estudio, nuestro objetivo fue investigar el papel detallado de SPRY2 en la regulación de la proliferación celular, la invasión y la vía de señalización ERK/AKT en ESCC. Se identificó que el nivel de expresión de SPRY2 en ESCC estaba notablemente disminuido en comparación con los tejidos normales, y estaba relacionado con las características clínico-patológicas y el pronóstico de los pacientes con ESCC. La regulación positiva de la expresión de SPRY2 inhibió notablemente la proliferación, migración e invasión de células Eca-109. Además, la actividad de la señalización de ERK/AKT también fue suprimida por la regulación positiva de SPRY2 en las células Eca-109. Nuestro estudio sugiere que la sobreexpresión de SPRY2 suprime la proliferación y la invasión de células cancerosas mediante la supresión de las vías de señalización ERK/AKT en ESCC. Por lo tanto, SPRY2 puede ser un marcador de pronóstico prometedor y un objetivo terapéutico para la ESCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Esophageal Neoplasms/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Biomarkers, Tumor , Blotting, Western , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Cell Proliferation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
7.
Hepatología ; 5(1): 97-107, ene 2, 2024. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1532865

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La enfermedad hepática esteatósica asociada a disfunción metabólica (MASLD) se ha convertido en la enfermedad hepática crónica más frecuente en los países occidentales, causando un aumento en los costos y en la ocupación hospitalaria. La caracterización integral previa al trasplante hepático en pacientes con MASLD es una gran interrogante, especialmente en nuestro medio. El objetivo del presente estudio fue realizar la caracterización clínico-epidemiológica de pacientes trasplantados por cirrosis hepática (CH) descompensada o carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC) asociado a MASLD. Metodología. Se desarrolló un estudio observacional retrospectivo, descriptivo, de corte transversal en el Servicio de Hepatología del Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe en Medellín, Colombia. Se incluyeron pacientes mayores de 17 años, con diagnóstico de CH o de CHC asociado a MASLD que fueron trasplantados entre los años 2004 a 2017. Resultados. Se encontraron 84 pacientes que fueron trasplantados con esas características. La edad promedio de los pacientes fue de 59±10,5 con una mayor proporción significativa de hombres sobre mujeres, llegando casi al 70 %. Con relación a las comorbilidades, se encontró que el sobrepeso/obesidad, la hipertensión arterial y la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 fueron un hallazgo en el 44,1 %, 33,3 % y 33,3 %, respectivamente. Por otro lado, el 14,5 %, el 33,7 % y el 51,8 % presentaron un Child-Pugh A, B y C, respectivamente. La media del puntaje MELD fue de 18,9±6,26. Con respecto a las complicaciones de la cirrosis, el 77,4 % de los pacientes presentó ascitis, el 61,9 % encefalopatía hepática, el 36,9 % hemorragia del tracto digestivo superior y el 29,8 % peritonitis bacteriana espontánea. Conclusión. Los resultados expuestos mostraron nuestra experiencia en trasplante hepático en pacientes con CH y CHC asociado a MASLD. Se debe realizar una evaluación multidisciplinaria antes y después del trasplante en estos pacientes, haciendo especial énfasis en el manejo de la disfunción metabólica y sus componentes, entre los que se destacan la obesidad y la diabetes mellitus.


Introduction. Metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD) has become the most frequent chronic liver disease in Western countries, causing increased costs and hospital occupancy. The comprehensive pre-transplant characterization in patients with MASLD is a major question, especially in our setting. The aim of the present study was to perform the clinical-epidemiological characterization of transplanted patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis (LC) or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with MASLD. Methodology. A retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional observational study was carried out in the Hepatology Department of the Pablo Tobón Uribe Hospital in Medellin, Colombia. Patients over 17 years of age, with a diagnosis of LC or HCC associated with MASLD who were transplanted between 2004 and 2017 were included. Results. We found 84 patients who were transplanted with these characteristics. The mean age of the patients was 59±10.5 with a significantly higher proportion of men over women, reaching almost 70%. Regarding comorbidities, overweight/obesity, arterial hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus were found in 44.1%, 33.3%, and 33.3%, respectively. On the other hand, 14.5%, 33.7%, and 51.8% had Child-Pugh A, B, and C, respectively. The mean MELD score was 18.9±6.26. Regarding complications of cirrhosis, 77.4% of patients developed ascites, 61.9% hepatic encephalopathy, 36.9% upper gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage, and 29.8% spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Conclusion. The above results showed our experience of liver transplantation in patients with LC and HCC associated with MASLD. A multidisciplinary evaluation should be performed before and after transplantation in these patients, with special emphasis on the management of metabolic dysfunction and its components, including obesity and diabetes mellitus.


Subject(s)
Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
8.
Braz. J. Oncol ; 20: e-20240447, 20240101.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554105

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer is the third most common neoplasm and the second most lethal worldwide. The most common histological type is adenocarcinoma, characterized by its glandular pattern. Medullary colon carcinoma is a rare histological variant of colorectal cancer, characterized by a predominantly solid architecture, poorly di?erentiated or undifferentiated morphology, often associated with an anomalous immunophenotype and microsatellite instability. The present study reports a case in an academic service of general surgery of a 74-year-old patient who presented with a tumor of the ascending colon, histologically with an exuberant lymphocytic in?ltrate, suggestive of large cell lymphoma, but which was revealed by subsequent immunohistochemistry to be medullary carcinoma of the colon with microsatellite instability.


O câncer colorretal é a terceira neoplasia mais comum e a segunda mais letal no mundo. O adenocarcinoma é o tipo histológico mais comum, caracterizado pelo seu padrão glandular. O carcinoma medular do cólon é uma variante histológica rara do câncer colorretal, caracterizada por uma arquitetura predominantemente sólida, morfologia pouco diferenciada ou indiferenciada, frequentemente associada a um imunofenótipo anômalo e instabilidade de microssatélites. O presente estudo relata um caso em um serviço acadêmico de cirurgia geral de um paciente de 74 anos que apresentou tumor de cólon ascendente, histologicamente com infiltrado linfocitário exuberante, sugestivo de linfoma de grandes células, mas que foi revelado através de exame subsequente imunohistoquímico como carcinoma medular do cólon com instabilidade de microssatélites.


Subject(s)
Male , Aged , Carcinoma, Medullary , Colon, Ascending , Surgical Oncology , Colonic Neoplasms
9.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 39(1): 141-147, 20240102. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526865

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El carcinoma de Merkel es un tumor maligno poco frecuente, que afecta principalmente a la población caucásica y cuya etiología guarda relación con el poliomavirus de las células de Merkel. Conlleva mal pronóstico, especialmente en estadios finales. Caso clínico. Se expone el caso de una paciente que presentaba un tumor primario facial de grandes dimensiones, con avanzado grado de extensión, afectación linfática cervical y metástasis parotídea derecha. Fue tratada mediante exéresis de la lesión primaria y cobertura con injerto de piel parcial, linfadenectomía cervical y parotidectomía ipsilateral. Resultados. Se logró mejoría importante en la calidad de vida de la paciente y sobrevida de al menos seis meses. Conclusión. Aunque no está claro el manejo óptimo del carcinoma de Merkel avanzado debido a su mal pronóstico, la cirugía favorece una mejoría en la calidad de vida del paciente y puede tener un papel clave en el manejo del carcinoma de Merkel en los estadios avanzados.


Introduction. Merkel carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor that mainly affects the Caucasian population and whose etiology is related to the Merkel cell polyomavirus. It has a poor prognosis, especially in the final stages. Clinical case. The case of a patient who presented a large primary facial tumor, with an advanced degree of extension, cervical lymphatic involvement and right parotid metastasis is described. She was treated surgically by excision of the primary lesion and coverage with partial skin graft, cervical lymphadenectomy, and ipsilateral parotidectomy. Results. A significant improvement was achieved in the patient's quality of life and survival of at least six months.Conclusion. Although the optimal management of advanced Merkel carcinoma is unclear due to its poor prognosis, surgery improves the patient's quality of life and it can play a key role in the management of Merkel carcinoma in advanced stages.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Merkel Cell , Skin Transplantation , Surgery, Plastic , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine , Head and Neck Neoplasms
10.
Sudan j. med. sci ; 19(1): 62-71, 2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1552436

ABSTRACT

Background: The tongue is susceptible to a multitude of conditions that can be of developmental, neoplastic, or inflammatory nature, whose occurrence varies globally by age, sex, and ethnicity. The objective of the present study was to determine the incidence of tongue lesions among cases managed in a tertiary hospital in Tanzania. Methods: This study analyzed histological results of patients with tongue lesions diagnosed between 2016 and 2021. Data on the age and sex of the patients and histological diagnosis were collected. Data analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 27. Results: A total of 190 samples of tongue lesions were studied and 18 different histological diagnoses were observed. Generally, a majority (84.2%) of the biopsied tongue lesions were malignant. The most common (74.7%) lesions diagnosed were squamous cell carcinoma followed by hemangioma (5.3%). A significant association was noted between the nature of the lesions and the age group and sex of the patients. Conclusion: This analysis depicts that tongue lesions are frequently encountered in patients managed in tertiary health facilities in Tanzania. A majority of these lesions are malignant tumors. The sex and age of the patients are determining factors for the occurrence of tongue lesions


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tongue , Health Facilities
11.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 87(3): e2022, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550035

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT We present a rare case of primary caruncle basal cell carcinoma (BCC), a condition with limited occurrences. Our patient, an 80-year-old woman without prior ocular pathological history, presented a 2x2mm pedunculated blackish nodular lesion on the caruncle of her left eye, without local conjunctival or cutaneous involvement. Histological analysis following complete excision confirmed the presence of basal cell carcinoma within the caruncle. Over a span of 30 months, no recurrence has been observed. While scant cases are documented in the literature, we conducted a review of these instances. Despite its infrequent manifestation, this condition should be taken into account when evaluating caruncular tumors, given its tendency to invade the orbit. Complete excision with free surgical margins is the treatment of choice, and adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy might be considered.

12.
Autops. Case Rep ; 14: e2024484, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550053

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Neuroendocrine breast cancer (NEBC) is a rare and heterogeneous entity. It most commonly presents a luminal phenotype and a worse prognosis. When diagnosed in an advanced stage, metastasis from another neuroendocrine tumor should be excluded. This case features a premenopausal woman with an oligometastatic breast large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, estrogen receptor (ER) positive, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) negative. Since the patient was very symptomatic at the presentation of the disease, chemotherapy was started. Complete radiological response of the metastatic disease was achieved, and the patient was then submitted to radical breast surgery and bilateral oophorectomy. She subsequently underwent radiation therapy. Since then and to date, she has been under endocrine therapy (ET) and a CDK4/6 inhibitor (CDK4/6i), with no evidence of malignant disease. Evidence to guide the choice of treatment for these tumors is currently scarce. In cases with oligometastatic disease, radical treatment should be considered. Given that this entity is rare, its reporting should be encouraged.

13.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 38: e018, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1550152

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of the EZH2 protein and describe the clinical and microscopic characteristics of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) and pleomorphic adenoma (PA). The study included 16 ACC cases and 12 PA. All ACC and PA cases were positive for EZH2 and the ACC samples showed significantly higher EZH2 expression. The clinical and microscopic covariates were described in relation to EZH2 staining in ACC samples. The highest mean values of EZH2 were observed in cases with local metastasis, recurrence, perineural invasion, and predominantly cribriform growth pattern without solid areas. EZH2 is a potential marker of malignancy.

14.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550997

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El carcinoma basocelular constituye uno de los tipos de cáncer cutáneo de mayor incidencia. El uso del HeberFERON® ha demostrado una efectiva respuesta clínica. Objetivo: Evaluar la respuesta del HeberFERON® en pacientes con carcinoma basocelular asociado a la COVID-19, y su comportamiento en pacientes con igual diagnóstico dermatológico sin tratamiento previo con dicho fármaco, atendidos con cirugía. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo y retrospectivo en un universo de 184 pacientes adultos con carcinoma basocelular. Se analizaron las variables edad, sexo, fototipo de piel, comorbilidades asociadas, infección con SARS-CoV-2 asociada con tratamiento previo con HeberFERON® o cirugía; tiempo entre tratamiento recibido y padecimiento de COVID-19, y severidad de los síntomas. Los resultados se expresan en tablas. Resultados: Se estudiaron 94 pacientes tratados con HeberFERON® para el carcinoma basocelular, y 90 pacientes tratados con cirugía. Predominaron los masculinos, mayores de 60 años, fototipo de piel II-III, con comorbilidades cardiovasculares. De ellos, 24 (25,5 %) resultaron positivos a la COVID-19, y el 83,3 % desarrollaron síntomas leves. De los tratados con cirugía para el carcinoma basocelular, 61 resultaron positivos a la COVID-19 (67,7 %), y el 55,7 % tuvo sintomatología severa. Durante el ciclo de tratamiento con HeberFERON para el carcinoma basocelular, el 66,7 % enfermó con COVID-19 entre las 16 y 32 semanas. Posterior a las 32 semanas, se reportó un fallecido. Conclusiones: Los pacientes tratados con cirugía sin previo HeberFERON tuvieron más contagios con COVID-19, predominando los decesos asociados a ello, siendo menor en los que lo recibieron. De los tratados previamente con HeberFERON® para el carcinoma basocelular, el 74,5 % no enfermó de COVID-19, a pesar de haber sido el 52,8 % contactos de positivos al SARS-CoV-2.


Introduction: Basal cell carcinoma is one of the types of skin cancer with the highest incidence. The use of HeberFERON® has shown an effective clinical response. Objective: To evaluate the response of HeberFERON® in patients with BCC associated with COVID-19 and its behavior in patients with the same dermatological diagnosis without previous treatment with that drug, treated with surgery. Materials and methods: A descriptive and retrospective observational study was conducted in a universe of 184 adult patients with basal cell carcinoma. The variables analyzed were age, sex, skin phototype, associated comorbidities, SARS-CoV-2 infection, associated to previously treatment with HeberFERON® or surgery; time between treatment received and suffering from COVID-19; severity of symptoms. The results were expressed in tables. Results: 94 patients were treated with HeberFERON® for basal cell carcinoma, and 90 were treated with surgery. There was a predominance of male patients, aged over 60 years, skin phototype II-III, with cardiovascular morbidities. Of them, 24 (25.5%) were positive to COVID-19 (67.7%), and 83.3% developed mild symptoms. Of those treated with surgery for basal cell carcinoma, 61 were positive to COVID-19 (67,7%), and 55.7% had severe symptoms. During the HeberFERON® treatment cycle for basal cell carcinoma, 66.7% became ill with COVID-19 between 16 and 32 weeks. After 32 weeks one deceased was reported. Conclusions: Patients treated with surgery without prior HeberFERON® had more infections with Covid-19, the deaths associated with it predominating, being less in those who received it. Of those previously treated with HeberFERON® for basal cell carcinoma, 74.5% did not become ill with COVID-19, despite having been 52.8% contacts to SARS-CoV-2 positive people.

15.
São Paulo med. j ; 142(4): 2023148, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1536908

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has increased in the recent decades, along with the number of patients in the terminal stages of this disease, requiring transplantation. Some skin disorders are more frequent in patients with CKD and in renal transplant recipients (RTR). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the frequency of skin diseases in RTR and patients with CKD receiving conservative treatment. DESIGN AND SETTING: This observational cross-sectional study recruited consecutive patients with CKD and RTR from a nephrology clinic at a teaching hospital in Brazil between 2015 and 2020. METHODS: Quantitative, descriptive, and analytical approaches were used. The sample was selected based on convenience sampling. Data were collected from dermatological visits and participants' medical records. RESULTS: Overall, 308 participants were included: 206 RTR (66.9%, median age: 48 years, interquartile range [IQR] 38.0-56.0, 63.6% men) and 102 patients with CKD (33.1%, median age: 61.0 years, IQR 50.0-71.2, 48% men). The frequency of infectious skin diseases (39.3% vs. 21.6% P = 0.002) were higher in RTR than in patients with CKD. Neoplastic skin lesions were present in nine (4.4%) RTR and in only one (1.0%) patient with CKD. Among the RTR, the ratio of basal cell carcinoma to squamous cell carcinoma was 2:1. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that an increased frequency of infectious skin diseases may be expected in patients who have undergone kidney transplantation. Among skin cancers, BCC is more frequently observed in RTR, especially in those using azathioprine.

16.
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases ; (12): 359-366, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016558

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the value of the peripheral blood neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) before nimotuzumab combined with neoadjuvant chemotherapy in predicting the short-term efficacy of neoadjuvant therapy for advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).@*Methods@#With the approval of the Ethics Committee and the informed consent of the patients, 59 patients with stage Ⅲ and Ⅳ OSCC who were admitted to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department of the First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University from September 2020 to June 2023 were enrolled. All the patients had complete clinical data, were pathologically diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma, and received preoperative and received preoperative nimotuzumab + TP (docetaxel + cisplatin) neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The clinical data were analyzed, and the neutrophil and lymphocyte counts in peripheral blood were collected before and after nimotuzumab combined with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The NLR was calculated, and the threshold value was calculated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Patients were divided into a high NLR group and a low NLR group according to the NLR threshold before nimotuzumab combined with neoadjuvant chemotherapy with TP. The clinical efficacy after nimotuzumab combined with neoadjuvant chemotherapy with TP was evaluated according to the evaluation criteria for solid tumor efficacy, and the correlation between the NLR and recent neoadjuvant therapy efficacy was analyzed. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in OSCC tissues before and after nimotuzumab combined with neoadjuvant chemotherapy with TP and to analyze whether the expression of EGFR differed among the different NLR groups.@*Results@#A total of 59 patients with advanced OSCC were included. According to the ROC curve, the NLR threshold was 2.377, and the patients were divided into a <2.377 group (low NLR group), with 24 patients, and a>2.377 group (high NLR group), with 35 patients. The short-term neoadjuvant therapy effect was significantly greater in the lower NLR group than in the higher NLR group (P<0.05); EGFR expression in both the low NLR group and the high NLR group decreased after nimotuzumab combined with neoadjuvant chemotherapy with TP, and the decrease in the low NLR group was significantly greater than that in the high NLR group (P<0.05).@*Conclusion@#A low NLR before nimotuzumab combined with neoadjuvant chemotherapy with TP is associated with better neoadjuvant therapy outcomes, and such patients are more likely to benefit from preoperative nimotuzumab combined with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

17.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 822-827, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016531

ABSTRACT

The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays an important role in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma and its tumor microenvironment, and abnormal activation of Hh signal can accelerate the growth of tumor. The crosstalk between the Hh signaling pathway and TME is closely associated with tumor growth and the formation of inhibitory tumor microenvironment. Evidence shows that inhibition of Hh signal plays an important role in inhibiting the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. This article reviews the current research status of the role, mechanism, and potential therapeutic significance of abnormal activation of Hh signal in hepatocellular carcinoma and its tumor microenvironment, so as to provide new ideas for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

18.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 816-821, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016530

ABSTRACT

In recent years, transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) has emerged as a common treatment modality for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, with the ongoing development of embolic agent techniques, the new advances in microspheres and nanoparticles have brought new hope for improving the efficacy and safety of TACE. This article reviews the latest advances and applications of microspheres and nanoparticles in TACE for HCC. First, this article introduces the background of TACE as a therapeutic approach and the emergence of microsphere and nanoparticle techniques, and then it describes the application of various types of microspheres and nanoparticles in TACE and discusses the requisite attributes of an ideal embolic agents. The article focuses on the advances in material science and engineering, as well as the clinical efficacy of drug-eluting microspheres and nanoparticles versus conventional TACE. Furthermore, it discusses the importance of radiological examination in TACE and summarizes the research advances in the radiopaque and magnetic resonance-visible embolic agents. This article also explores the future development directions and challenges of TACE. It also points out the combination of microspheres and nanoparticles with other treatment modalities, the application of personalized and precision medicine in TACE, and the potential regimen of TACE in clinical translation, and meanwhile, it raises the issues of ethics and regulation that need to be further discussed. It is believed that microspheres and nanoparticles have a potential effect in TACE, which provides a theoretical basis and technical support for innovating HCC treatment regimens and improving the prognosis of patients through TACE interventions.

19.
Philippine Journal of Pathology ; (2): 1-4, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016384

ABSTRACT

@#Mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma (MTSCC) is a rare neoplasm of the kidney. Recognition of this rare entity is important with regards to a patient’s prognosis and therapeutic management.


Subject(s)
Kidney Neoplasms , Immunohistochemistry , Pathology, Surgical
20.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; (12): 288-303, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016367

ABSTRACT

@#Objective To examined gene mutations in thymic carcinoma (TC) patients and to explore prognostic correlates and potential targets for therapy. Methods We retrospectively included TC patients in Sichuan Cancer Hospital between January 2015 and Febuary 2021.Whole-exome sequencing was performed on tumor tissues from TC patients and their control peripheral blood samples, and the raw data were subjected to bioinformatics analysis and statistical analysis. Results We finally included 24 TC patients with 16 males and 8 females at a median age of 55 (42-74) years. The highest frequency of single nucleotide mutations in this cohort were in the TTN gene (42%), HSPG2 (29%), and OBSCN (29%). Higher frequency of copy number variations occurred in ZNF276 gene (54%, loss), BEND3 (50%, loss), DHODH (50%, loss), and VAC14 (50%, loss). Microsatellite instability (MSI) phenotype was found in 25% of the patients, and the mean tumor mutation burden (TMB) was 9.86. Conclusion This study is the first comprehensive analysis of the mutation profile of thymic carcinoma in China to date. The mutation frequencies of TTN, OBSCN, and ZNF276 genes were high. The biomarker analysis suggests that patients may benefit from immunotherapy and have a long effective survival.

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