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Chinese Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics ; (12): 354-360, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1014547


Sleep disorder, migraine, cognitive and behavioral disorders, anxiety and depression are common comorbidities of epilepsy. The comorbidity rate of epilepsy patients is eight times that of the general population, which affects the prognosis and quality of life of epilepsy patients. Perampanel (PER), as a third-generation antiseizure medication, has shown promising clinical research and application in the treatment of comorbidities in epilepsy. PER can improve the total sleep time, sleep latency and sleep efficiency of patients with epilepsy comorbid sleep disorder. PER also shows good efficacy in reducing seizure and migraine attacks of patients with epilepsy comorbid migraine. Meanwhile, the impact of PER on overall cognitive characteristics is neutral, with no systematic cognitive deterioration or improvement, but behavioral changes are one of the most common adverse events related to PER. For patients with comorbid anxiety and depression, PER does not exacerbate the anxiety and depression of epilepsy patients, and the severity of anxiety and depression in some patients will improve. This article will review the mechanism of action and clinical treatment research progress of PER on comorbidities of epilepsy.

Acta Medica Philippina ; : 1-9, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012674


Background and Objective@#COVID-19 contributes significantly to global morbidity and mortality. Age-related comorbidities elevate the risk of severe cases. Studies have recently demonstrated that widely available medications, including tocilizumab (TCZ), can manage severe symptoms. However, its effectiveness is unclear, particularly among the older population. Therefore, this review aimed to evaluate TCZ’s efficacy in managing severe pneumonia in individuals aged 50 and older.@*Methods@#We systematically search several databases and gray literature including Web of Science, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, PsycINFO, PsycArticles, SocINDEX, CENTRAL/Cochrane Library, PubMed/MEDLINE for original research articles in English across several study designs published in the year 2020-2022. A narrative synthesis was conducted to summarize the evidence. We employed the NIH quality assessment tool for observational cohort studies to evaluate risk of bias. Additionally, we utilized GRADE to appraise the certainty of evidence.@*Results@#Among 539 screened articles, only five studies met the selection criteria. Tocilizumab's impact on severe COVID-19 pneumonia revealed a diverse effect on mortality rate, with 29% in the TCZ group, and 40% in the controls died within 30 days of intubation (OR 0.61; 95% CI, 0.27-1.36). It is also reported that TCZ was not associated with mortality, despite faster decline in pulmonary function and prolonged fever. Hospital mortality in the TCZ group was significantly lower than in the controls, and age over 60 was the only significant risk factor. Moreover, administering TCZ reduced mechanical ventilation needs, with 82% extubated compared to 53% in controls. However, 45% in TCZ group was associated with a higher ventilator-associated pneumonia rate than in the untreated group which was 20% (P < 0.001). Despite this, TCZ-treated patients had shorter hospital stays.@*Conclusions@#The effects of tocilizumab on reducing mortality risk and improving the survival rate of COVID-19 patients with pneumonia remained inconclusive. Yet, the majority of results suggested that giving tocilizumab leads to shorter hospital stays, lowers the requirement for mechanical ventilation, and decreases the likelihood of ICU transfer. Tocilizumab is linked to the incidence of secondary infections; hence, this medication should be closely monitored for side effects.

COVID-19 , Pneumonia
JOURNAL OF RARE DISEASES ; (4): 57-62, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006918


ObjectiveTuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disease involving multiple organ system. Renal angiomyolipoma (RAML) is a leading cause of death for adult TSC patients. Our study aims at investigating the clinical manifestations of TSC-RAML to enable clinicians to have a better understanding of the disease in Chinese patients.MethodsWe reviewed retrospectively the data collected from patients with TSC-RAML in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 2014 to January 2023. We also collected information about the age, gender, imageological examination, RAML stage, and comorbidities.ResultsA total of 186 TSC-RAML patients were registered, 65 of whom were males and 121 were females(male-to-female ratio 1∶1.86). The median age of all patients was 31 years old. Totally, 117 cases (62.9%)of RAML were rated stage 6. Twenty-two cases (11.8%) had a history of tumor rupture and bleeding. Research shows statistical differences between high and low grade on RAML rupture bleeding(P=0.0475). Angiofibromas/fibrous cephalic plaque (155/186, 83.3%), subependymal nodules(103/146, 70.5%), lymphangioleiomyomatosis (102/157, 65.0%), hypomelanotic macules (114/186, 61.3%), and shagreen patch (83/186, 44.6%)were the most common clinical manifestations. All patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis(LAM) were female(P < 0.0001).ConclusionsFemale patients predominated TSC-RAML patients. Most RAML were in stage 6. About 11.8% cases had a history of tumor rupture and hemorrhage. The higher grade meant the higher proportion of tumor rupture and hemorrhage. Dermatological and nervous lesions were the most common comorbidities. All patients with LAM in this study were female.

São Paulo med. j ; 142(2): e2023015, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1509217


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Down syndrome (DS) is a non-rare genetic condition that affects approximately 1 in every 800 live births worldwide. Further, it is associated with comorbidities, anatomical alterations of the respiratory tract, and immunological dysfunctions that make individuals more susceptible to respiratory infections. OBJECTIVE: To systematize the current scientific knowledge about the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among individuals with DS. DESIGN AND SETTING: This integrative review was conducted at the Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: This review was conducted in the following databases: the Virtual Health Library (Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, BVS), PubMed, and Web of Science, using MeSH descriptors. The search included English or Portuguese studies published between January 1, 2020, and October 14, 2022. RESULTS: A total of 55 articles from 24 countries were selected, comprising 21 case-control or cohort studies, 23 case reports or series, and 11 narrative reviews or opinion studies. The articles were grouped into five categories: previous comorbidities, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) clinical features and evolution, cytokine storm and interleukins, living in institutions as a risk factor, and behavioral actions as a protective factor against SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSION: Individuals with DS are more susceptible to COVID-19 infection due to variables such as previous comorbidities, immunological factors, and their habitable environments. These aspects confer a higher risk of infection and an unfavorable clinical course. The precise pathways involved in the pathophysiology of COVID-19 in individuals with DS are not clear, thus requiring further studies. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: The Open Science Framework registered the research protocol (

Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 43(4)dic. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533957


Abtract Introduction. Multidrug-resistant/rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR-TB) is difficult to control, has high morbidity and mortality, and demands priority public health intervention. In Colombia, MDR/RR-TB has been becoming more widespread annually. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, over an 8-year period, the number of cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Colombia was close to a thousand cases. Timely identification of the different risk factors for MDR/RR-TB will contribute fundamentally to the systematic management. Objective. To determine which risk factors were associated with the presentation of MDR in Colombia between 2013 and 2018. Materials and methods. A retrospective case-control study was carried out, for which the data from the routine surveillance of MDR/events in the country were used. Results. The cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis were mainly in young people, Afrodescendants, and males. Of the clinical conditions, comorbidities such as malnutrition, diabetes, and HIV, presence of at least one factor, such as drug dependence, taking immunosuppressive medications, belonging to the black race, afro, and living in an area of high disease burden were risk factors. Conclusion. In addition to the diagnosis and timely provision of MDR-TB treatment, it is necessary that public health programs at the local level pay special attention to patients with the identified risk factors.

Introducción. La tuberculosis multirresistente-resistente a la rifampicina (TB-MDR/RR) es difícil de controlar, tiene una alta morbilidad y mortalidad y exige una intervención prioritaria en salud pública. En Colombia, la TB-MDR/RR se ha ido extendiendo cada año. Antes de la pandemia de COVID-19, en un periodo de 8 años, el número de casos de TB-MDR/RR en Colombia se acercaba a los mil. La identificación oportuna de los diferentes factores de riesgo de TB-MDR/RR contribuirá de manera fundamental al manejo sistemático de la enfermedad. Objetivo. Determinar los factores de riesgo que se asociaron a la presentación de la TB- MDR/RR en Colombia entre 2013 y 2018. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de casos y controles, para el cual se utilizaron los datos de la vigilancia rutinaria de eventos de TB MDR/RR en el país. Resultados. Los casos de TB MDR se presentaron principalmente en jóvenes, afrodescendientes y varones. De las condiciones clínicas, fueron factores de riesgo las comorbilidades como la desnutrición, la diabetes y el VIH, y la presencia de, al menos, un factor como la farmacodependencia, el consumo de medicamentos inmunosupresores, el ser de raza negra o afro y el vivir en una zona del país de alta carga de tuberculosis. Conclusiones. Además del diagnóstico y la provisión oportuna del tratamiento de la TB MDR, es necesario que los programas de salud pública a nivel local presten especial atención a los pacientes con los factores de riesgo identificados.

Medisan ; 27(6)dic. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1534913


Introducción: El acné vulgar es la enfermedad más frecuente en adolescentes y adultos jóvenes; constituye un estado obstructivo e inflamatorio crónico de folículos pilosebáceos, caracterizado por la formación de lesiones inflamatorias. Objetivo: Identificar los factores de riesgo y las comorbilidades asociados al acné vulgar de grados I y II y su impacto psicosocial. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal de 50 pacientes con acné vulgar de grados I y II, atendidos en el Hospital General Docente Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero de 2018 hasta igual periodo de 2020. Se valoraron los factores de riesgo y las comorbilidades asociados a la dermatosis, así como el tiempo de aparición de estos. Resultados: En la serie predominaron el grupo etario de 18-24 años de edad y el sexo femenino (60,0 %, respectivamente), la ansiedad (58,0 %), el estado seborreico de la piel y los hábitos tóxicos (44,0 % en cada caso). También primaron el nivel de escolaridad de técnico medio y el color de la piel mestizo (60,0 % cada uno), el estado civil acompañado (44,0 %), la procedencia urbana (88,0 %), los afectados con evolución de la enfermedad entre 4 a 12 meses, sin antecedentes patológicos familiares de esta, y los trastornos endocrinos como las comorbilidades asociadas a la dermatosis. Conclusiones: Una buena parte de los pacientes presentaron, como factores de riesgo, algún episodio emocional de ansiedad y estado seborreico de la piel relacionado con el acné, los cuales estuvieron asociados a comorbilidades endocrinometabólicas.

Introduction: Common acne is the most frequent disease in adolescents and young adults; it constitutes a chronic obstructive and inflammatory state of pilosebaceous follicles, characterized by the formation of inflammatory lesions. Objective: To identify the risk factors and comorbidities associated to grade I and II common acne and its psychosocial impact. Methods: An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study of 50 patients with grade I-II common acne was carried out; they were assisted at Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso Teaching General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from January, 2018 to the same period in 2020. The risk factors and comorbidities associated with the dermatoses were valued, as well as the onset time of them. Results: In the series there was a prevalence of the 18-24 age group and the female sex (60.0%, respectively), the anxiety (58.0%), seborrheic state of the skin and toxic habits (44.0% each one). Also, the school level of technician and mixed race (60.0% each one), accompanied as marital status (44.0%), the urban origin (88.0%), as well as those affected with evolution of the disease between 4 to 12 months, without family pathological history, as well as endocrine disorders as the comorbidities associated with the dermatoses. Conclusions: A great part of the patients presented, as risk factors, some emotional event of anxiety and seborrheic state of the skin related to the acne, which were associated with endocrine-metabolic comorbidities.

Medicina (B.Aires) ; 83(supl.4): 46-51, oct. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521201


Resumen El autismo es un trastorno del neurodesarrollo carac terizado por déficits en la cognición social y la comu nicación, intereses restringidos y conductas estereoti padas. Frecuentemente asociado a disfunciones senso riales, otros trastornos del neurodesarrollo, trastornos neuropsiquiátricos, epilepsia y/o trastornos de sueño. Esta condición acompañará a las personas a lo largo de toda la vida, lo cual generará diversas necesidades de apoyo y tratamientos. Si bien no existen fármacos que modifiquen los sín tomas nucleares del autismo diversos medicamentos han demostrado su utilidad en condiciones asociadas. Los antipsicóticos atípicos para la hiperactividad, la impulsividad, la agitación, las crisis de auto o hete roagresión. Los inhibidores de la recaptación de serotonina, para disminuir la ansiedad, los síntomas obsesivo-compulsi vos y la irritabilidad/agitación. Los estimulantes y la atomoxetina utilizados para la hiperactividad, la falta de atención y la impulsividad. La clonidina y la guanfacina muestran cierta eficacia sobre la hiperactividad y las conductas estereotipadas. La buspirona se ha utilizado para los comportamien tos restrictivos y la ansiedad. Existen medicamentos en fase de investigación como la oxitocina, la vasopresina e incluso algunos desarrollados para entidades específicas relacionadas con el autismo como arbaclofeno en Frágil X y la Trofinetida que acaba ser aprobada para su uso en el síndrome de Rett. En la medida que se identifiquen entidades especí ficas y su fisiopatología es probable que se desarrollen tratamientos a la medida para cada entidad asociada con autismo.

Abstract Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder charac terized by deficits in social cognition and communica tion, restricted interests, and stereotyped behaviors. Frequently associated with sensory dysfunction, other neurodevelopmental disorders, neuropsychiatric disor ders, epilepsy and/or sleep disorders. This condition will accompany people throughout their lives, which will generate various support and treatment needs. Although there are no drugs that modify the core symptoms of autism, various drugs have shown their usefulness in associated conditions. Atypical antipsychotics for hyperactivity, impulsivity, agitation, auto or heteroag gression crises. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors, to de crease anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and irritability/agitation. Stimulants and atomoxetine used for hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity. Clonidine and guanfacine show some efficacy on hyperactivity and stereotyped behaviors. Buspirone has been used for restrictive behaviors and anxiety. There are drugs in the research phase such as oxytocin, vasopressin and even some developed for specific entities related to autism such as arbaclofen in Fragile X and Trofinetide that has just been approved for use in Rett syndrome. As speci fic entities and their pathophysiology are identified, it is likely that tailored treatments will be developed for each entity associated with autism.

Femina ; 51(10): 614-626, 20231030. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532465


Até este momento da pandemia de COVID-19, embora as gestantes não tenham maior risco de se infectar do que a população geral, elas têm maiores riscos de desenvolver formas graves e demandar cuidados de UTI e ventilação invasiva, so- bretudo aquelas que apresentam comorbidades. No Brasil, a mortalidade materna por COVID-19 está entre as mais elevadas do mundo. A transmissão vertical do SARS-CoV-2 parece ser um evento raro, e até o momento não se observou aumento da ocorrência de abortos e malformações. Entretanto, a COVID-19 está associada a elevadas taxas de prematuridade, baixo peso ao nascer e admissão em UTI neona- tal. Em adaptação a esse novo cenário, são indicados cuidados especiais durante o ciclo gravídico-puerperal, sendo útil destacar: o espaço crescente da telemedicina no pré-natal; a não obrigatoriedade da realização de cesariana em caso de gestan- te infectada no momento do parto e a liberação da amamentação pelas puérperas com COVID-19.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Pregnancy Complications , Puerperal Disorders/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial/instrumentation , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Telemedicine/instrumentation , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Parturition , Premature Birth/prevention & control , Dyspnea/complications , COVID-19 Drug Treatment/methods
Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(5): 472-480, oct. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521873


INTRODUCCIÓN: La introducción progresiva de vacunas contra SARS-CoV-2 a partir de 2021, priorizando grupos de mayor edad, podría implicar un cambio en el perfil de pacientes hospitalizados por COVID-19 en el tiempo. OBJETIVO: Comparar las características y evolución de pacientes adultos hospitalizados por COVID-19 en un período anterior en 2020 (PER1) y otro posterior al inicio de la vacunación masiva contra SARS-CoV-2 (PER2). PACIENTES Y MÉTODOS: Se registró edad, género, comorbilidades, complicaciones y evolución de los pacientes hospitalizados por COVID-19 en una clínica privada, en Santiago, Chile. Se calculó el puntaje de gravedad y riesgo nutricional. RESULTADOS: En PER2, los pacientes fueron de menor edad, pero con comorbilidades similares al PER1, excepto por mayor malnutrición por exceso. Los pacientes del PER2 no vacunados requirieron más ventilación mecánica (38,9 vs. 14,3%, p = 0,03) y evolucionaron más gravemente (puntaje 6) que aquellos adecuadamente inmunizados (puntaje 5, p = 0,048). Las variables que más predijeron mortalidad fueron edad > 60 años (OR 28.995) y presencia de riesgo nutricional (OR 5.246). DISCUSIÓN: El cambio en el perfil y evolución de los pacientes hospitalizados con COVID-19 está asociado con la secuencia de priorización de vacunas contra SARS-CoV-2, cuyo efecto redujo las hospitalizaciones y gravedad de COVID-19 en adultos mayores.

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the early prioritization of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines for older adults may have affected the characteristics of hospitalized COVID-19 patients over time. AIM: To compare the clinical characteristics and outcomes of adult patients admitted for COVID-19 before (PER1) and after (PER2) the initiation of mass vaccination for SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Data on age, gender, comorbidities, complications, and outcomes of adult patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in a private clinic of Santiago, Chile, were collected. Scores for COVID-19 severity and nutritional risk were calculated. RESULTS: In PER2, patients were younger but had similar comorbidities, except for a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity compared to PER1. Unvaccinated COVID-19 patients in PER2 required more invasive ventilatory support (38.9% vs. 14.3%, p = 0.03) and had a higher severity score (six) than vaccinated patients (five, p = 0.048). The variables that best predicted mortality were age > 60 years (OR 28,995) and the presence of nutritional risk (OR 5,246). DISCUSSION: Changes in the profile and outcomes of hospitalized patients during the COVID-19 pandemic are associated with the prioritization of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and their protective effect in reducing hospitalizations and disease severity in older adults.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Severity of Illness Index , Comorbidity , Clinical Evolution , Nutritional Status , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Risk Assessment , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data
Arq. gastroenterol ; 60(3): 322-329, July-Sept. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1513709


ABSTRACT Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of some epidemiologically important comorbidities in patients with Chagas megaoesophagus in relation to the population without megaoesophagus, and whether this condition would be a protective or a risk factor for the conditions analysed. Methods: This observational descriptive study collected data from the medical records of patients with a previous diagnosis of megaoesophagus (timing: from 2005 to 2020). The patients were divided by age into a general (all ages) and an older group (aged 60 years or more). Associations were searched for four main areas/systems/involvements: cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine and neurological. Results: The general group included 546 patients and the older group included 248 patients. As for the prevalence of comorbidities in the general group, the three most prevalent diseases were hypertension, with 44.3% (CI95%: 40.21-48.51%); dyslipidaemia, with 17.8% (CI95%: 14.79-21.19%); and heart failure, with 15.2% (CI95%: 12.43-18.45%). Similar to that in the general group, the most prevalent comorbidities in the group of older patients were hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and heart failure. Conclusion: Systemic arterial hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and heart failure were the most prevalent comorbidities in this population. The lower prevalence of diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease suggests the association of enteric nervous system denervation and requires further investigation.

RESUMO Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a prevalência de algumas comorbidades epidemiologicamente importantes em pacientes com megaesôfago chagásico em relação à população sem o megaesôfago e se essa condição seria um fator protetor ou de risco para as condições analisadas. Métodos: Este estudo descritivo observacional coletou dados de prontuários de pacientes com diagnóstico prévio de megaesôfago (período: de 2005 a 2020). Os pacientes foram divididos por idade em um grupo geral (todas as idades) e um grupo idoso (60 anos ou mais). Foram pesquisadas associações para quatro áreas/sistemas/envolvimentos principais: cardiovascular, respiratório, endócrino e neurológico. Resultados: O grupo geral incluiu 546 pacientes e o grupo idosos incluiu 248 pacientes. Quanto à prevalência de comorbidades no grupo geral, as três doenças mais prevalentes foram hipertensão, com 44,3% (IC95%: 40,21-48,51%); dislipidemia, com 17,8% (IC95%: 14,79-21,19%); e insuficiência cardíaca, com 15,2% (IC95%: 12,43-18,45%). Assim como no grupo geral, as comorbidades mais prevalentes no grupo de idosos foram hipertensão, dislipidemia e insuficiência cardíaca. Conclusão: Hipertensão arterial sistêmica, dislipidemia e insuficiência cardíaca foram as comorbidades mais prevalentes nessa população. A menor prevalência de diabetes mellitus e doença de Alzheimer sugere uma associação de denervação do sistema nervoso entérico e requer mais investigação.

Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-223158


Background: Information on bullous pemphigoid in an Indian context is scarce. Aim: To report clinico-demographic profile, associated comorbidities and prescription pattern of bullous pemphigoid patients in India. Methods: This was a retrospective study, where past records of all bullous pemphigoid patients diagnosed and treated between November 2013 and October 2019 were accessed and analysed. Patients having a compatible clinical presentation with either histopathological and/or direct immunofluorescence evidence of bullous pemphigoid were included. Results: There were 96 bullous pemphigoid patients, with a male: female ratio of 1.6:1. The mean age at diagnosis was 62.5 ± 2.2 years, with mean duration of illness 27.5 ± 4.5 months before presentation. Comorbidities were present in 80 (83%) patients, with type 2 diabetes mellitus (38.5%), hypertension (36.4%) and neurological illness (16.7%) being the commonest ones. Clinically, blisters were the predominant presentation in 81 (84.4%) patients. The majority (87.5%) of patients showed a predominant eosinophilic infiltrate on histopathology. Direct immunofluorescence revealed immunoglobulin G deposits with complement C3 in 77 (80.2%) cases. The majority of patients (77.1%) were treated with oral prednisolone, either alone (11.5%) or in combination (65.6%) with other topical and systemic agents. Topical steroids were used in 29.1%, azathioprine in 28%, dapsone in 16.7% and omalizumab in 6.2% of patients. Limitations: The study is retrospective. Immunofluorescence on salt split skin, direct immunofluorescence serration pattern analysis, and immunoblotting were not performed. Hence, there is a possibility that a few included cases were suffering from other subepidermal autoimmune bullous diseases like epidermolysis bullosa acquisita or anti-p200 pemphigoid. Conclusion: Bullous pemphigoid patients in this study had a younger age of onset and showed male preponderance. Comorbidities like type 2 diabetes, hypertension and neurological disorders were freq

Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-218103


Background: The COVID-19 disease is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) originated from Wuhan, China, a pandemic. By knowing different demographic and clinical data, one can have a better idea about the progress and fate of disease, which will help others to plan accordingly to manage patients in terms of decreasing morbidity and mortality caused by it. Aims and Objectives: The study was done to describe the RT-PCR diagnostic profiles of SARS-CoV-2 patients in Gujarat from three districts (Arvalli, Sabarkantha, and Gandhinagar) and their correlation with respect to age, sex, travel history, symptoms, and underlying conditions. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with COVID-19, who were screened for SARS-CoV-2 from April 16 to May 25, 2020, from three districts of Gujarat (Arvalli, Sabarkantha, and Gandhinagar). Positive cases were confirmed by qRT-PCR and analyzed for epidemiological, demographic, and clinical characterization among different groups. Results: Of 4000 suspects screened, a total of 199 patients were confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among them, middle-aged group (5.4%) and young adult patients (4.3%) were infected with SARS-CoV-2. The median age was 33 years, including 143 males and 56 females. The positivity rate from breathlessness was 8 (28.5%), nasal discharge 2 (25%), and nausea/vomiting 2 (25%) followed by fever 28 (20%) among total cases in respective categories. Among asymptomatic 3536 patients, 146 patients were confirmed for SARS-CoV. Among 256 patients with comorbidities, 14 patients were confirmed for SARS-CoV. Conclusion: Clinical investigation in initial SARS-CoV-2 patients in the western Indian region revealed that young adult male was more susceptible than female. Symptoms such as fever, cough, and sore throat reports are useful for screening the SARS-CoV-2.

Colomb. med ; 54(2)jun. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1534284


Background: Sexual life of women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can be affected by breathing difficulties, a decrease in functional status, depressive mood and fatigue. Objetive: To evaluate the sexual dysfunction in female COPD patients and the possible explanatory mechanisms or correlations between these conditions. Methods: The study included 70 female patients with COPD aged between 36-65 and 70 age-matched controls. All the subjects completed questionnaires for the Female Sexual Functional Index (FSFI), BECK depression inventory and, spirometry. Results: Statistically significant sexual dysfunction was noted in COPD patients compared to the non-COPD group (p0.005). In linear regression analysis determining depression, no statistically significant factor was found among age, number of comorbidities, and FEV1/ forced vital capacity (FVC) % predicted (p>0.05). In multivariable analysis, only fatigue during intercourse was found to be a statistically significant factor in predicting sexual dysfunction among factors like age, presence of comorbidities, duration of the disease, smoking status, FEV1%, m MRCpoints, 6-minutes walk test, BECK depression scores (p=0.008). Conclusion: Sexual dysfunction is reported in many COPD females and seems to be related not to spirometric measures or exercise capacity but to fatigue. Depression is also a common comorbidity, of which both disorders are often neglected.

Antecedentes: La vida sexual en mujeres con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC) es afectada por dificultades respiratorias, disminución del estado funcional, estado de ánimo depresivo y fatiga. Objetive: Evaluar la disfunción sexual en mujeres con EPOC y posibles mecanismos explicativos de esas dos condiciones Métodos: Participaron 70 pacientes mujeres con EPOC, rango edad 36-65 años y 70 controles emparejados por edad. Todos los sujetos respondieron un cuestionario para el índice funcional sexual femenino e inventario de depresión de BECK, mas una espirometría. Resultados: Se observó disfunción sexual significativa en las pacientes con EPOC comparado con el grupo sin EPOC. Las puntuaciones del inventario de depresión BECK fueron significativamente inferiores a las del grupo control. No hubo correlación entre las puntuaciones del FSFI y la depresión BECK con las características de las "mujeres" (r=-0.055). No se encontraron diferencias significativas en edad, FEV1% y antecedentes de exacerbación del año anterior según la gravedad de la depresión. En la regresión lineal para determinar la depresión, no hubo ningún factor estadísticamente significativo entre edad, número de comorbilidades y FEV1/FVC% predicho. En el multivariado, sólo la fatiga durante el coito resultó ser un factor significativo para predecir la disfunción sexual entre factores como edad, presencia de comorbilidades, duración de la enfermedad, hábito tabáquico, FEV1%, m MRCpoints, prueba de la marcha de 6 minutos y puntuaciones de depresión de BECK. Conclusiones: La disfunción sexual parece no estar relacionada con las medidas espirométricas o la capacidad de ejercicio, pero si con la fatiga. La depresión es una comorbilidad frecuente, de la que a menudo se descuidan ambos trastornos.

Rev. medica electron ; 45(3)jun. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1450113


Introducción: la cardiopatía isquémica está considerada una de las enfermedades crónicas y principales causas de morbimortalidad en el mundo occidental. Objetivo: correlacionar las comorbilidades y las complicaciones en los pacientes fallecidos por infarto agudo de miocardio. Materiales y métodos: estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal, desarrollado en el Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico Docente Amalia Simoni, de Camagüey, en una muestra de 52 pacientes fallecidos por infarto agudo de miocardio, entre los años 2017 y 2019, mediante la aplicación de estadística descriptiva. Resultados: la mayoría de los casos superaba los 70 años, sexo masculino, en generalidad con historial de hipertensión arterial, diabetes mellitus y hábito de fumar. Presentaron infarto de cara anterior, clase IV y III de Killip y Kimball, además de complicaciones dadas por insuficiencia cardiaca y shock cardiogénico, que llevaron a la muerte a estos casos en los primeros siete días de ingreso. Conclusiones: se realizó un estudio sobre la mortalidad por infarto miocárdico agudo, donde, entre los factores de riesgo más frecuentes, aparecieron la hipertensión arterial, la diabetes mellitus y el hábito de fumar, con una estricta relación con el daño ateroesclerótico.

Introduction: ischemic heart disease is considered one of the main chronic diseases and causes of morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Objective: to correlate comorbidities and complications in patients who died due to acute myocardial infarction. Materials and methods: an observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study, performed in the Teaching Clinical Surgical Hospital Amalia Simoni, from Camaguey, in a sample of 52 patients who died due to acute myocardial infarction, between 2017 and 2019, applying descriptive statistics. Results: most of the cases were over 70 years and male, generally with a history of arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and smoking. They presented anterior face infarction, classes III and IV of Killip and Kimball besides the complications given by heat insufficiency and cardiogenic shock, which lead these cases to dead within the first seven days after admission. Conclusions: a study was carried out on mortality by acute myocardial infarction, where arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and smoking were found among the most frequent risk factors, with a strict relationship with atherosclerotic damage.

Indian J Pediatr ; 2023 May; 90(5): 443–449
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-223752


Objectives To compare the clinical profle and short-term outcome of children admitted with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection during the frst and second waves of the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). Methods This retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care setting. A retrospective medical record review of all pediatric patients admitted with confrmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between March 2020 and September 2021 was conducted. Patients’ demographic data, pre-existing comorbidities, mode of presentation, and clinical course in the hospital were noted. The outcome measures were in-hospital mortality, need for intensive care, and invasive mechanical ventilation, duration of ICU, and hospital stay. Results One thousand and twenty-four children were recruited, 592 of the frst wave and 432 of the second wave. In the second wave, more children were admitted with respiratory distress (OR=3.38) and neurological manifestations (OR=4.61). There was a higher requirement of intensive care (OR=4.2) and invasive mechanical ventilation (OR=4.17). In-hospital mortality of the second wave was also increased (1.4% vs. 0.1%), but the diference was not statistically signifcant. Children with neurological comorbidities (OR=8.73), malnutrition (OR=3.01), and preterm babies (OR=6.8) were associated with severe COVID. Conclusion The clinical profle of the second wave of COVID-19 in children was diferent from the frst wave, with more respiratory distress and neurological manifestations at presentation. In the second wave, a signifcant increase in the incidence of severe infections requiring ICU care was observed.

Indian Pediatr ; 2023 Apr; 60(4): 298-307
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225409


Justification: The diagnosis of Down syndrome (DS) is easily made clinically but the management is multi-disciplinary and life-long. There is no standard protocol available for its management in India. Process: A committee was formed under the Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) chapter of Neuro developmental pediatrics consisting of 20 experts working in the related field. The various aspects of the condition were discussed and allotted to the concerned experts related for preparing the guidelines. The material received was collated to form a set of guidelines, which were reviewed by the committee, and a consensus statement made. The guidelines were then approved by the chapter, and by the IAP. Objectives: To define the condition and to look into the various aspects of antenatal and postnatal diagnosis. To explain briefly about the involvement of the various systems that are involved and formulate recommendations for management. To recommend early and sustained interventional therapies to enable children with DS lead an independent life. Recommendations: The stress on bio-psycho-social strategy for the management of children with DS is reiterated, and the need for a medical, social and rights model is recommended after each section. The age-wise recommendations are also highlighted in addition to the recommendations under each system.

São Paulo med. j ; 141(2): 120-124, Mar.-Apr. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424670


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Since the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in March 2020, several studies have shown a strong relationship between obesity and severe cases of COVID-19. It is imperative to assess whether bariatric surgery exerts a protective effect in such cases. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the impact of bariatric surgery on the morbidity and mortality in obese patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. A comprehensive search was performed using the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cohort studies conducted in the Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Cidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (SP), Brazil. METHODS: The search comprised the following descriptors: "bariatric, surgery, COVID-19". Current retrospective cohort studies that examined the influence of bariatric surgery on the morbidity and mortality of obese patients during the COVID-19 pandemic were considered eligible. RESULTS: After removing duplicates, 184 studies were obtained from the databases. Of these, 181 were excluded from the analysis as they did not meet the eligibility criteria. Patients undergoing postoperative follow-up of bariatric surgery had a similar probability of SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to the general population, and persistent comorbidities were associated with an increased risk and severity of infection. CONCLUSION: Bariatric surgery has a protective effect against severe COVID-19 in the obese population, bringing the prevalence of severe disease cases to levels equivalent to those of the nonobese general population, with a positive impact on morbidity and mortality.

Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 80(2): 105-114, Mar.-Apr. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447527


Abstract Background: Although COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) in children is usually mild, they need hospitalization and intensive care in exceptional cases. Adverse outcomes have been observed mainly among children with comorbidities, justifying their vaccination. This study aimed to assess the risk of hospitalization and death in Mexican children and adolescents with COVID-19 and comorbidities. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 366,542 confirmed COVID-19 cases under 18 years, reported by the Mexican Ministry of Health up to July 9, 2022. Logistic regression models were performed. Results: The mean age was 10.98 years, 50.6% were male, and 7.3% reported at least one comorbidity. The percentage of hospitalization and death in COVID-19 patients with and without comorbidities was 3.52%, and 0.20%, respectively; children with comorbidities presented a higher percentage of hospitalization (14.0%) and death (1.9%). The probability of hospitalization was 5.6 times greater in pediatric patients with COVID-19 and comorbidities, and the comorbidities that showed the greatest risk were immunosuppression (odds ratio (OR) 22.06), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (11.36), and cardiovascular diseases (5.66). The probability of death in patients with comorbidities was 11.01 times higher than in those without diseases, and the highest risk was observed in those with CKD (OR 12.57), cardiovascular diseases (6.87), and diabetes (5.83). Conclusions: Pediatric patients with comorbidities presented a higher risk of severe COVID-19. It is suggested that vaccination should be promoted with greater emphasis on pediatric patients with comorbidities.

Resumen Introducción: Aunque COVID-19 (enfermedad por coronavirus 2019) en niños es usualmente leve, en casos excepcionales requieren hospitalización y cuidados intensivos. Los resultados adversos han sido observados principalmente en los niños con comorbilidades, justificando su vacunación. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el riesgo de hospitalización y muerte en niños y adolescentes mexicanos con COVID-19 y comorbilidades. Métodos: Estudio transversal en 366,542 casos de COVID-19 confirmados, menores de 18 años y reportados por la Secretaría de Salud de México, hasta el 9 de julio del 2022. Se ejecutaron modelos multivariados de regresión logística. Resultados: El promedio de edad fue de 10.98 años, 50.6% de sexo masculino, y 7.3% reportaron al menos una comorbilidad. El porcentaje de hospitalización y muerte en pacientes con COVID-19 sin comorbilidades fue 3.52% y 0.20%, respectivamente; mientras que los pacientes con comorbilidades presentaron más elevados porcentajes de hospitalización (14.0%) y muerte (1.9%). La probabilidad de hospitalización fue 5.6 veces más en los pacientes con COVID-19 y comorbilidades, comparando con aquellos sin comorbilidades. Las comorbilidades que mostraron más riesgo fueron inmunosupresión (razón de momios (RM) 22.06), enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) (RM 11.36) y enfermedades cardiovasculares (RM 5.66). La probabilidad de muerte en los pacientes con comorbilidades fue 11.01 veces más que en aquellos sin enfermedades, y fue más elevado en aquellos con ERC (RM 12.57), enfermedades cardiovasculares (RM 6.87) y diabetes (RM 5.83). Conclusiones: Los pacientes pediátricos con comorbilidades presentaron mayor riesgo de COVID-19 severo, por lo que se sugiere promover con mayor énfasis la vacunación en ellos.

Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-217941


Background: Coronavirus 2019 was declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. Bereft of specific treatment for the disease, vaccinations and COVID appropriate behavior have come to be the main approaches to combat the pandemic. A number of vaccines have been approved after clearing clinical trials. Hence, it is essential to evaluate the safety profile of each vaccine for ensuring optimum health of the general population. This study was conducted to evaluate the adverse events following CoviShield vaccination in a tertiary care center. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to describe the pattern of adverse effects, treatment given, and comorbidities seen in healthcare workers (HCW) who reported to the adverse drug reaction (ADR) monitoring center in the department of pharmacology Government T.D. Medical College, Alappuzha, following CoviShield vaccination from January 2021 to October 2021. Materials and Methods: A retrospective and descriptive study was carried out at Department of Pharmacology, GTDMCA involving all HCW who reported side effects following CoviShield vaccination in the ADR monitoring centre (AMC) in the Department of Pharmacology, GTDMCA from January 2021 to Oct 2021. Results: Out of 620 HCWs who reported adverse event following vaccination, majority (45%) were from the age group 21–30 years. About 83% of HCWs who reported adverse effect were women. Majority of the respondents (96%) experienced the adverse effects within 24 h. About 88% of respondents experienced these adverse effects after the initial dose alone. Commonly encountered adverse effects were fever (57%), headache (43%), myalgia (38%) etc. Hypertension (7%) was the most common comorbidity seen. Majority of the beneficiaries (70%) took paracetamol for the treatment of the adverse effect. Conclusion: Majority of the vaccinated HCWs experienced minor and self-limiting adverse event following immunization (AEFI) with Chimpanzee Adenovirus Oxford novel CoronaVirus-19. No serious AEFI were reported to the AMC. Despite the record speed at which the vaccine has been developed, it has shown to have a good safety profile considering the millions of doses that have been administered.

Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2023 Jan; 71(1): 125-137
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-224780


Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the outcomes of cataract surgery in patients of the pediatric age group with systemic comorbidities. Methods: Medical records of 54 eyes (30 patients) of the pediatric age group with systemic comorbidities who had undergone cataract surgery in a tertiary?care center were reviewed. The following parameters were recorded: systemic comorbidity; toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, HIV (TORCH) profile, best spectacle?corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), strabismus, nystagmus, and cataract morphology. Results: Thirty patients with a mean age of 55 months (9 months–14 years) were included. On average, every child was seen by three physicians, and the mean duration between the first visit to a physician and presentation to our center was 2.23 ± 0.67 years. The various causes for delay in referral include multiple referrals due to a lack of general anesthesia services in 78% of cases, a long waiting list at the referral hospital in 35% of cases, and a lack of awareness at the primary?care physician level in 50% of cases. The mean BSCVA at presentation was 1.4 logMAR (0.3 to 3 logMAR). The most common cataract morphology was that of zonular cataract (31.48%; 17/54). Strabismus and abnormal eye movements were observed in 27.7% (15/54) and 33.3% (18/54) of eyes, respectively. Various systemic associations were periventricular leukomalacia (12/30), Down’s syndrome (6/30), seizure disorder (6/30), cardiac valvular anomalies (6/30), Marfan’s syndrome (4/30), hypothyroidism (4/30), rubella (3/20), cytomegalovirus (3/20), cerebral palsy (2/30), nephrotic syndrome (2/30), Type 1 diabetes mellitus (1/30), microcephaly (1/30), cryptogenic West syndrome (1/30), congenital rubella syndrome (1/30), and Tourette syndrome (1/30). The mean postoperative corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) at 2?year follow?up improved to 1.0 logMAR (0 to 3 logMAR). No postoperative complications were reported at the final follow?up. Around 70% of the parents reported improvement in their child’s psychomotor skills. Conclusion: Intellectually impaired pediatric patients with cataract should be operated upon whenever there is a presence of infrastructure, and unnecessary delay in surgery should be avoided by referring the patient to higher centers. Even though objective improvement in visual acuity was suboptimal, there was definitely an improvement in the psychomotor skills of the patients.